移植opencv到嵌入式arm详细过程

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/Guet_Kite/article/details/78667175

你好!这里是风筝的博客,

欢迎和我一起交流。


看了好几篇一直opencv的文章,都是几年前的,而且版本比较旧,对着弄会发现有的地方是和现在是有改动的。所以,2017年末,记录了此次移植过程,移植版本比较新的可以看过来,可以让你少走弯路。
为了这东西,逃了两次云计算的课,都被抓到了。伤,,,,,,

废话不多说,开搞:
opencv,计算机视觉库。
openCV 2.2以后版本需要使用Cmake生成makefile文件,因此需要先安装cmake。
怎么确保自己的Ubuntu下有没有安装cmake呢?
cmake –version
就可以看到已安装的cmake版本号,如果提示cmake命令未知,则没有安装。
当然,Ubuntu下安装软件一向很简单:
sudo apt-get install cmake-gui
之后,可以cmake-gui –version看看cmake安装成功与否:
cmake
这里我是在线安装,是3.5.1版本

接下来就是下载opencv了:
下载地址:http://blog.csdn.net/yanzi1225627/article/details/47668021
这是一个博主的帖子,里面是opencv下载地址,
我怕这个帖子那天就挂了,我自己也放一个吧,是opencv2.4.11版本:
http://download.csdn.net/download/guet_kite/10137838

下载好之后解压:unzip opencv-2.4.11.zip
cd opencv-2.4.11.zip
建两个文件夹来存放配置和安装路径:
sudo mkdir /usr/local/opencv/install_opencv -d
sudo mkdir /usr/local/opencv/config_opencv -d

然后用cmake配置:
sudo cmake-gui
config
在where is the source code:里写上opencv的源文件路径
在where to build the binaries:里面写上作为cmake编译arm版本的工作目录
然后点击configure
config
这里generator保持为Unix Makefiles,然后选择第四个选项:Specify options for cross-compiling
最后点击Next

Linux
这里Targeting System选的是Linux(之前我选的是arm-linux,有点坑,选这个没有V4L支持),
接着就是选择工具链了,我用的是友善的4.4.3的工具链,Compliers写的是交叉编译工具 arm-linux-gcc、arm-linux-g++
Target Root写的是交叉编译工具 arm-linux-g++/gcc 的所在包含文件夹
最后点击 Finish即可

ins
然后中间红色的配置里:
取消WITH_GTK
取消WITH_TIFF
选择WITH_QT
GTK配置比较麻烦,我Ubuntu之前就配置好有QT了,所以我们取消掉,直接用QT最GUI。如果没有配置有QT,那还是不选吧。
最后点击Configure,会发现有错误:Error in configuration process,project files may be invalid
CMake Warning at cmake/OpenCVFindLibsGUI.cmake:18 (find_package):
By not providing “FindQt5Core.cmake” in CMAKE_MODULE_PATH this project has
asked CMake to find a package configuration file provided by “Qt5Core”, but
CMake did not find one.

Could not find a package configuration file provided by “Qt5Core” with any
of the following names:
Qt5CoreConfig.cmake
qt5core-config.cmake
第一个是一个warning,不管,下一个是error,说的是”Qt5Core”没找到。
我的QT安装路径是:/work/qt/my_qt/
所以直接把/work/qt/my_qt/lib/cmake/Qt5Core 填到Qt5Core_DIR选项即可,
同理,底下几个选项也要填上,Qt5Gui_DIR、Qt5Test_DIR等…….
qt
最后点击Configure无误后,点击Generate按钮就会在/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv目录生成Makefile

cd /usr/local/opencv/config_opencv
修改安装opencv的路径:
sudo vi CMakeCache.txt
找到:CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX:PATH=/usr/local
修改为:CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX:PATH=/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv
这是我自己的安装路径。
当然,之间填写的QT的的路径也可以在这写,找到Qt5Core_DIR:PATH=
写为Qt5Core_DIR:PATH=/work/qt/my_qt/lib/cmake/Qt5Core 即可

接着sudo make编译,但是可能会出现一个错误:
具体错误忘记记录了,就是说libv4l1.so没找到,
所以在网上下载个libv4l-0.6.3.tar.gz,解压后进入,mkdir tmp && make && make install PREFIX=$PWD/tmp进行交叉编译与安装即可,安装目录在当前目录下的临时目录tmp下。然后把库和头文件复制到交叉编译链里相应的路径中。
但是make安装时出现提示:
libv4l1.c:53:28: fatal error: linux/videodev.h: No such file or directory
这是因为在新的版本里,已经不用videodev.h这个文件了。
然后我照着网上的文章改:
sudo ln -s /usr/include/libv4l1-videodev.h /usr/include/linux/videodev.h
呵呵,没有用,会提示缺少一些定义。
所以这里我们用另一个方法:
在老的机器里复制一份videodev.h文件出来,放到/usr/include/linux/目录下,就ok了。
videodev.h下载地址

继续回到opencv那里,sudo make,发现还有错误:

../../lib/libopencv_ts.a(ts_gtest.cpp.obj): In function `testing::internal::UnitTestImpl::~UnitTestImpl()':
ts_gtest.cpp:(.text._ZN7testing8internal12UnitTestImplD1Ev+0xa4): undefined reference to `pthread_getspecific'
ts_gtest.cpp:(.text._ZN7testing8internal12UnitTestImplD1Ev+0xc0): undefined reference to `pthread_key_delete'
ts_gtest.cpp:(.text._ZN7testing8internal12UnitTestImplD1Ev+0x22c): undefined reference to `pthread_getspecific'
ts_gtest.cpp:(.text._ZN7testing8internal12UnitTestImplD1Ev+0x248): undefined reference to `pthread_key_delete'
../../lib/libopencv_core.so: undefined reference to `pthread_spin_init'
../../lib/libopencv_core.so: undefined reference to `pthread_spin_unlock'
../../lib/libopencv_core.so: undefined reference to `pthread_spin_lock'
../../lib/libopencv_core.so: undefined reference to `pthread_spin_destroy'
../../lib/libopencv_core.so: undefined reference to `pthread_once'
../../lib/libopencv_core.so: undefined reference to `clock_gettime'
../../lib/libopencv_core.so: undefined reference to `pthread_spin_trylock'
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
modules/core/CMakeFiles/opencv_test_core.dir/build.make:387: recipe for target 'bin/opencv_test_core' failed
make[2]: *** [bin/opencv_test_core] Error 1
CMakeFiles/Makefile2:1437: recipe for target 'modules/core/CMakeFiles/opencv_test_core.dir/all' failed
make[1]: *** [modules/core/CMakeFiles/opencv_test_core.dir/all] Error 2
Makefile:160: recipe for target 'all' failed
make: *** [all] Error 2

解决办法:
sudo vi CMakeCache.txt
找到:CMAKE_EXE_LINKER_FLAGS:STRING=
修改为:CMAKE_EXE_LINKER_FLAGS:STRING=-lpthread -ldl -lrt
意思是:-lpthread支持线程,-ldl避免未定义dlopen,-lrt避免未定义

最后sudo make编译成功,在sudo make install安装即可。
这样,就会在/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv出现文件:
lib

最后把/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib下文件移植到开发板根文件lib下
即可
当然,不复制也行,后面再说

好了,我们测试下:
从网上找到一个测试例子,然后修改下,test.cpp:

#include <cv.h>
#include <cxcore.h>
#include <highgui.h>
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
         CvCapture* capture = NULL;
         IplImage* frame = NULL;
         if(!(capture = cvCaptureFromCAM(0))) {
                 cout<<"Can not open camera.\n"<<endl;
                 return -1;
         }
         cvNamedWindow("video", 1);
         while(frame = cvQueryFrame( capture )){
                  cvShowImage("video",frame);
                  cout<<"have capture\n"<<endl;
         }

         cout<<"no have capture\n"<<endl;
         cvDestroyWindow("video");
         cvReleaseCapture(&capture);
         return 0;
}

编译:

arm-linux-g++ -I/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/include/opencv/ -L/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib/ -lcv -lcxcore -lhighgui -lpthread -lrt -o test test.cpp

这是网上找到文章的编译方法,好几年了,那么问题来了:
In file included from opencv.c:1:/usr/local/arm/lib/opencv/include/opencv/cv.h:63:33: error: opencv2/core/core_c.h: No such file or directory
因为这些文件是在opencv2下的,解决办法:

sudo cp /usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/include/opencv2 /usr/local/arm/opt/FriendlyARM/toolschain/4.4.3/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/include -r -d

那么继续上面的编译,又出现:
test.cpp:21: note: the mangling of ‘va_list’ has changed in GCC 4.4
在GCC 4.4里,’va_list’已经被改变了,所以我们编译时,要加上 -Wno-psabi选项:

arm-linux-g++ -Wno-psabi -I/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/include/opencv/ -L/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib/ -lcv -lcxcore -lhighgui -lpthread -lrt -o test test.cpp

那么,这样可以了吗?
不行!出现:
/usr/local/arm/opt/FriendlyARM/toolschain/4.4.3/bin/../lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.3/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/bin/ld: cannot find -lcv
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
这里提示lcv找不到,为什么呢?
还是我之前说的,网上的文章都是几年前的了,好老了。
打开我们opencv的lib可以看下,根本没有这些个库了,
lib
所以提示自然找不到,所以要改成我们现在opencv的库:

arm-linux-g++ -Wno-psabi -I/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/include/opencv/ -L/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib/ -lopencv_core -lopencv_highgui -lpthread -lrt -o test test.cpp

这会行了吧?
很遗憾,还没有,出现两个warning:
/usr/local/arm/opt/FriendlyARM/toolschain/4.4.3/bin/../lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.3/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/bin/ld: warning: ../../lib/libopencv_imgproc.so, needed by /usr/local/opencv/lib_opencv/lib//libopencv_highgui.so, not found (try using -rpath or -rpath-link)
/usr/local/arm/opt/FriendlyARM/toolschain/4.4.3/bin/../lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.3/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/bin/ld: warning: ../../lib/libopencv_core.so, needed by /usr/local/opencv/lib_opencv/lib//libopencv_highgui.so, not found (try using -rpath or -rpath-link)

这是链接库的问题,我在网上找了好多办法:
办法一:

sudo vi /etc/ld.so.conf.d/opencv.conf

再文件里写上库文件路径:/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib/
接着

sudo ldconfig

很遗憾,没有用。。。。

办法二:

sudo vi bash.bashrc

在最后写上:

PKG_CONFIG_PATH=$PKG_CONFIG_PATH:/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib/pkgconfig
export PKG_CONFIG_PATH

也没用!!!

办法三:
网上找到说,cmake下make出来的.so 文件 arm-linux-gcc-4.3.2不识别。。。。。
当然,我的编译时是arm-linux-4.4.3,也是一样的,
他说,在Makefile里将LFLAGS中添加了:-Wl,-rpath-link -Wl,/。。、。。。/…..(lib的目录)就可以了。
特么我在Makefile里根本没找到LFLAGS,,,失败。

办法四:
将需要到的那三个.so文件:libopencv_core.so libopencv_highgui.so libopencv_imgproc.so复制到系统默认的链接库路径中,

sudo cp libopencv_core.so libopencv_highgui.so libopencv_imgproc.so /usr/lib

还是不行。。。。

最后,终于找到了办法:
将这些库复制到编译器的lib中:

sudo cp -d *libopencv_core* *libopencv_highgui* *libopencv_imgproc*  /usr/local/arm/opt/FriendlyARM/toolschain/4.4.3/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/lib

终于可以顺利编译出可执行文件了。。。。。。
所以,如果之前把/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib下文件移植到开发板根文件lib下,就不会出现这个问题了。
当然,此时,我移植opencv时并没有选择选择WITH_QT,而是选择WITH_GTK,后来我选择WITH_QT时,在用这个编译就会出现一个问题:

/usr/local/arm/opt/FriendlyARM/toolschain/4.4.3/bin/../lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.3/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/bin/ld: warning: libQt5Widgets.so.5, needed by /usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib//libopencv_highgui.so, not found (try using -rpath or -rpath-link)
/usr/local/arm/opt/FriendlyARM/toolschain/4.4.3/bin/../lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.3/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/bin/ld: warning: libQt5Gui.so.5, needed by /usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib//libopencv_highgui.so, not found (try using -rpath or -rpath-link)
/usr/local/arm/opt/FriendlyARM/toolschain/4.4.3/bin/../lib/gcc/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/4.4.3/../../../../arm-none-linux-gnueabi/bin/ld: warning: libQt5Core.so.5, needed by /usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib//libopencv_highgui.so, not found (try using -rpath or -rpath-link)
/usr/local/arm/opt/FriendlyARM/toolschain/4.4.3/bin/../arm-none-linux-gnueabi//sys-root/lib/libQt5Concurrent.so.5: undefined reference to `QFutureInterfaceBase::isPaused() const@Qt_5'

估计就是选择QT作为GUI的后遗症了,所以要把一些QT的库,如:libQt5Widgets.so.5,libQt5Gui.so.5,libQt5Core.so.5等库移到交叉编译链的lib目录中,所以编译命令更改为:

arm-linux-g++ -Wno-psabi -I/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/include/opencv/ -L/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib/ -L/work/qt/my_qt/lib -lQt5Widgets -lQt5Gui -lQt5Core -lpthread -lopencv_core -lopencv_highgui -lpthread -lrt -o test test.cpp

然后把编译出来的test文件放到开发板上执行:

如果是选择了WITH_GTK而不是选择WITH_QT的,会出现:
HIGHGUI ERROR: V4L/V4L2: VIDIOC_S_CROP

OpenCV Error: Unspecified error (The function is not implemented. Rebuild the library with Windows, GTK+ 2.x or Carbon support. If you are on Ubuntu or Debian, install libgtk2.0-dev and pkg-config, then re-run cmake or configure script) in cvNamedWindow, file /usr/local/opencv/opencv-2.4.11/modules/highgui/src/window.cpp, line 483
terminate called after throwing an instance of ‘cv::Exception’
what(): /usr/local/opencv/opencv-2.4.11/modules/highgui/src/window.cpp:483: error: (-2) The function is not implemented. Rebuild the library with Windows, GTK+ 2.x or Carbon support. If you are on Ubuntu or Debian, install libgtk2.0-dev and pkg-config, then re-run cmake or configure script in function cvNamedWindow

Aborted

意思是开发板上缺少GTK/QT 这类图形显示功能。毕竟GTK不好搞。

如果是选择了WITH_QT而不是选择WITH_GTK的,会出现:
HIGHGUI ERROR: V4L/V4L2: VIDIOC_S_CROP
init done
have capture
have capture

这说明,应该是有数据通过摄像头进来了,因为有了have capture打印输出,但是我们现在是看不到图像的,因为没有平台输出,没有用QT编译。

但是,我们可以看到是有一个error的:HIGHGUI ERROR: V4L/V4L2: VIDIOC_S_CROP
看了些网上的方法,有人是是因为没有安装libv4l-dev,然而,之前我自己编译安装了libv4l-0.6.3……
而且,sudo apt-get install libv4l-dev的话,把opencv按之前的再安装一遍,opencv反而make编译不过,会报错:
libv4l1.so.1: could not read symbols: File in wrong format
所以pass掉,sudo apt-get remove libv4l-dev

然后我在opencv源码找到:

/* set the crop area, but don't exit if the device don't support croping */
        if (ioctl (capture->deviceHandle, VIDIOC_S_CROP, &capture->crop) < 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "HIGHGUI ERROR: V4L/V4L2: VIDIOC_S_CROP\n");
        }

这说的是:设置剪裁面积,如果不能设置,也不退出,我想了下,应该没事吧……
毕竟我都能打印出have capture了。而且我拔掉摄像头的话,就会提示Can not open camera.说明打开摄像头失败。

如果不信?那我们试一下opencv的威力:
我在网上找了一篇opencv的教程, 浅墨博主的文章:
opencv.cpp:

#include<opencv2/core/core.hpp>  
#include<opencv2/highgui/highgui.hpp>  
#include<iostream>

using namespace cv;  
using namespace std;

int main( )  
{   
    //载入图片  
    Mat image= imread("girl.jpg");  
    Mat logo= imread("fly.jpg");   
    //定义一个Mat类型,用于存放,图像的ROI  
    Mat imageROI;

    imageROI= image(Rect(10,10,logo.cols,logo.rows));//定义一个左上角点坐标为(_x, _y)的cols*rows矩形窗口

    //将logo加到原图
    //参数:图、权重、图、权重、添加的常数项、输出图
    addWeighted(imageROI,0.5,logo,0.3,0.,imageROI);     

    cout << "start add picture......\n" << endl;    
    //输出一张jpg图片到工程目录下  
    imwrite("fly_girl.jpg",image);  

    waitKey();  

    return 0;  
}  

Makefile:

CC  = arm-linux-g++
LFLAGS  = -Wno-psabi
LIBS    = -L/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/lib/ -L/work/qt/my_qt/lib
CPPFLAGS    = -lQt5Widgets -lQt5Gui -lQt5Core -lpthread -lopencv_core -lopencv_highgui -lpthread -lrt
LINC     += -I/usr/local/opencv/install_opencv/include/opencv/
objs := open
out := open

$(out):$(objs).cpp
    ${CC} ${LFLAGS} ${LIBS} ${LINC} ${CPPFLAGS} -o $@ $^

clean:
    rm $(out)

还是那个老话,如果没有选择WITH_QT的话,
-lQt5Widgets -lQt5Gui -lQt5Core和-L/work/qt/my_qt/lib
可以不需要。
这是girl.jpg图:
girl
这是fly.jpg图:
fly

这是使用opencv合成的效果图:
opencv
效果非常棒,不愧是opencv!!!

最后,QT+opencv的例子:opencv+QT在嵌入式arm下显示图片

PS:不知道能不能帮到大家,有照着文章做成功的小伙伴吗?

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