OpenGL 学习笔记--Camera类(08)

Camera类

Notes

  • 欧拉角相机 物体世界坐标->观察空间坐标
    相机的参数包括:相机位置Position,目标位置指向相机Direction,以及Up方向
    相机变换的目的是得到物体与相机(相机为原点)的相对位置,通过将相机坐标系(Right,UP,Front)平移和旋转至世界坐标系(X,Y,Z轴)重合,平移矩阵和旋转矩阵的组合就是所求的相机变换。
    在这里插入图片描述
    平移矩阵:
    [ 1 0 0 -Position . x 0 1 0 -Position . y 0 0 1 - P o s i t i o n . z 0 0 0 1 ] \left[ \begin{matrix} 1 & 0 & 0 & \text{-Position}.x \\ 0 & 1 & 0 & \text{-Position}.y \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & \text-{Position}.z \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \\ \end{matrix} \right] 100001000010-Position.x-Position.y-Position.z1
    旋转矩阵: 相机相对于世界坐标系
    [ cameraRight . x cameraUP . x -cameraDirection . x 0 cameraRight . y cameraUP . y -cameraDirection . y 0 cameraRight . z cameraUP . z -cameraDirection . z 0 0 0 0 1 ] \left[ \begin{matrix} \text{cameraRight}.x & \text{cameraUP}.x & \text{-cameraDirection}.x & 0 \\ \text{cameraRight}.y & \text{cameraUP}.y & \text{-cameraDirection}.y & 0 \\ \text{cameraRight}.z & \text{cameraUP}.z & \text{-cameraDirection}.z & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \\ \end{matrix} \right] cameraRight.xcameraRight.ycameraRight.z0cameraUP.xcameraUP.ycameraUP.z0-cameraDirection.x-cameraDirection.y-cameraDirection.z00001
    因此变换矩阵为
    旋转矩阵 − ^{-} * 平移矩阵
    [ cameraRight . x cameraRight. y cameraRight . z -glm::dot(cameraRight,cameraPosition) cameraUP . x cameraUP . y cameraUP . z -glm::dot(cameraUp,cameraPosition) -cameraDirection . x -cameraDirection . y -cameraDirection . z glm::dot(cameraDirection,cameraPosition) 0 0 0 1 ] \left[ \begin{matrix} \text{cameraRight}.x & \text{cameraRight}\text{.}y & \text{cameraRight}.z & \text{-glm::dot(cameraRight,cameraPosition)} \\ \text{cameraUP}.x & \text{cameraUP}.y & \text{cameraUP}.z & \text{-glm::dot(cameraUp,cameraPosition)} \\ \text{-cameraDirection}.x & \text{-cameraDirection}.y & \text{-cameraDirection}.z & \text{glm::dot(cameraDirection,cameraPosition)} \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \\ \end{matrix} \right] cameraRight.xcameraUP.x-cameraDirection.x0cameraRight.ycameraUP.y-cameraDirection.y0cameraRight.zcameraUP.z-cameraDirection.z0-glm::dot(cameraRight,cameraPosition)-glm::dot(cameraUp,cameraPosition)glm::dot(cameraDirection,cameraPosition)1
    glm::mat4 CameraLookAt(glm::vec3 cameraPosition, glm::vec3 cameraTarget, glm::vec3 cameraUp)
    {
        auto cameraDirection = glm::normalize(cameraTarget - cameraPosition);
        auto cameraRight = glm::normalize(glm::cross(cameraDirection, cameraUp));
        auto cameraUP = glm::cross(cameraRight, cameraDirection);

        glm::mat4 Result(1.0f);
        Result[0][0] = cameraRight.x;
        Result[1][0] = cameraRight.y;
        Result[2][0] = cameraRight.z;
        Result[0][1] = cameraUP.x;
        Result[1][1] = cameraUP.y;
        Result[2][1] = cameraUP.z;
        Result[0][2] = -cameraDirection.x;
        Result[1][2] = -cameraDirection.y;
        Result[2][2] = -cameraDirection.z;
        Result[3][0] = -glm::dot(cameraRight, cameraPosition);
        Result[3][1] = -glm::dot(cameraUP, cameraPosition);
        Result[3][2] = glm::dot(cameraDirection, cameraPosition);

        return Result;
    }
  • 变换相机方向Direction:俯仰角(pitch描述往上或往下看的角度)&偏航角(Yaw描述往左或往右看的角)
    在这里插入图片描述
    在这里插入图片描述
    在这里插入图片描述
xoffset *= MouseSensitivity;
yoffset *= MouseSensitivity;

Yaw   += xoffset;
Pitch += yoffset;

if (constrainPitch)
{
    if (Pitch > 89.0f)
       Pitch = 89.0f;
    if (Pitch < -89.0f)
       Pitch = -89.0f;
}
        
glm::vec3 front;
front.x = cos(glm::radians(Yaw)) * cos(glm::radians(Pitch));
front.y = sin(glm::radians(Pitch));
front.z = sin(glm::radians(Yaw)) * cos(glm::radians(Pitch));
Front = glm::normalize(front);
Right = glm::normalize(glm::cross(Front, WorldUp));
 Up   = glm::normalize(glm::cross(Right, Front));
  • 变换相机位置Position,
float velocity = MovementSpeed * deltaTime;
if (direction == FORWARD)
   Position += Front * velocity;
if (direction == BACKWARD)
   Position -= Front * velocity;
if (direction == LEFT)
   Position -= Right * velocity;
if (direction == RIGHT)
   Position += Right * velocity;
  • 裁剪矩阵 观察空间坐标->裁剪空间坐标
Zoom -= (float)yoffset;
if (Zoom < 1.0f)
    Zoom = 1.0f;
if (Zoom > 45.0f)
    Zoom = 45.0f; 
  • 注册键盘回调函数,使用鼠标操作相机方向和键盘操作相机位置
void processinput_callback(GLFWwindow* window)
{
	if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_W) == GLFW_PRESS)
	{
		camera.ProcessKeyboard(FORWARD, deltaTime);
	}
	if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_A) == GLFW_PRESS)
	{
		camera.ProcessKeyboard(LEFT, deltaTime);
	}
	if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_S) == GLFW_PRESS)
	{
		camera.ProcessKeyboard(BACKWARD, deltaTime);
	}
	if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_D) == GLFW_PRESS)
	{
		camera.ProcessKeyboard(RIGHT, deltaTime);
	}
	if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_ESCAPE) == GLFW_PRESS)
	{
		glfwSetWindowShouldClose(window, true);
	}
}

void mouse_callback(GLFWwindow* window, double xpose,double ypose)
{
	if (firstMouse)
	{
		lastX = xpose;
		lastY = ypose;
		firstMouse = false;
	}
	auto xoffset = xpose - lastX;
	lastX = xpose;

	auto yoffset = lastY - ypose;
	lastY = ypose;

	camera.ProcessMouseMovement(xoffset, yoffset);
}

void scroll_callback(GLFWwindow* window, double xoffset, double yoffset)
{
	camera.ProcessMouseScroll(yoffset);
}
  • 为了计算灵敏度和让立方体旋转起来,使用glfwGetTime()获得一个累计的时间

代码示例

https://gitee.com/NiMiKiss/opengl-notes.git
camera.h

#ifndef CAMERA_H
#define CAMERA_H

#include <glad/glad.h>
#include <glm/glm.hpp>
#include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp>
#include <glm/gtc/type_ptr.hpp>

// Defines several possible options for camera movement. Used as abstraction to stay away from window-system specific input methods
enum Camera_Movement {
    FORWARD,
    BACKWARD,
    LEFT,
    RIGHT
};

// Default camera values
const float YAW         = -90.0f;
const float PITCH       =  0.0f;
const float SPEED       =  2.5f;
const float SENSITIVITY =  0.1f;
const float ZOOM        =  45.0f;


// An abstract camera class that processes input and calculates the corresponding Euler Angles, Vectors and Matrices for use in OpenGL
class Camera
{
public:
    // camera Attributes
    glm::vec3 Position;
    glm::vec3 Front;
    glm::vec3 Up;
    glm::vec3 Right;
    glm::vec3 WorldUp;
    // euler Angles
    float Yaw;
    float Pitch;
    // camera options
    float MovementSpeed;
    float MouseSensitivity;
    float Zoom;

    // constructor with vectors
    Camera(glm::vec3 position = glm::vec3(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f), glm::vec3 up = glm::vec3(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f), float yaw = YAW, float pitch = PITCH) : Front(glm::vec3(0.0f, 0.0f, -1.0f)), MovementSpeed(SPEED), MouseSensitivity(SENSITIVITY), Zoom(ZOOM)
    {
        Position = position;
        WorldUp = up;
        Yaw = yaw;
        Pitch = pitch;
        updateCameraVectors();
    }
    // constructor with scalar values
    Camera(float posX, float posY, float posZ, float upX, float upY, float upZ, float yaw, float pitch) : Front(glm::vec3(0.0f, 0.0f, -1.0f)), MovementSpeed(SPEED), MouseSensitivity(SENSITIVITY), Zoom(ZOOM)
    {
        Position = glm::vec3(posX, posY, posZ);
        WorldUp = glm::vec3(upX, upY, upZ);
        Yaw = yaw;
        Pitch = pitch;
        updateCameraVectors();
    }

    // returns the view matrix calculated using Euler Angles and the LookAt Matrix
    glm::mat4 GetViewMatrix()
    {
        return glm::lookAt(Position, Position + Front, Up);
    }

    // processes input received from any keyboard-like input system. Accepts input parameter in the form of camera defined ENUM (to abstract it from windowing systems)
    void ProcessKeyboard(Camera_Movement direction, float deltaTime)
    {
        float velocity = MovementSpeed * deltaTime;
        if (direction == FORWARD)
            Position += Front * velocity;
        if (direction == BACKWARD)
            Position -= Front * velocity;
        if (direction == LEFT)
            Position -= Right * velocity;
        if (direction == RIGHT)
            Position += Right * velocity;
    }

    // processes input received from a mouse input system. Expects the offset value in both the x and y direction.
    void ProcessMouseMovement(float xoffset, float yoffset, GLboolean constrainPitch = true)
    {
        xoffset *= MouseSensitivity;
        yoffset *= MouseSensitivity;

        Yaw   += xoffset;
        Pitch += yoffset;

        // make sure that when pitch is out of bounds, screen doesn't get flipped
        if (constrainPitch)
        {
            if (Pitch > 89.0f)
                Pitch = 89.0f;
            if (Pitch < -89.0f)
                Pitch = -89.0f;
        }

        // update Front, Right and Up Vectors using the updated Euler angles
        updateCameraVectors();
    }

    // processes input received from a mouse scroll-wheel event. Only requires input on the vertical wheel-axis
    void ProcessMouseScroll(float yoffset)
    {
        Zoom -= (float)yoffset;
        if (Zoom < 1.0f)
            Zoom = 1.0f;
        if (Zoom > 45.0f)
            Zoom = 45.0f; 
    }

private:
    // calculates the front vector from the Camera's (updated) Euler Angles
    void updateCameraVectors()
    {
        // calculate the new Front vector
        glm::vec3 front;
        front.x = cos(glm::radians(Yaw)) * cos(glm::radians(Pitch));
        front.y = sin(glm::radians(Pitch));
        front.z = sin(glm::radians(Yaw)) * cos(glm::radians(Pitch));
        Front = glm::normalize(front);
        // also re-calculate the Right and Up vector
        Right = glm::normalize(glm::cross(Front, WorldUp));  // normalize the vectors, because their length gets closer to 0 the more you look up or down which results in slower movement.
        Up    = glm::normalize(glm::cross(Right, Front));
    }
};
#endif

shader.h

#ifndef _SHADER_H_
#define _SHADER_H_
#include<glad/glad.h>
#include<GLFW/glfw3.h>
#include <iostream>
class Shader
{
public:
	Shader();
	~Shader();
	void UseShader() const;
	void InitShader();
	int GetShaderProgramID() const;
private:
	int m_iShaderProgramID;
};

#endif // !_SHADER_H_

shader.cpp

#include "Shader.h"

Shader::Shader(){}

Shader::~Shader(){}

void Shader::InitShader()
{
	const char* vertexShaderSource = "#version 400 core\n"
		"layout (location = 0) in vec3 aPos;\n"
		"layout (location = 1) in vec2 aTexCoord;\n"
		"out vec2 TexCoord;\n"
		"uniform mat4 transform;\n"
		"void main()\n"
		"{\n"
		"   gl_Position =transform * vec4(aPos.x, aPos.y, aPos.z, 1.0f);\n"
		"   TexCoord = aTexCoord;\n"
		"}\0";
	const char* fragmentShaderSource = "#version 400 core\n"
		"out vec4 FragColor;\n"
		"in vec2 TexCoord;\n"
		"uniform sampler2D ourTexture1;\n"
		"uniform sampler2D ourTexture2;\n"
		"void main()\n"
		"{\n"
		"   FragColor = mix(texture(ourTexture1,TexCoord),texture(ourTexture2,TexCoord),0.2);\n"
		"}\n\0";

	int vertexShader = glCreateShader(GL_VERTEX_SHADER);
	glShaderSource(vertexShader, 1, &vertexShaderSource, NULL);
	glCompileShader(vertexShader);

	int fragmentShader = glCreateShader(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER);
	glShaderSource(fragmentShader, 1, &fragmentShaderSource, NULL);
	glCompileShader(fragmentShader);

	m_iShaderProgramID = glCreateProgram();
	glAttachShader(m_iShaderProgramID, vertexShader);
	glAttachShader(m_iShaderProgramID, fragmentShader);
	glLinkProgram(m_iShaderProgramID);
}

void Shader::UseShader() const
{
	glUseProgram(m_iShaderProgramID);
}

int Shader::GetShaderProgramID()const
{
	return m_iShaderProgramID;
}

OpenGL.cpp

#include "Shader.h"
#include "stb_image.h"
#include <camera.h>

#pragma region 顶点数据
float vertices[] = {
	-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f,  0.0f, 0.0f,
	 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f,  1.0f, 0.0f,
	 0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f,  1.0f, 1.0f,
	 0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f,  1.0f, 1.0f,
	-0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f,  0.0f, 1.0f,
	-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f,  0.0f, 0.0f,

	-0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f,  0.0f, 0.0f,
	 0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f,  1.0f, 0.0f,
	 0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f,  1.0f, 1.0f,
	 0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f,  1.0f, 1.0f,
	-0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f,  0.0f, 1.0f,
	-0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f,  0.0f, 0.0f,

	-0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f,  1.0f, 0.0f,
	-0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f,  1.0f, 1.0f,
	-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f,  0.0f, 1.0f,
	-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f,  0.0f, 1.0f,
	-0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f,  0.0f, 0.0f,
	-0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f,  1.0f, 0.0f,

	 0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f,  1.0f, 0.0f,
	 0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f,  1.0f, 1.0f,
	 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f,  0.0f, 1.0f,
	 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f,  0.0f, 1.0f,
	 0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f,  0.0f, 0.0f,
	 0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f,  1.0f, 0.0f,

	-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f,  0.0f, 1.0f,
	 0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f,  1.0f, 1.0f,
	 0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f,  1.0f, 0.0f,
	 0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f,  1.0f, 0.0f,
	-0.5f, -0.5f,  0.5f,  0.0f, 0.0f,
	-0.5f, -0.5f, -0.5f,  0.0f, 1.0f,

	-0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f,  0.0f, 1.0f,
	 0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f,  1.0f, 1.0f,
	 0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f,  1.0f, 0.0f,
	 0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f,  1.0f, 0.0f,
	-0.5f,  0.5f,  0.5f,  0.0f, 0.0f,
	-0.5f,  0.5f, -0.5f,  0.0f, 1.0f
};

glm::vec3 cubePositions[] = {
	glm::vec3(0.0f,  0.0f,  0.0f),
	glm::vec3(2.0f,  5.0f, -15.0f),
	glm::vec3(-1.5f, -2.2f, -2.5f),
	glm::vec3(-3.8f, -2.0f, -12.3f),
	glm::vec3(2.4f, -0.4f, -3.5f),
	glm::vec3(-1.7f,  3.0f, -7.5f),
	glm::vec3(1.3f, -2.0f, -2.5f),
	glm::vec3(1.5f,  2.0f, -2.5f),
	glm::vec3(1.5f,  0.2f, -1.5f),
	glm::vec3(-1.3f,  1.0f, -1.5f)
};
#pragma endregion

GLFWwindow* Init();
void SetVAO();
void SetTexture();
void processinput_callback(GLFWwindow* window);
void mouse_callback(GLFWwindow* window, double xpose, double ypose);
void scroll_callback(GLFWwindow* window, double xoffset, double yoffset);

Shader shader;
Camera camera(glm::vec3(0.0f,0.0f,3.0f));
unsigned int VAO;
const unsigned int SCR_WIDTH = 800;
const unsigned int SCR_HEIGHT = 600;

bool firstMouse = true;
static float lastX = 0.0f, lastY = 0.0f;

float deltaTime = 0.0f;
float lastFrame = 0.0f;
GLFWwindow* Init()
{
	glfwInit();
	glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 4);
	glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 4);
	glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE);
	auto window = glfwCreateWindow(SCR_WIDTH, SCR_HEIGHT, "LearnOpenGL", NULL, NULL);
	if (window == NULL)
	{
		std::cout << "Failed to create GLFW window" << std::endl;
		glfwTerminate();
	}
	glfwMakeContextCurrent(window);

	if (!gladLoadGLLoader((GLADloadproc)glfwGetProcAddress))
	{
		std::cout << "Failed to initialize GLAD" << std::endl;
	}

	shader.InitShader();
	return window;
}

void SetVAO()
{
	unsigned int VBO, EBO;
	glGenVertexArrays(1, &VAO);
	glGenBuffers(1, &VBO);

	glBindVertexArray(VAO);

	glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, VBO);
	glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertices), vertices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);
	glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 5 * sizeof(float), (void*)0);
	glVertexAttribPointer(1, 2, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 5 * sizeof(float), (void*)(3 * sizeof(float)));

	glEnableVertexAttribArray(0);
	glEnableVertexAttribArray(1);
}

void SetTexture()
{
	int width(0), height(0), nrChannels(0);
	unsigned char* data;
	stbi_set_flip_vertically_on_load(true);
	unsigned int texture[2];
	glGenTextures(2, texture);

	glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]);
	glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_NEAREST);
	glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
	data = stbi_load("../OpenGL/resources/textures/container.jpg", &width, &height, &nrChannels, 0);
	glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGB, width, height, 0, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, data);
	glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
	stbi_image_free(data);

	glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[1]);
	glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_NEAREST);
	glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
	data = stbi_load("../OpenGL/resources/textures/awesomeface.png", &width, &height, &nrChannels, 0);
	glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, width, height, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, data);
	glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
	stbi_image_free(data);

	glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0); //先激活再绑定
	glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[0]);

	glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE1);
	glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture[1]);
	shader.UseShader();
	glUniform1i(glGetUniformLocation(shader.GetShaderProgramID(), "ourTexture1"), 0);
	glUniform1i(glGetUniformLocation(shader.GetShaderProgramID(), "ourTexture2"), 1);
}

void processinput_callback(GLFWwindow* window)
{
	if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_W) == GLFW_PRESS)
	{
		camera.ProcessKeyboard(FORWARD, deltaTime);
	}
	if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_A) == GLFW_PRESS)
	{
		camera.ProcessKeyboard(LEFT, deltaTime);
	}
	if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_S) == GLFW_PRESS)
	{
		camera.ProcessKeyboard(BACKWARD, deltaTime);
	}
	if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_D) == GLFW_PRESS)
	{
		camera.ProcessKeyboard(RIGHT, deltaTime);
	}
	if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_ESCAPE) == GLFW_PRESS)
	{
		glfwSetWindowShouldClose(window, true);
	}
}

void mouse_callback(GLFWwindow* window, double xpose,double ypose)
{
	if (firstMouse)
	{
		lastX = xpose;
		lastY = ypose;
		firstMouse = false;
	}
	auto xoffset = xpose - lastX;
	lastX = xpose;

	auto yoffset = lastY - ypose;
	lastY = ypose;

	camera.ProcessMouseMovement(xoffset, yoffset);
}

void scroll_callback(GLFWwindow* window, double xoffset, double yoffset)
{
	camera.ProcessMouseScroll(yoffset);
}

int main()
{
	auto window = Init();
	SetVAO();
	SetTexture();
	glfwSetCursorPosCallback(window, mouse_callback);
	glfwSetScrollCallback(window, scroll_callback);
	glfwSetInputMode(window, GLFW_CURSOR, GLFW_CURSOR_DISABLED);
	glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
	while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window))
	{
		float currentFrame = glfwGetTime();
		deltaTime = currentFrame - lastFrame;
		lastFrame = currentFrame;
		processinput_callback(window);

		glClearColor(0.2f, 0.3f, 0.3f, 1.0f);
		glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);

		float radius = 10.0f;
		for (size_t i = 0; i < 10; ++i)
		{
			glm::mat4 trans(glm::mat4(1.0f)), model(glm::mat4(1.0f)), view(glm::mat4(1.0f)), projection(glm::mat4(1.0f));

			model = glm::translate(model, glm::vec3(cubePositions[i]));
			model = glm::rotate(model, currentFrame, glm::vec3(1.0f, 2.0f, 0.0f));

			view = camera.GetViewMatrix();

			projection = glm::perspective(glm::radians(camera.Zoom), 800.0f / 600.0f, 0.1f, 100.0f);

			trans = projection * view * model;

			glUniformMatrix4fv(glGetUniformLocation(shader.GetShaderProgramID(), "transform"),
				1, GL_FALSE, glm::value_ptr(trans));

			glBindVertexArray(VAO);
			glDrawArrays(GL_TRIANGLES, 0, 36);
		}

		glfwSwapBuffers(window);
		glfwPollEvents();
	}
}

输出效果
鼠标键盘可操作的10个旋转立方体
在这里插入图片描述

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