ubuntu环境搭建

嵌入式Linux之旅-imx6q 同时被 2 个专栏收录
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你生活过的环境造就了现在的你,如果剥离掉任何一个你的经历,好的或者不好的,那么,你也不会是你。—— R.W

替换软件源

ubuntu自带的软件源,使用apt-get时比较慢,我们可以将其替换成阿里的源。

  • 备份自带的软件源
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.bk
  • 打开/etc/apt/sources.list文件,删掉原有的内容,将其替换成如下内容
# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 16.04 LTS _Xenial Xerus_ - Release amd64 (20160420.1)]/ xenial main restricted
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial main restricted #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse #Added by software-properties
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security multiverse
  • 更新软件源和软件
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

常用的工具安装

  • 常用的工具安装
sudo apt-get install -y build-essential bison flex curl tree valgrind unrar
  • 安装man手册,以后可以通过类似“man read”来查看函数的用法
sudo apt-get install -y manpages-posix manpages-posix-dev
  • 安装ssh服务器和ftp服务器软件
sudo apt-get install -y openssh-server vsftpd

打开/etc/vsftpd.confwrite_enable=YES前面的#号去掉,然后执行

sudo /etc/init.d/vsftpd restart

交叉编译工具链的安装

Linaro网站上下载编译工具,我选择的是gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.05-x86_64_arm-linux-gnueabihf.tar.xz,主要因为我要编译2017年以后的uboot,需要使用gcc 6.0以后的版本。
把压缩包拷贝到ubuntu上,执行以下命令

xz -d gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.05-x86_64_arm-linux-gnueabihf.tar.xz
tar xvf gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.05-x86_64_arm-linux-gnueabihf.tar -C ~/bin/

然后打来/etc/environment文件把~/bin/gcc-linaro-6.3.1-2017.05-x86_64_arm-linux-gnueabihf/bin目录追加在后面,然后执行如下命令使环境变量生效。

source /etc/environment

最后执行如下命令检测是否环境变量已经添加到PATH里面去了

arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc -v

输出如下就算成功了

Using built-in specs.
COLLECT_GCC=arm-linux-gnueabihf-gcc
Target: arm-linux-gnueabihf
Configured with: '/home/tcwg-buildslave/workspace/tcwg-make-release/builder_arch/amd64/label/tcwg-x86_64-build/target/arm-linux-gnueabihf/snapshots/gcc.git~linaro-6.3-2017.05/configure' SHELL=/bin/bash --with-mpc=/home/tcwg-buildslave/workspace/tcwg-make-release/builder_arch/amd64/label/tcwg-x86_64-build/target/arm-linux-gnueabihf/_build/builds/destdir/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu --with-mpfr=/home/tcwg-buildslave/workspace/tcwg-make-release/builder_arch/amd64/label/tcwg-x86_64-build/target/arm-linux-gnueabihf/_build/builds/destdir/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu --with-gmp=/home/tcwg-buildslave/workspace/tcwg-make-release/builder_arch/amd64/label/tcwg-x86_64-build/target/arm-linux-gnueabihf/_build/builds/destdir/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu --with-gnu-as --with-gnu-ld --disable-libmudflap --enable-lto --enable-shared --without-included-gettext --enable-nls --disable-sjlj-exceptions --enable-gnu-unique-object --enable-linker-build-id --disable-libstdcxx-pch --enable-c99 --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-libstdcxx-debug --enable-long-long --with-cloog=no --with-ppl=no --with-isl=no --disable-multilib --with-float=hard --with-fpu=vfpv3-d16 --with-mode=thumb --with-tune=cortex-a9 --with-arch=armv7-a --enable-threads=posix --enable-multiarch --enable-libstdcxx-time=yes --enable-gnu-indirect-function --with-build-sysroot=/home/tcwg-buildslave/workspace/tcwg-make-release/builder_arch/amd64/label/tcwg-x86_64-build/target/arm-linux-gnueabihf/_build/sysroots/arm-linux-gnueabihf --with-sysroot=/home/tcwg-buildslave/workspace/tcwg-make-release/builder_arch/amd64/label/tcwg-x86_64-build/target/arm-linux-gnueabihf/_build/builds/destdir/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu/arm-linux-gnueabihf/libc --enable-checking=release --disable-bootstrap --enable-languages=c,c++,fortran,lto --build=x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu --host=x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu --target=arm-linux-gnueabihf --prefix=/home/tcwg-buildslave/workspace/tcwg-make-release/builder_arch/amd64/label/tcwg-x86_64-build/target/arm-linux-gnueabihf/_build/builds/destdir/x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
Thread model: posix
gcc version 6.3.1 20170404 (Linaro GCC 6.3-2017.05)
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