《The+C+++Programming+Language》第十一章String部分实现

String.h

#include "String.h"
#include <cstring>

namespace TCPL
{
	String::String()
	{
		rep = new Srep(0, "");
	}

	String::String(const char *s)
	{
		rep = new Srep(strlen(s), s);
	}

	String::String(const TCPL::String &x)
	{
		x.rep->n++;
		rep = x.rep;
	}

	String& String::operator=(const char* s)
	{
		if(rep->n == 1)
			rep->assign(strlen(s), s);
		else {
			rep->n--;
			rep = new Srep(strlen(s), s);
		}
		return *this;
	}

	String& String::operator =(const TCPL::String & x)
	{
		x.rep->n++;
		if(--rep->n == 0) delete rep;
		rep = x.rep;
		return *this;
	}

	String::~String()
	{
		if(--rep->n == 0)
		{
			delete rep;
		}
	}



	std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& os, const TCPL::String& x)
	{
		os << x.rep->s;
		return os;
	}

	void String::check(int i) const { if( i < 0 || rep->sz <= i) throw Range(); }

	char String::read(int i) const { return rep->s[i]; }
	void String::write(int i, char c) { rep = rep->get_own_copy(); rep->s[i] = c; }

	String::Cref String::operator[](int i) { check(i); return Cref(*this, i); }
	char String::operator[](int i) const { check(i); return rep->s[i]; }

	int String::size() const { return rep->sz; } 

}

String.cpp

#ifndef _The_CPP_Programming_language_Chapter11_String

#include <iostream>

namespace TCPL
{
	class String
	{
		struct Srep;
		Srep *rep;
	public:
		class Cref;
		class Range{ };
		
		String();
		String(const char *);
		String(const String &);
		String& operator=(const String &);
		String& operator=(const char *);
		~String();
		friend std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream&, const String&);

		void check(int i) const;

		char read(int i) const;
		void write(int i, char c);
		
		Cref operator[](int i);
		char operator[](int i) const;

		int size() const;
	};

	struct String::Srep {
		char *s;
		int sz;
		int n; // 引用次数

		Srep(int nsz, const char *p)
		{
			n = 1;
			sz = nsz;
			s = new char[sz+1];
			strcpy(s, p);
		}

		~Srep() { delete[] s; }

		Srep* get_own_copy( )
		{
			if(n == 1)
				return this;
			n--;
			return new Srep(sz, s);
		}

		void assign(int nsz, const char* p)
		{
			if( sz != nsz)
			{
				delete[] s;
				sz = nsz;
				s = new char[sz+1];
			}
			strcpy(s, p);
		}

	private:
		// 防止复制~!
		Srep(const Srep&);
		Srep& operator=(const Srep&);
	};

	class String::Cref
	{
		friend class String;
		String &s;
		int i;
		Cref(String & ss, int ii): s(ss), i(ii){}
	public:
		operator char() const { return s.read(i); }

		void operator =(char c) { s.write(i, c); }
	};
}

#endif 

test.cpp

#include "String.h"

int main(char *argv[], int argn)
{
	using TCPL::String;
	
	String str  = "hello, world!";
	const String str2(str);
	
	std::cout << str << std::endl;
	
	str[0] = 'c';
	std::cout << str << std::endl;

	return 0;
}

运行截图:



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