Kotlin安卓开发:Bottom Navigation Activity那些事

Kotlin安卓开发:Bottom Navigation Activity那些事

我们日常使用的软件多数有底部导航栏,通过搜索我们也可以看到如LinearLayout+TextView、TabLayout+ViewPager 、RadioGroup+RadioButton等多种实现方式。同样,Android Studio也内置了Bottom Navigation Activity以方便实现底部导航栏这一效果,本文主要说明这种方法出现的页面重置问题及解决办法。

开始使用

创建项目

首先我们点击New->Project,选择Bottom Navigation Activity,创建一个新的导航栏项目。名称取为BNATest,包名为com.morales.bnatest,语言选择Kotlin。

创建项目

创建好的项目是可以直接运行的,我们运行后就得到如下效果图:

在这里插入图片描述

结构分析

项目结构

将项目结构模式切换至Project,便可看到如上图所示的结构,这里已经将重要的内容全部展开。我们可以看到默认内置了MainActivity和三个Fragment,分别在layout中对应。至于导航栏的实现,则是依靠menu和navigation目录下的内容。

文件分析

MainAcitvity.kt

package com.morales.bnatest

import android.os.Bundle
import com.google.android.material.bottomnavigation.BottomNavigationView
import androidx.appcompat.app.AppCompatActivity
import androidx.navigation.findNavController
import androidx.navigation.ui.AppBarConfiguration
import androidx.navigation.ui.setupActionBarWithNavController
import androidx.navigation.ui.setupWithNavController

class MainActivity : AppCompatActivity() {

    override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState)
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main)
        val navView: BottomNavigationView = findViewById(R.id.nav_view)

        val navController = findNavController(R.id.nav_host_fragment)
        // Passing each menu ID as a set of Ids because each
        // menu should be considered as top level destinations.
        val appBarConfiguration = AppBarConfiguration(setOf(
                R.id.navigation_home, R.id.navigation_dashboard, R.id.navigation_notifications))
        setupActionBarWithNavController(navController, appBarConfiguration)
        navView.setupWithNavController(navController)
    }
}

activity_main.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    android:id="@+id/container"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:paddingTop="?attr/actionBarSize">

    <com.google.android.material.bottomnavigation.BottomNavigationView
        android:id="@+id/nav_view"
        android:layout_width="0dp"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_marginStart="0dp"
        android:layout_marginEnd="0dp"
        android:background="?android:attr/windowBackground"
        app:layout_constraintBottom_toBottomOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintLeft_toLeftOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintRight_toRightOf="parent"
        app:menu="@menu/bottom_nav_menu" />

    <fragment
        android:id="@+id/nav_host_fragment"
        android:name="androidx.navigation.fragment.NavHostFragment"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="match_parent"
        app:defaultNavHost="true"
        app:layout_constraintBottom_toTopOf="@id/nav_view"
        app:layout_constraintLeft_toLeftOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintRight_toRightOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintTop_toTopOf="parent"
        app:navGraph="@navigation/mobile_navigation" />

</androidx.constraintlayout.widget.ConstraintLayout>

bottom_nav_menu.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<menu xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">

    <item
        android:id="@+id/navigation_home"
        android:icon="@drawable/ic_home_black_24dp"
        android:title="@string/title_home" />

    <item
        android:id="@+id/navigation_dashboard"
        android:icon="@drawable/ic_dashboard_black_24dp"
        android:title="@string/title_dashboard" />

    <item
        android:id="@+id/navigation_notifications"
        android:icon="@drawable/ic_notifications_black_24dp"
        android:title="@string/title_notifications" />

</menu>

mobile_navigation.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<navigation xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:id="@+id/mobile_navigation"
    app:startDestination="@+id/navigation_home">

    <fragment
        android:id="@+id/navigation_home"
        android:name="com.morales.bnatest.ui.home.HomeFragment"
        android:label="@string/title_home"
        tools:layout="@layout/fragment_home" />

    <fragment
        android:id="@+id/navigation_dashboard"
        android:name="com.morales.bnatest.ui.dashboard.DashboardFragment"
        android:label="@string/title_dashboard"
        tools:layout="@layout/fragment_dashboard" />

    <fragment
        android:id="@+id/navigation_notifications"
        android:name="com.morales.bnatest.ui.notifications.NotificationsFragment"
        android:label="@string/title_notifications"
        tools:layout="@layout/fragment_notifications" />
</navigation>

简单的Demo

计数器

我们将layout/fragment_home.xml中的约束性布局修改为LinearLayout(此处注意添加方向为垂直),并添加一个id为btn的Button控件,同时修改下TextView的字体大小。修改后的文件代码如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:orientation="vertical"
    tools:context=".ui.home.HomeFragment">

    <TextView
        android:id="@+id/text_home"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:textAlignment="center"
        android:textSize="100sp"
        android:textColor="@color/black" />

    <Button
        android:id="@+id/btn"
        android:layout_width="200dp"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:text="button" />
    
</LinearLayout>

随后我们在HomeFragment.kt中编辑代码,实现点击按钮使得计数器加一,修改后的文件如下:

class HomeFragment : Fragment() {

    private var num = 0

    override fun onCreateView(
        inflater: LayoutInflater,
        container: ViewGroup?,
        savedInstanceState: Bundle?
    ): View? {
        val root = inflater.inflate(R.layout.fragment_home, container, false)
        val textView: TextView = root.findViewById(R.id.text_home)
        val btn: Button = root.findViewById(R.id.btn)
        btn.setOnClickListener {
            num++
            textView.text = num.toString()
        }
        textView.text = num.toString()
        return root
    }
}

再次运行就可以得到一个计数器数值随点击按钮增长的效果。

发现问题

我们在测试时可以发现,如果点击底部导航栏切换到其他页面时,再次点击回到本页面后计数器会被重置。

计数器被重置

同样的,如果我们直接点击当前页面的按钮,计数器也会被重置。

计数器同样被重置

解决问题

考虑到ViewModel具有独立的生命周期且长于Activity的生命周期,使用ViewModel可以解决屏幕旋转而Activity重建导致数据丢失的问题,可能首先想到的解决办法是使用ViewModel来避免计数器的重置。而Bottom Navigation Activity恰好贴心地为我们的每个Fragment都准备了一个ViewModel。

修改HomeViewModel中的代码,如下:

class HomeViewModel() : ViewModel() {

    val _counter = MutableLiveData<Int>().apply {
        value = 0
    }

    fun plusOne() {
        val count = _counter.value ?: 0
        _counter.value = count + 1
    }

    val counter: LiveData<Int> = _counter
}

修改HomeFragment中的代码,如下:

class HomeFragment : Fragment() {

    private lateinit var homeViewModel: HomeViewModel

    override fun onCreateView(
        inflater: LayoutInflater,
        container: ViewGroup?,
        savedInstanceState: Bundle?
    ): View? {
        homeViewModel =
            ViewModelProvider(this).get(HomeViewModel::class.java)
        val root = inflater.inflate(R.layout.fragment_home, container, false)
        val textView: TextView = root.findViewById(R.id.text_home)
        val btn: Button = root.findViewById(R.id.btn)
        btn.setOnClickListener {
            homeViewModel.plusOne()
        }
        homeViewModel.counter.observe(viewLifecycleOwner, Observer { count->
            textView.text = count.toString()
        })
        return root
    }
}

实际上这种做法并不能解决问题,因为重新运行我们发现,计数器仍然会被重置。不过你可以尝试旋转屏幕,这时计数器不会重置。

计数器仍被重置

产生原因

打开MainActivity的布局文件activity_main.xml,我们可以看到这行代码

android:name="androidx.navigation.fragment.NavHostFragment"

看一下NavHostFragment的源码,我们可以看到:

@CallSuper
    @Override
    public void onCreate(@Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        final Context context = requireContext();

        mNavController = new NavHostController(context);
        mNavController.setLifecycleOwner(this);
        mNavController.setOnBackPressedDispatcher(requireActivity().getOnBackPressedDispatcher());
        // Set the default state - this will be updated whenever
        // onPrimaryNavigationFragmentChanged() is called
        mNavController.enableOnBackPressed(
                mIsPrimaryBeforeOnCreate != null && mIsPrimaryBeforeOnCreate);
        mIsPrimaryBeforeOnCreate = null;
        mNavController.setViewModelStore(getViewModelStore());
        onCreateNavController(mNavController);

        Bundle navState = null;
        if (savedInstanceState != null) {
            navState = savedInstanceState.getBundle(KEY_NAV_CONTROLLER_STATE);
            if (savedInstanceState.getBoolean(KEY_DEFAULT_NAV_HOST, false)) {
                mDefaultNavHost = true;
                getParentFragmentManager().beginTransaction()
                        .setPrimaryNavigationFragment(this)
                        .commit();
            }
            mGraphId = savedInstanceState.getInt(KEY_GRAPH_ID);
        }

        if (navState != null) {
            // Navigation controller state overrides arguments
            mNavController.restoreState(navState);
        }
        if (mGraphId != 0) {
            // Set from onInflate()
            mNavController.setGraph(mGraphId);
        } else {
            // See if it was set by NavHostFragment.create()
            final Bundle args = getArguments();
            final int graphId = args != null ? args.getInt(KEY_GRAPH_ID) : 0;
            final Bundle startDestinationArgs = args != null
                    ? args.getBundle(KEY_START_DESTINATION_ARGS)
                    : null;
            if (graphId != 0) {
                mNavController.setGraph(graphId, startDestinationArgs);
            }
        }
    }
@CallSuper
    protected void onCreateNavController(@NonNull NavController navController) {
        navController.getNavigatorProvider().addNavigator(
                new DialogFragmentNavigator(requireContext(), getChildFragmentManager()));
        navController.getNavigatorProvider().addNavigator(createFragmentNavigator());
    }
@Deprecated
    @NonNull
    protected Navigator<? extends FragmentNavigator.Destination> createFragmentNavigator() {
        return new FragmentNavigator(requireContext(), getChildFragmentManager(),
                getContainerId());
    }

这三段代码片表明,每次在创建 NavController时,都会重新创建新的 fragmentNavigator。即:每次进入下一个 Fragment,不管任务栈里是否存在该 Fragment的实例,都会创建一个新的实例而不会复用。因此,以上的办法是无效的。

那么我们就要从导航栏本身下手了。

解决方案

在DemoYang的《Navigation重复创建Fragment实例详解》一文中提出了通过修改源码来解决问题的方案。针对这个问题,谷歌给出了Kotlin 2020 Google’s Recommended Solution

1 设置Bottom Navigation View

首先打开navigation目录,为每一个fragment建立对应的navigation graph xml。代码如下所示:

tab_home.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<navigation xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    android:id="@+id/navigation_home"
    app:startDestination="@+id/fragment_home" >

    <fragment
        android:id="@+id/fragment_home"
        android:label="@string/title_home"
        android:name="com.morales.bnatest.ui.home.HomeFragment"
        tools:layout="@layout/fragment_home"/>

</navigation>

tab_dashboardtab_notifications同理。

值得注意的是,要确保navigation的id与menu中的对应id相同。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<menu xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">

    <item
        android:id="@+id/navigation_home"
        android:icon="@drawable/ic_home_black_24dp"
        android:title="@string/title_home" />

    <item
        android:id="@+id/navigation_dashboard"
        android:icon="@drawable/ic_dashboard_black_24dp"
        android:title="@string/title_dashboard" />

    <item
        android:id="@+id/navigation_notifications"
        android:icon="@drawable/ic_notifications_black_24dp"
        android:title="@string/title_notifications" />

</menu>

请注意两个代码片中的navigation_home的位置。

三个文件创建完毕后,mobile_navigation文件就弃用了,可以删除。

2 设置Activity Main XML

打开layout目录下的activity_main.xml,将约束布局改为线性布局,并将Fragment替换为fragmentContainer,修改如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:app="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res-auto"
    android:id="@+id/container"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:orientation="vertical"
    android:paddingTop="?attr/actionBarSize">

    <androidx.fragment.app.FragmentContainerView
        android:id="@+id/nav_host_container"
        android:name="androidx.navigation.fragment.NavHostFragment"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="0dp"
        android:layout_weight="1" />

    <com.google.android.material.bottomnavigation.BottomNavigationView
        android:id="@+id/nav_view"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:layout_marginStart="0dp"
        android:layout_marginEnd="0dp"
        android:background="?android:attr/windowBackground"
        app:layout_constraintBottom_toBottomOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintLeft_toLeftOf="parent"
        app:layout_constraintRight_toRightOf="parent"
        app:menu="@menu/bottom_nav_menu" />

</LinearLayout>

3 修改Activity

新建文件NavigationExtensions.kt

内容如下

package com.morales.bnatest

import android.content.Intent
import android.util.SparseArray
import androidx.core.util.forEach
import androidx.core.util.set
import androidx.fragment.app.FragmentManager
import androidx.lifecycle.LiveData
import androidx.lifecycle.MutableLiveData
import androidx.navigation.NavController
import androidx.navigation.fragment.NavHostFragment
import com.google.android.material.bottomnavigation.BottomNavigationView

/**
 * Manages the various graphs needed for a [BottomNavigationView].
 *
 * This sample is a workaround until the Navigation Component supports multiple back stacks.
 */
fun BottomNavigationView.setupWithNavController(
    navGraphIds: List<Int>,
    fragmentManager: FragmentManager,
    containerId: Int,
    intent: Intent
): LiveData<NavController> {

    // Map of tags
    val graphIdToTagMap = SparseArray<String>()
    // Result. Mutable live data with the selected controlled
    val selectedNavController = MutableLiveData<NavController>()

    var firstFragmentGraphId = 0

    // First create a NavHostFragment for each NavGraph ID
    navGraphIds.forEachIndexed { index, navGraphId ->
        val fragmentTag = getFragmentTag(index)

        // Find or create the Navigation host fragment
        val navHostFragment = obtainNavHostFragment(
            fragmentManager,
            fragmentTag,
            navGraphId,
            containerId
        )

        // Obtain its id
        val graphId = navHostFragment.navController.graph.id

        if (index == 0) {
            firstFragmentGraphId = graphId
        }

        // Save to the map
        graphIdToTagMap[graphId] = fragmentTag

        // Attach or detach nav host fragment depending on whether it's the selected item.
        if (this.selectedItemId == graphId) {
            // Update livedata with the selected graph
            selectedNavController.value = navHostFragment.navController
            attachNavHostFragment(fragmentManager, navHostFragment, index == 0)
        } else {
            detachNavHostFragment(fragmentManager, navHostFragment)
        }
    }

    // Now connect selecting an item with swapping Fragments
    var selectedItemTag = graphIdToTagMap[this.selectedItemId]
    val firstFragmentTag = graphIdToTagMap[firstFragmentGraphId]
    var isOnFirstFragment = selectedItemTag == firstFragmentTag

    // When a navigation item is selected
    setOnNavigationItemSelectedListener { item ->
        // Don't do anything if the state is state has already been saved.
        if (fragmentManager.isStateSaved) {
            false
        } else {
            val newlySelectedItemTag = graphIdToTagMap[item.itemId]
            if (selectedItemTag != newlySelectedItemTag) {
                // Pop everything above the first fragment (the "fixed start destination")
                fragmentManager.popBackStack(firstFragmentTag,
                    FragmentManager.POP_BACK_STACK_INCLUSIVE)
                val selectedFragment = fragmentManager.findFragmentByTag(newlySelectedItemTag)
                        as NavHostFragment

                // Exclude the first fragment tag because it's always in the back stack.
                if (firstFragmentTag != newlySelectedItemTag) {
                    // Commit a transaction that cleans the back stack and adds the first fragment
                    // to it, creating the fixed started destination.
                    fragmentManager.beginTransaction()
                        .setCustomAnimations(
                            R.anim.nav_default_enter_anim,
                            R.anim.nav_default_exit_anim,
                            R.anim.nav_default_pop_enter_anim,
                            R.anim.nav_default_pop_exit_anim)
                        .attach(selectedFragment)
                        .setPrimaryNavigationFragment(selectedFragment)
                        .apply {
                            // Detach all other Fragments
                            graphIdToTagMap.forEach { _, fragmentTagIter ->
                                if (fragmentTagIter != newlySelectedItemTag) {
                                    detach(fragmentManager.findFragmentByTag(firstFragmentTag)!!)
                                }
                            }
                        }
                        .addToBackStack(firstFragmentTag)
                        .setReorderingAllowed(true)
                        .commit()
                }
                selectedItemTag = newlySelectedItemTag
                isOnFirstFragment = selectedItemTag == firstFragmentTag
                selectedNavController.value = selectedFragment.navController
                true
            } else {
                false
            }
        }
    }

    // Optional: on item reselected, pop back stack to the destination of the graph
    setupItemReselected(graphIdToTagMap, fragmentManager)

    // Handle deep link
    setupDeepLinks(navGraphIds, fragmentManager, containerId, intent)

    // Finally, ensure that we update our BottomNavigationView when the back stack changes
    fragmentManager.addOnBackStackChangedListener {
        if (!isOnFirstFragment && !fragmentManager.isOnBackStack(firstFragmentTag)) {
            this.selectedItemId = firstFragmentGraphId
        }

        // Reset the graph if the currentDestination is not valid (happens when the back
        // stack is popped after using the back button).
        selectedNavController.value?.let { controller ->
            if (controller.currentDestination == null) {
                controller.navigate(controller.graph.id)
            }
        }
    }
    return selectedNavController
}

private fun BottomNavigationView.setupDeepLinks(
    navGraphIds: List<Int>,
    fragmentManager: FragmentManager,
    containerId: Int,
    intent: Intent
) {
    navGraphIds.forEachIndexed { index, navGraphId ->
        val fragmentTag = getFragmentTag(index)

        // Find or create the Navigation host fragment
        val navHostFragment = obtainNavHostFragment(
            fragmentManager,
            fragmentTag,
            navGraphId,
            containerId
        )
        // Handle Intent
        if (navHostFragment.navController.handleDeepLink(intent)
            && selectedItemId != navHostFragment.navController.graph.id) {
            this.selectedItemId = navHostFragment.navController.graph.id
        }
    }
}

private fun BottomNavigationView.setupItemReselected(
    graphIdToTagMap: SparseArray<String>,
    fragmentManager: FragmentManager
) {
    setOnNavigationItemReselectedListener { item ->
        val newlySelectedItemTag = graphIdToTagMap[item.itemId]
        val selectedFragment = fragmentManager.findFragmentByTag(newlySelectedItemTag)
                as NavHostFragment
        val navController = selectedFragment.navController
        // Pop the back stack to the start destination of the current navController graph
        navController.popBackStack(
            navController.graph.startDestination, false
        )
    }
}

private fun detachNavHostFragment(
    fragmentManager: FragmentManager,
    navHostFragment: NavHostFragment
) {
    fragmentManager.beginTransaction()
        .detach(navHostFragment)
        .commitNow()
}

private fun attachNavHostFragment(
    fragmentManager: FragmentManager,
    navHostFragment: NavHostFragment,
    isPrimaryNavFragment: Boolean
) {
    fragmentManager.beginTransaction()
        .attach(navHostFragment)
        .apply {
            if (isPrimaryNavFragment) {
                setPrimaryNavigationFragment(navHostFragment)
            }
        }
        .commitNow()

}

private fun obtainNavHostFragment(
    fragmentManager: FragmentManager,
    fragmentTag: String,
    navGraphId: Int,
    containerId: Int
): NavHostFragment {
    // If the Nav Host fragment exists, return it
    val existingFragment = fragmentManager.findFragmentByTag(fragmentTag) as NavHostFragment?
    existingFragment?.let { return it }

    // Otherwise, create it and return it.
    val navHostFragment = NavHostFragment.create(navGraphId)
    fragmentManager.beginTransaction()
        .add(containerId, navHostFragment, fragmentTag)
        .commitNow()
    return navHostFragment
}

private fun FragmentManager.isOnBackStack(backStackName: String): Boolean {
    val backStackCount = backStackEntryCount
    for (index in 0 until backStackCount) {
        if (getBackStackEntryAt(index).name == backStackName) {
            return true
        }
    }
    return false
}

private fun getFragmentTag(index: Int) = "bottomNavigation#$index"

修改MainActivity.kt

内容如下

package com.morales.bnatest

import android.os.Bundle
import com.google.android.material.bottomnavigation.BottomNavigationView
import androidx.appcompat.app.AppCompatActivity
import androidx.lifecycle.LiveData
import androidx.navigation.NavController
import androidx.navigation.ui.setupActionBarWithNavController

class MainActivity : AppCompatActivity() {

    private var currentNavController: LiveData<NavController>? = null

    override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState)
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main)
        if (savedInstanceState == null) {
            setupBottomNavigationBar()
        } // Else: wait for onRestoreInstanceState
    }

    override fun onRestoreInstanceState(savedInstanceState: Bundle) {
        super.onRestoreInstanceState(savedInstanceState)
        // Now that BottomNavigationBar has restored its instance state
        // and its selectedItemId, we can proceed with setting up the
        // BottomNavigationBar with Navigation
        setupBottomNavigationBar()
    }

    /** Called on first creation and when restoring state. */
    private fun setupBottomNavigationBar() {
        val bottomNavigationView = findViewById<BottomNavigationView>(R.id.nav_view)
        val navGraphIds = listOf(R.navigation.tab_home, R.navigation.tab_dashboard, R.navigation.tab_notifications)
        val controller = bottomNavigationView.setupWithNavController(
            navGraphIds = navGraphIds,
            fragmentManager = supportFragmentManager,
            containerId = R.id.nav_host_container,
            intent = intent
        )
        controller.observe(this, { navController ->
            setupActionBarWithNavController(navController)
        })
        currentNavController = controller
    }

    override fun onSupportNavigateUp(): Boolean {
        return currentNavController?.value?.navigateUp() ?: false
    }
    
}

重新运行程序,发现问题解决。

成功解决

完结。
gitee地址:https://gitee.com/morales/demos/tree/master/BNATest

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