Linux系统串口接收数据编程

         之前基于IBM deveplopworks社区的代码,做了串口初始化和发送的程序,今天在此基础上添加了读取串口数据的程序。首先是最简单的循环读取程序,第二个是通过软中断方式,使用信号signal机制读取串口,这里需要注意的是硬件中断是设备驱动层级的,而读写串口是用户级行为,只能通过信号机制模拟中断,信号机制的发生和处理其实于硬件中断无异,第三个是通过select系统调用,在没有数据时阻塞进程,串口有数据需要读时唤醒进程。第二个和第三个例子都能用来后台读取数据,值得学习。

代码一:循环读取数据

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<unistd.h>
#include<sys/types.h>
#include<sys/stat.h>
#include<fcntl.h>
#include<termios.h>
#include<errno.h>

#define FALSE -1
#define TRUE 0

int speed_arr[] = { B38400, B19200, B9600, B4800, B2400, B1200, B300,B38400, B19200, B9600, B4800, B2400, B1200, B300, };
int name_arr[] = {38400,  19200,  9600,  4800,  2400,  1200,  300, 38400, 19200,  9600, 4800, 2400, 1200,  300, };
void set_speed(int fd, int speed){
  int   i; 
  int   status; 
  struct termios   Opt;
  tcgetattr(fd, &Opt); 
  for ( i= 0;  i < sizeof(speed_arr) / sizeof(int);  i++) { 
    if  (speed == name_arr[i]) {     
      tcflush(fd, TCIOFLUSH);     
      cfsetispeed(&Opt, speed_arr[i]);  
      cfsetospeed(&Opt, speed_arr[i]);   
      status = tcsetattr(fd, TCSANOW, &Opt);  
      if  (status != 0) {        
        perror("tcsetattr fd1");  
        return;     
      }    
      tcflush(fd,TCIOFLUSH);   
    }  
  }
}

int set_Parity(int fd,int databits,int stopbits,int parity)
{ 
	struct termios options; 
	if  ( tcgetattr( fd,&options)  !=  0) { 
		perror("SetupSerial 1");     
		return(FALSE);  
	}
	options.c_cflag &= ~CSIZE; 
	switch (databits) 
	{   
	case 7:		
		options.c_cflag |= CS7; 
		break;
	case 8:     
		options.c_cflag |= CS8;
		break;   
	default:    
		fprintf(stderr,"Unsupported data size\n"); return (FALSE);  
	}
	switch (parity) 
	{   
		case 'n':
		case 'N':    
			options.c_cflag &= ~PARENB;   /* Clear parity enable */
			options.c_iflag &= ~INPCK;     /* Enable parity checking */ 
			break;  
		case 'o':   
		case 'O':     
			options.c_cflag |= (PARODD | PARENB); 
			options.c_iflag |= INPCK;             /* Disnable parity checking */ 
			break;  
		case 'e':  
		case 'E':   
			options.c_cflag |= PARENB;     /* Enable parity */    
			options.c_cflag &= ~PARODD;    
			options.c_iflag |= INPCK;       /* Disnable parity checking */
			break;
		case 'S': 
		case 's':  /*as no parity*/   
		    options.c_cflag &= ~PARENB;
			options.c_cflag &= ~CSTOPB;break;  
		default:   
			fprintf(stderr,"Unsupported parity\n");    
			return (FALSE);  
		}  
	
	switch (stopbits)
	{   
		case 1:    
			options.c_cflag &= ~CSTOPB;  
			break;  
		case 2:    
			options.c_cflag |= CSTOPB;  
		   break;
		default:    
			 fprintf(stderr,"Unsupported stop bits\n");  
			 return (FALSE); 
	} 
	/* Set input parity option */ 
	if (parity != 'n')   
		options.c_iflag |= INPCK; 
	tcflush(fd,TCIFLUSH);
	options.c_cc[VTIME] = 150; 
	options.c_cc[VMIN] = 0; /* Update the options and do it NOW */
	if (tcsetattr(fd,TCSANOW,&options) != 0)   
	{ 
		perror("SetupSerial 3");   
		return (FALSE);  
	} 
	return (TRUE);  
}

int main()
{
	printf("This program updates last time at %s   %s\n",__TIME__,__DATE__);
	printf("STDIO COM1\n");
	int fd;
	fd = open("/dev/ttyS0",O_RDWR);
	if(fd == -1)
	{
		perror("serialport error\n");
	}
	else
	{
		printf("open ");
		printf("%s",ttyname(fd));
		printf(" succesfully\n");
	}

	set_speed(fd,115200);
	if (set_Parity(fd,8,1,'N') == FALSE)  {
		printf("Set Parity Error\n");
		exit (0);
	}
	char buf[] = "fe55aa07bc010203040506073d";
	write(fd,&buf,26);
	char buff[512];	
	int nread;	
	while(1)
	{
		if((nread = read(fd, buff, 512))>0)
		{
			printf("\nLen: %d\n",nread);
			buff[nread+1] = '\0';
			printf("%s",buff);
		}
	}
	close(fd);
	return 0;
}

代码清单二:通过signal机制读取数据

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<unistd.h>
#include<sys/types.h>
#include<sys/stat.h>
#include<sys/signal.h>
#include<fcntl.h>
#include<termios.h>
#include<errno.h>

#define FALSE -1
#define TRUE 0
#define flag 1
#define noflag 0

int wait_flag = noflag;
int STOP = 0;
int res;

int speed_arr[] =
  { B38400, B19200, B9600, B4800, B2400, B1200, B300, B38400, B19200, B9600,
B4800, B2400, B1200, B300, };
int name_arr[] =
  { 38400, 19200, 9600, 4800, 2400, 1200, 300, 38400, 19200, 9600, 4800, 2400,
1200, 300, };
void
set_speed (int fd, int speed)
{
  int i;
  int status;
  struct termios Opt;
  tcgetattr (fd, &Opt);
  for (i = 0; i < sizeof (speed_arr) / sizeof (int); i++)
    {
      if (speed == name_arr[i])
	{
	  tcflush (fd, TCIOFLUSH);
	  cfsetispeed (&Opt, speed_arr[i]);
	  cfsetospeed (&Opt, speed_arr[i]);
	  status = tcsetattr (fd, TCSANOW, &Opt);
	  if (status != 0)
	    {
	      perror ("tcsetattr fd1");
	      return;
	    }
	  tcflush (fd, TCIOFLUSH);
	}
    }
}

int
set_Parity (int fd, int databits, int stopbits, int parity)
{
  struct termios options;
  if (tcgetattr (fd, &options) != 0)
    {
      perror ("SetupSerial 1");
      return (FALSE);
    }
  options.c_cflag &= ~CSIZE;
  switch (databits)
    {
    case 7:
      options.c_cflag |= CS7;
      break;
    case 8:
      options.c_cflag |= CS8;
      break;
    default:
      fprintf (stderr, "Unsupported data size\n");
      return (FALSE);
    }
  switch (parity)
    {
    case 'n':
    case 'N':
      options.c_cflag &= ~PARENB;	/* Clear parity enable */
      options.c_iflag &= ~INPCK;	/* Enable parity checking */
      break;
    case 'o':
    case 'O':
      options.c_cflag |= (PARODD | PARENB);
      options.c_iflag |= INPCK;	/* Disnable parity checking */
      break;
    case 'e':
    case 'E':
      options.c_cflag |= PARENB;	/* Enable parity */
      options.c_cflag &= ~PARODD;
      options.c_iflag |= INPCK;	/* Disnable parity checking */
      break;
    case 'S':
    case 's':			/*as no parity */
      options.c_cflag &= ~PARENB;
      options.c_cflag &= ~CSTOPB;
      break;
    default:
      fprintf (stderr, "Unsupported parity\n");
      return (FALSE);
    }

  switch (stopbits)
    {
    case 1:
      options.c_cflag &= ~CSTOPB;
      break;
    case 2:
      options.c_cflag |= CSTOPB;
      break;
    default:
      fprintf (stderr, "Unsupported stop bits\n");
      return (FALSE);
    }
  /* Set input parity option */
  if (parity != 'n')
    options.c_iflag |= INPCK;
  tcflush (fd, TCIFLUSH);
  options.c_cc[VTIME] = 150;
  options.c_cc[VMIN] = 0;	/* Update the options and do it NOW */
  if (tcsetattr (fd, TCSANOW, &options) != 0)
    {
      perror ("SetupSerial 3");
      return (FALSE);
    }
  return (TRUE);
}

void
signal_handler_IO (int status)
{
  printf ("received SIGIO signale.\n");
  wait_flag = noflag;
}

int
main ()
{
  printf ("This program updates last time at %s   %s\n", __TIME__, __DATE__);
  printf ("STDIO COM1\n");
  int fd;
  struct sigaction saio;
  fd = open ("/dev/ttyUSB0", O_RDWR);
  if (fd == -1)
    {
      perror ("serialport error\n");
    }
  else
    {
      printf ("open ");
      printf ("%s", ttyname (fd));
      printf (" succesfully\n");
    }

  saio.sa_handler = signal_handler_IO;
  sigemptyset (&saio.sa_mask);
  saio.sa_flags = 0;
  saio.sa_restorer = NULL;
  sigaction (SIGIO, &saio, NULL);

  //allow the process to receive SIGIO
  fcntl (fd, F_SETOWN, getpid ());
  //make the file descriptor asynchronous
  fcntl (fd, F_SETFL, FASYNC);

  set_speed (fd, 115200);
  if (set_Parity (fd, 8, 1, 'N') == FALSE)
    {
      printf ("Set Parity Error\n");
      exit (0);
    }

  char buf[255];
while (STOP == 0)
    {
      usleep (100000);
      /* after receving SIGIO ,wait_flag = FALSE,input is availabe and can be read */
      if (wait_flag == 0)
	{
	  memset (buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
	  res = read (fd, buf, 255);
	  printf ("nread=%d,%s\n", res, buf);
//	  if (res ==1)
//	    STOP = 1;		/*stop loop if only a CR was input */
	  wait_flag = flag;	/*wait for new input */
	}
    }


  close (fd);
  return 0;
}


代码三:通过select系统调用进行io多路切换,实现异步读取串口数据

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<unistd.h>
#include<sys/types.h>
#include<sys/stat.h>
#include<sys/signal.h>
#include<fcntl.h>
#include<termios.h>
#include<errno.h>

#define FALSE -1
#define TRUE 0
#define flag 1
#define noflag 0

int wait_flag = noflag;
int STOP = 0;
int res;

int speed_arr[] =
  { B38400, B19200, B9600, B4800, B2400, B1200, B300, B38400, B19200, B9600,
B4800, B2400, B1200, B300, };
int name_arr[] =
  { 38400, 19200, 9600, 4800, 2400, 1200, 300, 38400, 19200, 9600, 4800, 2400,
1200, 300, };
void
set_speed (int fd, int speed)
{
  int i;
  int status;
  struct termios Opt;
  tcgetattr (fd, &Opt);
  for (i = 0; i < sizeof (speed_arr) / sizeof (int); i++)
    {
      if (speed == name_arr[i])
	{
	  tcflush (fd, TCIOFLUSH);
	  cfsetispeed (&Opt, speed_arr[i]);
	  cfsetospeed (&Opt, speed_arr[i]);
	  status = tcsetattr (fd, TCSANOW, &Opt);
	  if (status != 0)
	    {
	      perror ("tcsetattr fd1");
	      return;
	    }
	  tcflush (fd, TCIOFLUSH);
	}
    }
}

int
set_Parity (int fd, int databits, int stopbits, int parity)
{
  struct termios options;
  if (tcgetattr (fd, &options) != 0)
    {
      perror ("SetupSerial 1");
      return (FALSE);
    }
  options.c_cflag &= ~CSIZE;
  switch (databits)
    {
    case 7:
      options.c_cflag |= CS7;
      break;
    case 8:
      options.c_cflag |= CS8;
      break;
    default:
      fprintf (stderr, "Unsupported data size\n");
      return (FALSE);
    }
  switch (parity)
    {
    case 'n':
    case 'N':
      options.c_cflag &= ~PARENB;	/* Clear parity enable */
      options.c_iflag &= ~INPCK;	/* Enable parity checking */
      break;
    case 'o':
    case 'O':
      options.c_cflag |= (PARODD | PARENB);
      options.c_iflag |= INPCK;	/* Disnable parity checking */
      break;
    case 'e':
    case 'E':
      options.c_cflag |= PARENB;	/* Enable parity */
      options.c_cflag &= ~PARODD;
      options.c_iflag |= INPCK;	/* Disnable parity checking */
      break;
    case 'S':
    case 's':			/*as no parity */
      options.c_cflag &= ~PARENB;
      options.c_cflag &= ~CSTOPB;
      break;
    default:
      fprintf (stderr, "Unsupported parity\n");
      return (FALSE);
    }

  switch (stopbits)
    {
    case 1:
      options.c_cflag &= ~CSTOPB;
      break;
    case 2:
      options.c_cflag |= CSTOPB;
      break;
    default:
      fprintf (stderr, "Unsupported stop bits\n");
      return (FALSE);
    }
  /* Set input parity option */
  if (parity != 'n')
    options.c_iflag |= INPCK;
  tcflush (fd, TCIFLUSH);
  options.c_cc[VTIME] = 150;
  options.c_cc[VMIN] = 0;	/* Update the options and do it NOW */
  if (tcsetattr (fd, TCSANOW, &options) != 0)
    {
      perror ("SetupSerial 3");
      return (FALSE);
    }
  return (TRUE);
}

void
signal_handler_IO (int status)
{
  printf ("received SIGIO signale.\n");
  wait_flag = noflag;
}

int
main ()
{
  printf ("This program updates last time at %s   %s\n", __TIME__, __DATE__);
  printf ("STDIO COM1\n");
  int fd;
  fd = open ("/dev/ttyUSB0", O_RDWR);
  if (fd == -1)
    {
      perror ("serialport error\n");
    }
  else
    {
      printf ("open ");
      printf ("%s", ttyname (fd));
      printf (" succesfully\n");
    }

  set_speed (fd, 115200);
  if (set_Parity (fd, 8, 1, 'N') == FALSE)
    {
      printf ("Set Parity Error\n");
      exit (0);
    }

  char buf[255];
  fd_set rd;
  int nread = 0;
  while(1)
  {
  	FD_ZERO(&rd);
	FD_SET(fd, &rd);
	while(FD_ISSET(fd, &rd))
	{
		if(select(fd+1, &rd, NULL,NULL,NULL) < 0)
		{
			perror("select error\n");
		}
		else
		{
			while((nread = read(fd, buf, sizeof(buf))) > 0)
			{
				printf("nread = %d,%s\n",nread, buf);
				printf("test\n");
				memset(buf, 0 , sizeof(buf));
			}
		}
	}
  }
  close (fd);
  return 0;
}



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Linux C编程中,接收不定长数据串口通信可以通过以下的步骤实现: 1. 打开串口:使用open系统调用打开串口设备文件,例如"/dev/ttyS0"。确保正确设置串口的baud rate、数据位、校验位和停止位等参数。 2. 配置串口:通过ioctl系统调用设置串口的属性,例如禁用规范模式,并设置输入输出波特率、数据位、校验位和停止位等参数。 3. 接收数据:使用read系统调用从串口读取数据。由于数据不定长,可以考虑一次读取一个字节,并将其存储在一个缓冲区中。 4. 处理数据:根据接收的数据进行处理。可以通过循环读取,直到接收到特定的结束标志或达到预定的数据长度。也可以通过超时机制或读取的字节数判断数据接收完成。 5. 关闭串口:使用close系统调用关闭串口设备文件。 需要注意的是,在接收不定长数据时,可能会遇到以下一些问题: 1. 数据的结束标志:如果数据中没有特定的结束标志,在处理数据时可能需要使用自定义的结束标志或者通过计数器判断数据的长度。 2. 超时处理:如果数据的接收时间较长,可以通过设置串口的超时时间,当一定时间内没有数据到达时,进行超时处理。 3. 数据缓冲区大小:由于数据的长度不确定,需要考虑缓冲区的大小,确保足够存储接收的数据。 总之,在Linux C中接收不定长数据串口通信,需要打开和配置串口,循环读取数据并进行处理,最后关闭串口。通过合适的结束标志、超时处理和缓冲区管理等技术,可以实现稳定、可靠地接收不定长数据
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