[libgdx游戏开发教程]使用Libgdx进行游戏开发(7)-Screen2D屏幕布局的最佳实践

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/chiyingluolei/article/details/53689337

本章素材下载:http://files.cnblogs.com/mignet/images.zip

管理多个屏幕

我们的菜单屏有2个按钮,一个play一个option。option里就是一些开关的设置,比如音乐音效等。这些设置将会保存到Preferences中。

多屏幕切换是游戏的基本机制,Libgdx提供了一个叫Game的类已经具有了这样的功能。

为了适应多屏幕的功能,我们的类图需要做一些修改:

改动在:CanyonBunnyMain不再实现ApplicationListener接口,而是继承自Game类。这个类提供了setScreen()方法来进行切换。

我们定义抽象的AbstractGameScreen来统一共同的行为。同时,它实现了Libgdx的Screen接口(show,hide)。

GameScreen将取代CanyonBunnyMain的位置。

开始编写类AbstractGameScreen:

package com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.screens;

import com.badlogic.gdx.Game;
import com.badlogic.gdx.Screen;
import com.badlogic.gdx.assets.AssetManager;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.game.Assets;

public abstract class AbstractGameScreen implements Screen {
    protected Game game;

    public AbstractGameScreen(Game game) {
        this.game = game;
    }

    public abstract void render(float deltaTime);

    public abstract void resize(int width, int height);

    public abstract void show();

    public abstract void hide();

    public abstract void pause();

    public void resume() {
        Assets.instance.init(new AssetManager());
    }

    public void dispose() {
        Assets.instance.dispose();
    }
}

GameScreen把职责拿过来:

package com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.screens;

import com.badlogic.gdx.Game;
import com.badlogic.gdx.Gdx;
import com.badlogic.gdx.graphics.GL10;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.game.WorldController;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.game.WorldRenderer;

public class GameScreen extends AbstractGameScreen {
    private static final String TAG = GameScreen.class.getName();
    private WorldController worldController;
    private WorldRenderer worldRenderer;
    private boolean paused;

    public GameScreen(Game game) {
        super(game);
    }

    @Override
    public void render(float deltaTime) {
        // Do not update game world when paused.
        if (!paused) {
            // Update game world by the time that has passed
            // since last rendered frame.
            worldController.update(deltaTime);
        }
        // Sets the clear screen color to: Cornflower Blue
        Gdx.gl.glClearColor(0x64 / 255.0f, 0x95 / 255.0f, 0xed / 255.0f,
                0xff / 255.0f);
        // Clears the screen
        Gdx.gl.glClear(GL10.GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
        // Render game world to screen
        worldRenderer.render();
    }

    @Override
    public void resize(int width, int height) {
        worldRenderer.resize(width, height);
    }

    @Override
    public void show() {
        worldController = new WorldController(game);
        worldRenderer = new WorldRenderer(worldController);
        Gdx.input.setCatchBackKey(true);
    }

    @Override
    public void hide() {
        worldRenderer.dispose();
        Gdx.input.setCatchBackKey(false);
    }

    @Override
    public void pause() {
        paused = true;
    }

    @Override
    public void resume() {
        super.resume();
        // Only called on Android!
        paused = false;
    }
}

那么CanyonBunnyMain就瘦身了:

package com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny;

import com.badlogic.gdx.Application;
import com.badlogic.gdx.Game;
import com.badlogic.gdx.Gdx;
import com.badlogic.gdx.assets.AssetManager;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.game.Assets;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.screens.MenuScreen;

public class CanyonBunnyMain extends Game {
    @Override
    public void create() {
        // Set Libgdx log level
        Gdx.app.setLogLevel(Application.LOG_DEBUG);
        // Load assets
        Assets.instance.init(new AssetManager());
        // Start game at menu screen
        setScreen(new MenuScreen(this));
    }
}

WorldController开始持有game的引用,以便于跳转;

package com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.game;

import com.badlogic.gdx.Application.ApplicationType;
import com.badlogic.gdx.Game;
import com.badlogic.gdx.Gdx;
import com.badlogic.gdx.Input.Keys;
import com.badlogic.gdx.InputAdapter;
import com.badlogic.gdx.graphics.Pixmap;
import com.badlogic.gdx.graphics.Pixmap.Format;
import com.badlogic.gdx.math.Rectangle;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.game.objects.BunnyHead;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.game.objects.BunnyHead.JUMP_STATE;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.game.objects.Feather;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.game.objects.GoldCoin;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.game.objects.Rock;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.screens.MenuScreen;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.util.CameraHelper;
import com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.util.Constants;

public class WorldController extends InputAdapter {
    private static final String TAG = WorldController.class.getName();
    public CameraHelper cameraHelper;
    public Level level;
    public int lives;
    public int score;
    private float timeLeftGameOverDelay;
    private Game game;

    private void backToMenu() {
        // switch to menu screen
        game.setScreen(new MenuScreen(game));
    }

    public boolean isGameOver() {
        return lives < 0;
    }

    public boolean isPlayerInWater() {
        return level.bunnyHead.position.y < -5;
    }

    private void initLevel() {
        score = 0;
        level = new Level(Constants.LEVEL_01);
        cameraHelper.setTarget(level.bunnyHead);
    }

    // Rectangles for collision detection
    private Rectangle r1 = new Rectangle();
    private Rectangle r2 = new Rectangle();

    private void onCollisionBunnyHeadWithRock(Rock rock) {
        BunnyHead bunnyHead = level.bunnyHead;
        float heightDifference = Math.abs(bunnyHead.position.y
                - (rock.position.y + rock.bounds.height));
        if (heightDifference > 0.25f) {
            boolean hitLeftEdge = bunnyHead.position.x > (rock.position.x + rock.bounds.width / 2.0f);
            if (hitLeftEdge) {
                bunnyHead.position.x = rock.position.x + rock.bounds.width;
            } else {
                bunnyHead.position.x = rock.position.x - bunnyHead.bounds.width;
            }
            return;
        }
        switch (bunnyHead.jumpState) {
        case GROUNDED:
            break;
        case FALLING:
        case JUMP_FALLING:
            bunnyHead.position.y = rock.position.y + bunnyHead.bounds.height
                    + bunnyHead.origin.y;
            bunnyHead.jumpState = JUMP_STATE.GROUNDED;
            break;
        case JUMP_RISING:
            bunnyHead.position.y = rock.position.y + bunnyHead.bounds.height
                    + bunnyHead.origin.y;
            break;
        }
    }

    private void onCollisionBunnyWithGoldCoin(GoldCoin goldcoin) {
        goldcoin.collected = true;
        score += goldcoin.getScore();
        Gdx.app.log(TAG, "Gold coin collected");
    }

    private void onCollisionBunnyWithFeather(Feather feather) {
        feather.collected = true;
        score += feather.getScore();
        level.bunnyHead.setFeatherPowerup(true);
        Gdx.app.log(TAG, "Feather collected");
    }

    private void testCollisions() {
        r1.set(level.bunnyHead.position.x, level.bunnyHead.position.y,
                level.bunnyHead.bounds.width, level.bunnyHead.bounds.height);
        // Test collision: Bunny Head <-> Rocks
        for (Rock rock : level.rocks) {
            r2.set(rock.position.x, rock.position.y, rock.bounds.width,
                    rock.bounds.height);
            if (!r1.overlaps(r2))
                continue;
            onCollisionBunnyHeadWithRock(rock);
            // IMPORTANT: must do all collisions for valid
            // edge testing on rocks.
        }
        // Test collision: Bunny Head <-> Gold Coins
        for (GoldCoin goldcoin : level.goldcoins) {
            if (goldcoin.collected)
                continue;
            r2.set(goldcoin.position.x, goldcoin.position.y,
                    goldcoin.bounds.width, goldcoin.bounds.height);
            if (!r1.overlaps(r2))
                continue;
            onCollisionBunnyWithGoldCoin(goldcoin);
            break;
        }
        // Test collision: Bunny Head <-> Feathers
        for (Feather feather : level.feathers) {
            if (feather.collected)
                continue;
            r2.set(feather.position.x, feather.position.y,
                    feather.bounds.width, feather.bounds.height);
            if (!r1.overlaps(r2))
                continue;
            onCollisionBunnyWithFeather(feather);
            break;
        }
    }

    public WorldController(Game game) {
        this.game = game;
        Gdx.input.setInputProcessor(this);
        init();
    }

    private void handleDebugInput(float deltaTime) {
        if (Gdx.app.getType() != ApplicationType.Desktop)
            return;
        if (!cameraHelper.hasTarget(level.bunnyHead)) {
            // Camera Controls (move)
            float camMoveSpeed = 5 * deltaTime;
            float camMoveSpeedAccelerationFactor = 5;
            if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.SHIFT_LEFT))
                camMoveSpeed *= camMoveSpeedAccelerationFactor;
            if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.LEFT))
                moveCamera(-camMoveSpeed, 0);
            if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.RIGHT))
                moveCamera(camMoveSpeed, 0);
            if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.UP))
                moveCamera(0, camMoveSpeed);
            if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.DOWN))
                moveCamera(0, -camMoveSpeed);
            if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.BACKSPACE))
                cameraHelper.setPosition(0, 0);
        }
        // Camera Controls (zoom)
        float camZoomSpeed = 1 * deltaTime;
        float camZoomSpeedAccelerationFactor = 5;
        if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.SHIFT_LEFT))
            camZoomSpeed *= camZoomSpeedAccelerationFactor;
        if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.COMMA))
            cameraHelper.addZoom(camZoomSpeed);
        if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.PERIOD))
            cameraHelper.addZoom(-camZoomSpeed);
        if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.SLASH))
            cameraHelper.setZoom(1);
    }

    private void moveCamera(float x, float y) {
        x += cameraHelper.getPosition().x;
        y += cameraHelper.getPosition().y;
        cameraHelper.setPosition(x, y);
    }

    @Override
    public boolean keyUp(int keycode) {
        if (keycode == Keys.R) {
            init();
            Gdx.app.debug(TAG, "Game World Resetted!");
        }// Toggle camera follow
        else if (keycode == Keys.ENTER) {
            cameraHelper.setTarget(cameraHelper.hasTarget() ? null
                    : level.bunnyHead);
            Gdx.app.debug(TAG,
                    "Camera follow enabled: " + cameraHelper.hasTarget());
        }
        // Back to Menu
        else if (keycode == Keys.ESCAPE || keycode == Keys.BACK) {
            backToMenu();
        }
        return false;
    }

    private void handleInputGame(float deltaTime) {
        if (cameraHelper.hasTarget(level.bunnyHead)) {
            // Player Movement
            if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.LEFT)) {
                level.bunnyHead.velocity.x = -level.bunnyHead.terminalVelocity.x;
            } else if (Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.RIGHT)) {
                level.bunnyHead.velocity.x = level.bunnyHead.terminalVelocity.x;
            } else {
                // Execute auto-forward movement on non-desktop platform
                if (Gdx.app.getType() != ApplicationType.Desktop) {
                    level.bunnyHead.velocity.x = level.bunnyHead.terminalVelocity.x;
                }
            }
            // Bunny Jump
            if (Gdx.input.isTouched() || Gdx.input.isKeyPressed(Keys.SPACE))
                level.bunnyHead.setJumping(true);
        } else {
            level.bunnyHead.setJumping(false);
        }
    }

    private void init() {
        Gdx.input.setInputProcessor(this);
        cameraHelper = new CameraHelper();
        lives = Constants.LIVES_START;
        timeLeftGameOverDelay = 0;
        initLevel();
    }

    public void update(float deltaTime) {
        handleDebugInput(deltaTime);
        if (isGameOver()) {
            timeLeftGameOverDelay -= deltaTime;
            if (timeLeftGameOverDelay < 0)
                backToMenu();
        } else {
            handleInputGame(deltaTime);
        }
        level.update(deltaTime);
        testCollisions();
        cameraHelper.update(deltaTime);
        if (!isGameOver() && isPlayerInWater()) {
            lives--;
            if (isGameOver())
                timeLeftGameOverDelay = Constants.TIME_DELAY_GAME_OVER;
            else
                initLevel();
        }
    }

    private Pixmap createProceduralPixmap(int width, int height) {
        Pixmap pixmap = new Pixmap(width, height, Format.RGBA8888);
        // Fill square with red color at 50% opacity
        pixmap.setColor(1, 0, 0, 0.5f);
        pixmap.fill();
        // Draw a yellow-colored X shape on square
        pixmap.setColor(1, 1, 0, 1);
        pixmap.drawLine(0, 0, width, height);
        pixmap.drawLine(width, 0, 0, height);
        // Draw a cyan-colored border around square
        pixmap.setColor(0, 1, 1, 1);
        pixmap.drawRectangle(0, 0, width, height);
        return pixmap;
    }
}

现在,构思下开始菜单的样子,准备创建了。

 

接下来就是这个富有特色的MenuScreen的创建了。首先要准备图片和加载,和前文一样打包。然后使用一个JSON文件来定义Menu的皮肤。

比如我们起名叫:canyonbunnyui.json

{
com.badlogic.gdx.scenes.scene2d.ui.Button$ButtonStyle: {
play: { down: play-dn, up: play-up },
options: { down: options-dn, up: options-up }
},
com.badlogic.gdx.scenes.scene2d.ui.Image: {
background: { drawable: background },
logo: { drawable: logo },
info: { drawable: info },
coins: { drawable: coins },
bunny: { drawable: bunny },
},
}

增加常量到Constants:

    public static final String TEXTURE_ATLAS_UI = "images/canyonbunny-ui.pack";
    public static final String TEXTURE_ATLAS_LIBGDX_UI = "images/uiskin.atlas";
    // Location of description file for skins
    public static final String SKIN_LIBGDX_UI = "images/uiskin.json";
    public static final String SKIN_CANYONBUNNY_UI = "images/canyonbunny-ui.json";

Libgdx构建Scene2D (UI),使用的特性就是TableLayout和skins。

Libgdx附带了一个很牛叉的工具组来让开发者很容易创建场景. 场景的层次组织结构很像硬盘上文件夹文件的结构.在Libgdx里,这些对象被称为演员Actor. 
演员可以相互嵌套来组成演员组. 演员组是一个非常有用的特性, 因为任何对父Actor的改动,都会应用到他的子Actor. 此外, 每个演员都有自己的坐标系, 这就使得定义演员组里的成员的相对偏移量变得很容易(无论是位置,旋转角度还是缩放).
Scene2D支持已经旋转或者缩放的Actor的碰撞检测. Libgdx灵活的事件系统允许按需处理和分发输入事件以便父Actor可以在输入事件到达子Actor之前拦截它. 最后, 内置的action系统可以很容易用来操纵actors,
也可以通过执行动作序列来完成复杂的效果,平移, 或者是两者组合. 所有这些描述的功能都封装在Stage类, 它包含层次结构和分发用户的事件. 在任何时候,Actor都能够加入它或者从它移除. 
Stage类和Actor类都包含act()方法,这个方法得到一个时间作为参数然后执行基于时间的动作。调用Stage的act()将会引起整个场景的act()调用。
Stage和Actor的act()方法其实基本上和我们所知道的update()方法一样,只是用了一个不同的名字. 更多关于Scene2D, 参考官方文档https://code.google.com/p/libgdx/wiki/scene2d/.
到目前为止, 在我们的游戏中我们没有使用任何的Scene2D的这些特性, 虽然我们都已经用Scene2D的对象实现了游戏的场景。记住,使用场景有一定的开销. Libgdx试图全力保持开销在最低的程度,比如: 如果对象不需要旋转和缩放就跳过复杂的转换矩阵的计算. 所以, 这取决于你的需求.
我们要创建的菜单很复杂,我们直接用libgdx已经支持的 Scene2D UI来做. 如果有特殊需要,我们还可以继承这些UI,实现它们的接口,以增强它们的功能. 
在Libgdx中, 这些UI元素都叫做组件widgets.
下面是所有在当前Scene2D UI有效的widget简表:
Button, CheckBox, Dialog, Image, ImageButton, Label, List, ScrollPane,SelectBox, Slider, SplitPane, Stack, Window, TextButton, TextField,Touchpad 和 Tree.
Scene2D UI 也支持简单的创建新的自定义的widgets种类. 
我们将只涉及我们的菜单中将要用到的一些widget.
完整描述每一个widget的列表,请参考官方文档https://code.google.com/p/libgdx/wiki/scene2dui/.
除了Scene2D UI, Libgdx还集成了一个单独的项目--TableLayout.
TableLayout使用Tables很容易创建和维护动态的(或者叫与分辨率无关的)布局,也提供了很直观的API. Table提供了访问TableLayout的功能, 同时Table也实现了作为widget的功能, 因此Table可以完全无缝集成到Scene2D的UI中.
强烈推荐去看官方文档https://code.google.com/p/table-layout/.
Scene2D UI另一个重要的特征就是支持皮肤skins. 
皮肤是资源的集合,包括样式和UI组件. 资源可以是texture regions(纹理区域), fonts(字体)和 colors(颜色). 通常来讲, 皮肤使用的纹理区域,来自一个纹理集. 每个部件的样式定义使用JSON文件存储在一个单独的文件中.

我们现在来实际的实现Menu屏,首先来看一下层级关系:

场景图从一个空的Stage开始. 然后,第一个添加到stage的子actor是一个Stack. Stack允许你添加可以相互覆盖的actor. 我们将利用这一特性创建多个层. 每一层都使用一个Table作为父actor.

使用堆叠起来的table可以使我们能够很容易和很逻辑性的布局actor.

我们一步步来,先实现这个多层堆叠起来的结构(MenuScreen):

    private Stage stage;
    private Skin skinCanyonBunny;
    // menu
    private Image imgBackground;
    private Image imgLogo;
    private Image imgInfo;
    private Image imgCoins;
    private Image imgBunny;
    private Button btnMenuPlay;
    private Button btnMenuOptions;
    // options
    private Window winOptions;
    private TextButton btnWinOptSave;
    private TextButton btnWinOptCancel;
    private CheckBox chkSound;
    private Slider sldSound;
    private CheckBox chkMusic;
    private Slider sldMusic;
    private SelectBox selCharSkin;
    private Image imgCharSkin;
    private CheckBox chkShowFpsCounter;
    // debug
    private final float DEBUG_REBUILD_INTERVAL = 5.0f;
    private boolean debugEnabled = false;
    private float debugRebuildStage;

    private void rebuildStage() {
        skinCanyonBunny = new Skin(
                Gdx.files.internal(Constants.SKIN_CANYONBUNNY_UI),
                new TextureAtlas(Constants.TEXTURE_ATLAS_UI));
        // build all layers
        Table layerBackground = buildBackgroundLayer();
        Table layerObjects = buildObjectsLayer();
        Table layerLogos = buildLogosLayer();
        Table layerControls = buildControlsLayer();
        Table layerOptionsWindow = buildOptionsWindowLayer();
        // assemble stage for menu screen
        stage.clear();
        Stack stack = new Stack();
        stage.addActor(stack);
        stack.setSize(Constants.VIEWPORT_GUI_WIDTH,
                Constants.VIEWPORT_GUI_HEIGHT);
        stack.add(layerBackground);
        stack.add(layerObjects);
        stack.add(layerLogos);
        stack.add(layerControls);
        stage.addActor(layerOptionsWindow);
    }

    private Table buildBackgroundLayer() {
        Table layer = new Table();
        return layer;
    }

    private Table buildObjectsLayer() {
        Table layer = new Table();
        return layer;
    }

    private Table buildLogosLayer() {
        Table layer = new Table();
        return layer;
    }

    private Table buildControlsLayer() {
        Table layer = new Table();
        return layer;
    }

    private Table buildOptionsWindowLayer() {
        Table layer = new Table();
        return layer;
    }

那么,核心的问题是,怎么让这一套理论来实现的东东能够适应各种屏幕size呢?修改下面代码

    @Override
    public void resize(int width, int height) {
        stage.setViewport(Constants.VIEWPORT_GUI_WIDTH,
                Constants.VIEWPORT_GUI_HEIGHT, false);
    }

    @Override
    public void hide() {
        stage.dispose();
        skinCanyonBunny.dispose();
    }

    @Override
    public void show() {
        stage = new Stage();
        Gdx.input.setInputProcessor(stage);
        rebuildStage();
    }

给menu加上debug的代码:

    @Override
    public void render(float deltaTime) {
        Gdx.gl.glClearColor(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
        Gdx.gl.glClear(GL10.GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
        if (debugEnabled) {
            debugRebuildStage -= deltaTime;
            if (debugRebuildStage <= 0) {
                debugRebuildStage = DEBUG_REBUILD_INTERVAL;
                rebuildStage();
            }
        }
        stage.act(deltaTime);
        stage.draw();
        //Table.drawDebug(stage);新版中是stage.setDebug
    }

不要小看这里的debug代码,在开启debug的情况下它会在你设定的间隔时间就rebuild我们的stage,也就是说你可以在运行的时候做更新。(JVM的代码热交换特性)

比如你正在调整某个menu的位置,直接改配置文件,不用重启就可以看效果,这将节省大量的时间。

接下来,一一实现每一层具体的功能。

首先是背景层,加上背景图片:

private Table buildBackgroundLayer() {
        Table layer = new Table();
        // + Background
        imgBackground = new Image(skinCanyonBunny, "background");
        layer.add(imgBackground);
        return layer;
    }

然后是Object层:

private Table buildObjectsLayer() {
        Table layer = new Table();
        // + Coins
        imgCoins = new Image(skinCanyonBunny, "coins");
        layer.addActor(imgCoins);
        imgCoins.setPosition(135, 80);
        // + Bunny
        imgBunny = new Image(skinCanyonBunny, "bunny");
        layer.addActor(imgBunny);
        imgBunny.setPosition(355, 40);
        return layer;
    }

接着是logo层:

private Table buildLogosLayer() {
        Table layer = new Table();
        layer.left().top();
        // + Game Logo
        imgLogo = new Image(skinCanyonBunny, "logo");
        layer.add(imgLogo);
        layer.row().expandY();
        // + Info Logos
        imgInfo = new Image(skinCanyonBunny, "info");
        layer.add(imgInfo).bottom();
        if (debugEnabled)
            layer.debug();
        return layer;
    }

接着是控制层:按钮或者菜单层

private Table buildControlsLayer() {
        Table layer = new Table();
        layer.right().bottom();
        // + Play Button
        btnMenuPlay = new Button(skinCanyonBunny, "play");
        layer.add(btnMenuPlay);
        btnMenuPlay.addListener(new ChangeListener() {
            @Override
            public void changed(ChangeEvent event, Actor actor) {
                onPlayClicked();
            }
        });
        layer.row();
        // + Options Button
        btnMenuOptions = new Button(skinCanyonBunny, "options");
        layer.add(btnMenuOptions);
        btnMenuOptions.addListener(new ChangeListener() {
            @Override
            public void changed(ChangeEvent event, Actor actor) {
                onOptionsClicked();
            }
        });
        if (debugEnabled)
            layer.debug();
        return layer;
    }

    private void onPlayClicked() {
        game.setScreen(new GameScreen(game));
    }

    private void onOptionsClicked() {
    }

添加选项层:

这个option使用的素材是Libgdx默认的素材:

• uiskin.png
• uiskin.atlas
• uiskin.json
• default.fnt

为了保存玩家选择的结果,我们新建一个GamePreferences的类来保存用户数据:

package com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.util;

import com.badlogic.gdx.Gdx;
import com.badlogic.gdx.Preferences;
import com.badlogic.gdx.math.MathUtils;

public class GamePreferences {
    public static final String TAG = GamePreferences.class.getName();
    public static final GamePreferences instance = new GamePreferences();
    public boolean sound;
    public boolean music;
    public float volSound;
    public float volMusic;
    public int charSkin;
    public boolean showFpsCounter;
    private Preferences prefs;

    // singleton: prevent instantiation from other classes
    private GamePreferences() {
        prefs = Gdx.app.getPreferences(Constants.PREFERENCES);
    }

    public void load() {
        sound = prefs.getBoolean("sound", true);
        music = prefs.getBoolean("music", true);
        volSound = MathUtils
                .clamp(prefs.getFloat("volSound", 0.5f), 0.0f, 1.0f);
        volMusic = MathUtils
                .clamp(prefs.getFloat("volMusic", 0.5f), 0.0f, 1.0f);
        charSkin = MathUtils.clamp(prefs.getInteger("charSkin", 0), 0, 2);
        showFpsCounter = prefs.getBoolean("showFpsCounter", false);
    }

    public void save() {
        prefs.putBoolean("sound", sound);
        prefs.putBoolean("music", music);
        prefs.putFloat("volSound", volSound);
        prefs.putFloat("volMusic", volMusic);
        prefs.putInteger("charSkin", charSkin);
        prefs.putBoolean("showFpsCounter", showFpsCounter);
        prefs.flush();
    }
}

很眼熟吧,不错,跟cocos里的userdata一样,都是用xml文件在存储。

创建一个可选择项的皮肤类CharacterSkin,让兔子头可以换肤:

package com.packtpub.libgdx.canyonbunny.util;

import com.badlogic.gdx.graphics.Color;

public enum CharacterSkin {
    WHITE("White", 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f), GRAY("Gray", 0.7f, 0.7f, 0.7f), BROWN(
            "Brown", 0.7f, 0.5f, 0.3f);
    private String name;
    private Color color = new Color();

    private CharacterSkin(String name, float r, float g, float b) {
        this.name = name;
        color.set(r, g, b, 1.0f);
    }

    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return name;
    }

    public Color getColor() {
        return color;
    }
}

给menu屏加上option层的代码:

     private Skin skinLibgdx;
    private void loadSettings() {
        GamePreferences prefs = GamePreferences.instance;
        prefs.load();
        chkSound.setChecked(prefs.sound);
        sldSound.setValue(prefs.volSound);
        chkMusic.setChecked(prefs.music);
        sldMusic.setValue(prefs.volMusic);
        selCharSkin.setSelection(prefs.charSkin);
        onCharSkinSelected(prefs.charSkin);
        chkShowFpsCounter.setChecked(prefs.showFpsCounter);
    }

    private void saveSettings() {
        GamePreferences prefs = GamePreferences.instance;
        prefs.sound = chkSound.isChecked();
        prefs.volSound = sldSound.getValue();
        prefs.music = chkMusic.isChecked();
        prefs.volMusic = sldMusic.getValue();
        prefs.charSkin = selCharSkin.getSelectionIndex();
        prefs.showFpsCounter = chkShowFpsCounter.isChecked();
        prefs.save();
    }

    private void onCharSkinSelected(int index) {
        CharacterSkin skin = CharacterSkin.values()[index];
        imgCharSkin.setColor(skin.getColor());
    }

    private void onSaveClicked() {
        saveSettings();
        onCancelClicked();
    }

    private void onCancelClicked() {
        btnMenuPlay.setVisible(true);
        btnMenuOptions.setVisible(true);
        winOptions.setVisible(false);
    }

在rebuildStage中加上:

skinLibgdx = new Skin(
Gdx.files.internal(Constants.SKIN_LIBGDX_UI),
new TextureAtlas(Constants.TEXTURE_ATLAS_LIBGDX_UI));

hide中加上:

skinLibgdx.dispose();

最后,来完成buildOptionWindowLayer():

private Table buildOptionsWindowLayer() {
        winOptions = new Window("Options", skinLibgdx);
        // + Audio Settings: Sound/Music CheckBox and Volume Slider
        winOptions.add(buildOptWinAudioSettings()).row();
        // + Character Skin: Selection Box (White, Gray, Brown)
        winOptions.add(buildOptWinSkinSelection()).row();
        // + Debug: Show FPS Counter
        winOptions.add(buildOptWinDebug()).row();
        // + Separator and Buttons (Save, Cancel)
        winOptions.add(buildOptWinButtons()).pad(10, 0, 10, 0);
        // Make options window slightly transparent
        winOptions.setColor(1, 1, 1, 0.8f);
        // Hide options window by default
        winOptions.setVisible(false);
        if (debugEnabled)
            winOptions.debug();
        // Let TableLayout recalculate widget sizes and positions
        winOptions.pack();
        // Move options window to bottom right corner
        winOptions.setPosition(
                Constants.VIEWPORT_GUI_WIDTH - winOptions.getWidth() - 50, 50);
        return winOptions;
    }
    
    private Table buildOptWinAudioSettings() {
        Table tbl = new Table();
        // + Title: "Audio"
        tbl.pad(10, 10, 0, 10);
        tbl.add(new Label("Audio", skinLibgdx, "default-font", Color.ORANGE))
                .colspan(3);
        tbl.row();
        tbl.columnDefaults(0).padRight(10);
        tbl.columnDefaults(1).padRight(10);
        // + Checkbox, "Sound" label, sound volume slider
        chkSound = new CheckBox("", skinLibgdx);
        tbl.add(chkSound);
        tbl.add(new Label("Sound", skinLibgdx));
        sldSound = new Slider(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.1f, false, skinLibgdx);
        tbl.add(sldSound);
        tbl.row();
        // + Checkbox, "Music" label, music volume slider
        chkMusic = new CheckBox("", skinLibgdx);
        tbl.add(chkMusic);
        tbl.add(new Label("Music", skinLibgdx));
        sldMusic = new Slider(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.1f, false, skinLibgdx);
        tbl.add(sldMusic);
        tbl.row();
        return tbl;
    }

    private Table buildOptWinSkinSelection() {
        Table tbl = new Table();
        // + Title: "Character Skin"
        tbl.pad(10, 10, 0, 10);
        tbl.add(new Label("Character Skin", skinLibgdx, "default-font",
                Color.ORANGE)).colspan(2);
        tbl.row();
        // + Drop down box filled with skin items
        selCharSkin = new SelectBox(CharacterSkin.values(), skinLibgdx);
        selCharSkin.addListener(new ChangeListener() {
            @Override
            public void changed(ChangeEvent event, Actor actor) {
                onCharSkinSelected(((SelectBox) actor).getSelectionIndex());
            }
        });
        tbl.add(selCharSkin).width(120).padRight(20);
        // + Skin preview image
        imgCharSkin = new Image(Assets.instance.bunny.head);
        tbl.add(imgCharSkin).width(50).height(50);
        return tbl;
    }

    private Table buildOptWinDebug() {
        Table tbl = new Table();
        // + Title: "Debug"
        tbl.pad(10, 10, 0, 10);
        tbl.add(new Label("Debug", skinLibgdx, "default-font", Color.RED))
                .colspan(3);
        tbl.row();
        tbl.columnDefaults(0).padRight(10);
        tbl.columnDefaults(1).padRight(10);
        // + Checkbox, "Show FPS Counter" label
        chkShowFpsCounter = new CheckBox("", skinLibgdx);
        tbl.add(new Label("Show FPS Counter", skinLibgdx));
        tbl.add(chkShowFpsCounter);
        tbl.row();
        return tbl;
    }

    private Table buildOptWinButtons() {
        Table tbl = new Table();
        // + Separator
        Label lbl = null;
        lbl = new Label("", skinLibgdx);
        lbl.setColor(0.75f, 0.75f, 0.75f, 1);
        lbl.setStyle(new LabelStyle(lbl.getStyle()));
        lbl.getStyle().background = skinLibgdx.newDrawable("white");
        tbl.add(lbl).colspan(2).height(1).width(220).pad(0, 0, 0, 1);
        tbl.row();
        lbl = new Label("", skinLibgdx);
        lbl.setColor(0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 1);
        lbl.setStyle(new LabelStyle(lbl.getStyle()));
        lbl.getStyle().background = skinLibgdx.newDrawable("white");
        tbl.add(lbl).colspan(2).height(1).width(220).pad(0, 1, 5, 0);
        tbl.row();
        // + Save Button with event handler
        btnWinOptSave = new TextButton("Save", skinLibgdx);
        tbl.add(btnWinOptSave).padRight(30);
        btnWinOptSave.addListener(new ChangeListener() {
            @Override
            public void changed(ChangeEvent event, Actor actor) {
                onSaveClicked();
            }
        });
        // + Cancel Button with event handler
        btnWinOptCancel = new TextButton("Cancel", skinLibgdx);
        tbl.add(btnWinOptCancel);
        btnWinOptCancel.addListener(new ChangeListener() {
            @Override
            public void changed(ChangeEvent event, Actor actor) {
                onCancelClicked();
            }
        });
        return tbl;
    }

补上onOptionClicked:

private void onOptionsClicked() {
        loadSettings();
        btnMenuPlay.setVisible(false);
        btnMenuOptions.setVisible(false);
        winOptions.setVisible(true);
    }

要使用这些用户设置,需要在show里添加:GamePreferences.instance.load();

在兔子头的类的render中添加:

// Apply Skin Color
batch.setColor(
CharacterSkin.values()[GamePreferences.instance.charSkin]
.getColor());

然后在worldrender里的renderGui加上控制fps的设置:

if (GamePreferences.instance.showFpsCounter)
renderGuiFpsCounter(batch);

游戏的基本功能到此完成。

在下一章我们将涉及更多的东西以便让游戏更有趣


PS:欢迎各路游戏爱好者入群426950359


 

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