循环神经网络系列(二)Tensorflow中dynamic_rnn

1、循环神经网络的模型

一般进行如下操作:

在这里插入图片描述

输入h_{0},x_{0}得到output_{1},h_{1};然后输入h_{1},x_{2}得到output_{2},h_{2};然后输入h_{2},x_{3}得到output_{3},h_{3},以此类推;那么如何通过Tensorflow一步实现呢?

2. dynamic_rnn

为了实现一步计算多次,我们就要用到Tensorflow中的dynamic_rnn(),代码如下(实现了上图列出的三步):

import tensorflow as tf
import numpy as np
from tensorflow.python.ops import variable_scope as vs

output_size = 5
batch_size = 4
time_step = 3
dim = 3
cell = tf.nn.rnn_cell.BasicRNNCell(num_units=output_size)
inputs = tf.placeholder(dtype=tf.float32, shape=[time_step, batch_size, dim])
h0 = cell.zero_state(batch_size=batch_size, dtype=tf.float32)
X = np.array([[[1, 2, 1], [2, 0, 0], [2, 1, 0], [1, 1, 0]],  # x1
              [[1, 2, 1], [2, 0, 0], [2, 1, 0], [1, 1, 0]],  # x2
              [[1, 2, 1], [2, 0, 0], [2, 1, 0], [1, 1, 0]]])  # x3
outputs, final_state = tf.nn.dynamic_rnn(cell, inputs, initial_state=h0, time_major=True)

sess = tf.Session()
sess.run(tf.global_variables_initializer())
a, b = sess.run([outputs, final_state], feed_dict={inputs:X})
print(a)
print(b)

其中第7行time_step=3就表示计算三步,所以输入X就对应有三个部分。再最终的输出结果中,outputs里包含了(outputs1,outputs2,outputs3),而final_stat就只是h3,并且outputs3,h3 是相等的。

outputs:
[[[ 0.9427065  -0.92617476 -0.79179853  0.6308035   0.07298201]
  [ 0.7051633  -0.62077284 -0.79618317  0.5004738  -0.20110159]
  [ 0.85066974 -0.77197933 -0.76875883  0.80251306 -0.04951192]
  [ 0.67497337 -0.57974416 -0.4408107   0.68083197  0.05233984]]# output1

 [[ 0.9828192  -0.9433205  -0.9233751   0.72930676 -0.34445292]
  [ 0.92153275 -0.58029604 -0.8949743   0.5431045  -0.46945637]
  [ 0.9690989  -0.7922626  -0.8973758   0.81312704 -0.46288016]
  [ 0.88565385 -0.6617377  -0.68075943  0.70066273 -0.34827012]]# output2

 [[ 0.99172366 -0.93298715 -0.9272905   0.7158564  -0.46278387]
  [ 0.9566409  -0.5595625  -0.9101479   0.58005375 -0.5905321 ]
  [ 0.9838727  -0.7693646  -0.91019756  0.82892674 -0.58026373]
  [ 0.9438508  -0.61732507 -0.7356022   0.73460865 -0.483655  ]]]# output3
final_state:
[[ 0.99172366 -0.93298715 -0.9272905   0.7158564  -0.46278387]
 [ 0.9566409  -0.5595625  -0.9101479   0.58005375 -0.5905321 ]
 [ 0.9838727  -0.7693646  -0.91019756  0.82892674 -0.58026373]
 [ 0.9438508  -0.61732507 -0.7356022   0.73460865 -0.483655  ]]# final_satae

3.总结

当使用dynamic_rnn时,对于输入数据的格式有两种:

第一种:输入格式为[batch_size,time_steps,input_size],此时得到的输出output的形状为[batch_size,time_steps,output_size],final_state的形状为[batch_size,state_size]

第二种:也就是我们上面用到的,此时的输入格式为[time_steps,batch_size,input_size],得到的输出output的形状为[time_steps,batch_size,output_size],final_state的形状仍然为[batch_size,state_size],但此时要指定time_major = True

对比这两种输入方式,第二种最大的优点就是输出的结果形式方便我们观察。

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