发信人: kingchurch (老人与海~沙漠海), 信区: Programming
标 题: [范文][DeviceDriver]Windows NT 驱动程序类型 (转载)
发信站: BBS 水木清华站 (Sun Apr 26 14:39:29 1998)
【 以下文字转载自 New_board 讨论区 】
【 原文由 linZh 所发表 】
Kinds of Drivers in Windows NT
Within the Windows NT operating system,
there are two basic kinds of drivers:
User-mode drivers, such as Win32 multimedia
drivers, VDDs for MS-DOS?nbsp;applications with application
-dedicated devices, or another protected subsystem's
drivers. User-mode drivers are subsystem-specific.
Kernel-mode drivers for logical, virtual, or
physical devices. These are called NT drivers, because
they are part of the Windows NT executive: the underlying,
"new technology" microkernel-based operating system that
supports one or more protected subsystems.
NT includes a number of kernel-mode components with
well defined functionality isolated in each component. Those
of most interest to NT device driver writers are the Kernel,
I/O Manager, Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL), Configuration
Manager, Memory Manager, Executive Support, and Process
Structure components. Additional components of interest to
some NT driver writers include the Object Manager and Security
Reference Monitor. Also of interest to NT file system driver
writers is the Cache Manager.
Like NT itself, NT drivers are implemented as discrete,
modular components with a well defined set of required function-
ality. All NT drivers have a set of system-defined standard driver
routines and some number of internal routines as determined by
the driver writer.
There are three basic types of NT drivers. Each type has
a slightly different structure and quite different functionality:
Device drivers, such as a keyboard or disk driver that
directly controls a physical device. Device drivers are sometimes
called lowest-level drivers, particularly when such a driver is
the lowest driver in a chain of layered NT drivers.
Intermediate drivers, such as a virtual disk, mirror, or
device-type-specific class driver, that depend on support from
underlying device drivers
File system drivers (FSDs), such as the system-supplied FAT,
HPFS, NTFS, or CDFS drivers, that also depend on support from
underlying lower-level drivers. While a particular NT file system
driver might or might not get support from one or more intermediate
drivers, every NT file system driver ultimately depends on support
from one or more device drivers.
Windows NT network drivers also can be classified as one of
these types of drivers. For example, an NT server or redirector is
a specialized file system driver, a transport driver is a type of
intermediate NT driver, and a physical netcard (sometimes called a
media access controller) driver is an NT device driver. However,
NT provides specialized interfaces and support for network drivers,
such as NDIS 3.0 (Network Device Interface Specification, Version 3.0)
for drivers of physical net cards.