深入理解代理模式:静态代理与JDK动态代理

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摘要:
  
  代理模式为其他对象提供了一种代理以控制对这个对象的访问,具体实现包括两大类:静态代理和动态代理。Java动态代理机制的出现使得Java开发人员只需要简单地指定一组接口及委托类对象便能动态地获得代理类,并且其所生成的代理类在将所有的方法调用分派到委托对象上反射执行的同时,还可以对方法进行增强,这也正是Spring AOP的实现基础。通过阅读本文,读者将会对代理模式和Java动态代理机制有更加深入的理解。


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本文原创作者:书呆子Rico
作者博客地址:http://blog.csdn.net/justloveyou_/


一. 代理模式

1、简介

  代理模式是一种常用的设计模式,在AOP、RPC等诸多框架中均有它的身影。根据代理类的创建时机和创建方式的不同,可以将其分为静态代理和动态代理两种形式:在程序运行前就已经存在的编译好的代理类是为静态代理,在程序运行期间根据需要动态创建代理类及其实例来完成具体的功能是为动态代理。代理模式的目的就是为真实业务对象提供一个代理对象以控制对真实业务对象的访问,代理对象的作用有:

  • 代理对象存在的价值主要用于拦截对真实业务对象的访问;

  • 代理对象具有和目标对象(真实业务对象)实现共同的接口或继承于同一个类;

  • 代理对象是对目标对象的增强,以便对消息进行预处理和后处理。


2、定义与结构

  定义:为其他对象提供一种代理以控制对这个对象的访问。

                这里写图片描述

  代理模式主要包含三个角色,即抽象主题角色(Subject)、委托类角色(被代理角色,Proxied)以及代理类角色(Proxy),如上图所示:

  • 抽象主题角色:可以是接口,也可以是抽象类;
  • 委托类角色:真实主题角色,业务逻辑的具体执行者;
  • 代理类角色:内部含有对真实对象RealSubject的引用,负责对真实主题角色的调用,并在真实主题角色处理前后做预处理和后处理。

3、静态代理实现

  静态代理是代理模式的实现方式之一,是相对于动态代理而言的。所谓静态代理是指,在程序运行前,由程序员创建或特定工具自动生成源代码并对其编译生成.class文件。静态代理的实现只需要三步:首先,定义业务接口;其次,实现业务接口;然后,定义代理类并实现业务接口;最后便可通过客户端进行调用。例如,

  • 抽象主题角色:HelloService 接口
public interface HelloService {

    String hello(String name);

    String hi(String msg);
}
  • 委托类角色: HelloServiceImpl类
public class HelloServiceImpl implements HelloService{
    @Override
    public String hello(String name) {
        return "Hello " + name;
    }

    @Override
    public String hi(String msg) {
        return "Hi, " + msg;
    }
}
  • 代理类角色: HelloServiceProxy类
public class HelloServiceProxy implements HelloService {

    private HelloService helloService;

    public HelloServiceProxy(HelloService helloService) {
        this.helloService = helloService;
    }

    @Override
    public String hello(String name) {
        System.out.println("预处理...");
        String result = helloService.hello(name);
        System.out.println(result);
        System.out.println("后处理...");
        return result;
    }

    @Override
    public String hi(String msg) {
        System.out.println("预处理...");
        String result = helloService.hi(msg);
        System.out.println(result);
        System.out.println("后处理...");
        return result;
    }
}
  • 客户端:
public class Main {
    public static void main(String[] args){
        HelloService helloService = new HelloServiceImpl();
        HelloServiceProxy helloServiceProxy = new HelloServiceProxy(helloService);
        helloServiceProxy.hello("Panda");
        helloServiceProxy.hi("Panda");
    }
}/** Output
 预处理...
Hello Panda
后处理...
预处理...
Hi, Panda
后处理...
**/

4、代理模式与软件设计原则

  代理类不仅是一个隔离客户端和委托类的中介,还可以通过代理类在不修改原有代码的前提下增加一些新功能,是开闭原则(Open for Extension, Closed for Modification)最典型的实践。

  代理类可以为委托类预处理消息、过滤消息、把消息转发给委托类以及事后处理消息等。代理类与委托类之间通常会存在关联关系,一个代理类的对象与一个委托类的对象关联,代理类对象本身并不真正实现服务,而是通过调用委托类的对象的相关方法来提供特定的服务。

  也就是说,真正的业务功能还是由委托类来实现,但是在实现业务功能前后可以增加一些公共逻辑,用于增强业务功能。例如,在项目前期开发中我们没有加入缓存、日志等这些功能,后期若想加入,我们就可以使用代理来实现,而且不必对原有代码进行改动。因此,代理模式是对开闭原则的典型实践,也是AOP理念的实现基础。


二.JDK 动态代理

1、动态代理引入

  对代理模式而言,一般来说,具体主题类与其代理类是一一对应的,这也是静态代理的特点。但是,也存在这样的情况:有N个主题类,但是代理类中的“预处理、后处理”都是相同的,仅仅是调用主题不同。那么,若采用静态代理,那么必然需要手动创建N个代理类,这显然让人相当不爽。动态代理则可以简单地为各个主题类分别生成代理类,共享“预处理,后处理”功能,这样可以大大减小程序规模,这也是动态代理的一大亮点。

  在动态代理中,代理类是在运行时期生成的。因此,相比静态代理,动态代理可以很方便地对委托类的相关方法进行统一增强处理,如添加方法调用次数、添加日志功能等等。动态代理主要分为JDK动态代理和cglib动态代理两大类,本文主要对JDK动态代理进行探讨。


2、JDK动态代理机制的相关类/接口

  要想使用JDK动态代理,首先需要了解其相关的类或接口:

  • java.lang.reflect.Proxy:该类用于动态生成代理类,只需传入目标接口、目标接口的类加载器以及InvocationHandler便可为目标接口生成代理类及代理对象。
// 方法 1: 该方法用于获取指定代理对象所关联的InvocationHandler
static InvocationHandler getInvocationHandler(Object proxy) 

// 方法 2:该方法用于获取关联于指定类装载器和一组接口的动态代理类的类对象
static Class getProxyClass(ClassLoader loader, Class[] interfaces) 

// 方法 3:该方法用于判断指定类是否是一个动态代理类
static boolean isProxyClass(Class cl) 

// 方法 4:该方法用于为指定类装载器、一组接口及调用处理器生成动态代理类实例
static Object newProxyInstance(ClassLoader loader, Class[] interfaces, 
    InvocationHandler h)

  • java.lang.reflect.InvocationHandler:该接口包含一个invoke方法,通过该方法实现对委托类的代理的访问,是代理类完整逻辑的集中体现,包括要切入的增强逻辑和进行反射执行的真实业务逻辑。
// 该方法代理类完整逻辑的集中体现。第一个参数既是代理类实例,第二个参数是被调用的方法对象,
// 第三个方法是调用参数。通常通过反射完成对具体角色业务逻辑的调用,并对其进行增强。
Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args)
  • java.lang.ClassLoader:类加载器类,负责将类的字节码装载到Java虚拟机中并为其定义类对象,然后该类才能被使用。Proxy静态方法生成动态代理类同样需要通过类加载器来进行加载才能使用,它与普通类的唯一区别就是其字节码是由JVM在运行时动态生成的而非预存在于任何一个.class 文件中。

3、JDK动态代理使用步骤

  JDK动态代理的一般步骤如下:

  • 创建被代理的接口和类;

  • 实现InvocationHandler接口,对目标接口中声明的所有方法进行统一处理;

  • 调用Proxy的静态方法,创建代理类并生成相应的代理对象;

  • 使用代理。


(1).创建被代理的接口和类

// 抽象主题角色
public interface HelloService {

    String hello(String name);

    String hi(String msg);
}

// 具体(真实)主题角色
public class HelloServiceImpl implements HelloService{
    @Override
    public String hello(String name) {
        return "Hello " + name;
    }

    @Override
    public String hi(String msg) {
        return "Hi, " + msg;
    }
}

(2).实现InvocationHandler接口

public class MyInvocationHandler implements InvocationHandler{

    // 真实业务对象
    private Object target;

    public MyInvocationHandler(Object target){
        this.target = target;
    }

    /**
     * Processes a method invocation on a proxy instance and returns
     * the result.  This method will be invoked on an invocation handler
     * when a method is invoked on a proxy instance that it is
     * associated with.
     *
     * @param proxy  the proxy instance that the method was invoked on
     * @param method the {@code Method} instance corresponding to
     *               the interface method invoked on the proxy instance.  The declaring
     *               class of the {@code Method} object will be the interface that
     *               the method was declared in, which may be a superinterface of the
     *               proxy interface that the proxy class inherits the method through.
     * @param args   an array of objects containing the values of the
     *               arguments passed in the method invocation on the proxy instance,
     *               or {@code null} if interface method takes no arguments.
     *               Arguments of primitive types are wrapped in instances of the
     *               appropriate primitive wrapper class, such as
     *               {@code java.lang.Integer} or {@code java.lang.Boolean}.
     * @return the value to return from the method invocation on the
     * proxy instance.  If the declared return type of the interface
     * method is a primitive type, then the value returned by
     * this method must be an instance of the corresponding primitive
     * wrapper class; otherwise, it must be a type assignable to the
     * declared return type.  If the value returned by this method is
     * {@code null} and the interface method's return type is
     * primitive, then a {@code NullPointerException} will be
     * thrown by the method invocation on the proxy instance.  If the
     * value returned by this method is otherwise not compatible with
     * the interface method's declared return type as described above,
     * a {@code ClassCastException} will be thrown by the method
     * invocation on the proxy instance.
     * @throws Throwable the exception to throw from the method
     * invocation on the proxy instance.  The exception's type must be
     * assignable either to any of the exception types declared in the
     * {@code throws} clause of the interface method or to the
     * unchecked exception types {@code java.lang.RuntimeException}
     * or {@code java.lang.Error}.  If a checked exception is
     * thrown by this method that is not assignable to any of the
     * exception types declared in the {@code throws} clause of
     * the interface method, then an
     * {@link UndeclaredThrowableException} containing the
     * exception that was thrown by this method will be thrown by the
     * method invocation on the proxy instance.
     * @see UndeclaredThrowableException
     */
    @Override
    public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) throws Throwable {
        // 增强逻辑
        System.out.println("PROXY : " + proxy.getClass().getName());

        // 反射调用,目标方法
        Object result = method.invoke(target, args);

        // 增强逻辑
        System.out.println(method.getName() + " : " + result);

        return result;
    }
}

(3). 创建代理类并生成相应的代理对象

// 生成代理类的class对象
Class<?> clazz = Proxy.getProxyClass(helloService.getClass().getClassLoader(), helloService
            .getClass().getInterfaces());
// 创建InvocationHandler
InvocationHandler myInvocationHandler = new MyInvocationHandler(helloService);
// 获取代理类的构造器对象
Constructor constructor = clazz.getConstructor(new Class[] {InvocationHandler.class});
// 反射创建代理对象
HelloService proxy = (HelloService)constructor.newInstance(myInvocationHandler);

也可以一步到位,

HelloService proxy = (HelloService)Proxy.newProxyInstance(HelloService.class.getClassLoader(),
helloService.getClass().getInterfaces(), new MyInvocationHandler(helloService));

(4).使用代理

proxy.hello("rico");
proxy.hi("panda");

/** Output
PROXY : com.sun.proxy.$Proxy0
hello : Hello rico
PROXY : com.sun.proxy.$Proxy0
hi : Hi, panda
**/

三.JDK动态代理原理与源码

  代理类与代理对象的生成是由Proxy的newProxyInstance()方法来完成的。因此,我们先来看一下newProxyInstance()的实现:

/**
     * Returns an instance of a proxy class for the specified interfaces
     * that dispatches method invocations to the specified invocation
     * handler.
     *
     * <p>{@code Proxy.newProxyInstance} throws
     * {@code IllegalArgumentException} for the same reasons that
     * {@code Proxy.getProxyClass} does.
     *
     * @param   loader the class loader to define the proxy class
     * @param   interfaces the list of interfaces for the proxy class
     *          to implement
     * @param   h the invocation handler to dispatch method invocations to
     * @return  a proxy instance with the specified invocation handler of a
     *          proxy class that is defined by the specified class loader
     *          and that implements the specified interfaces
     * @throws  IllegalArgumentException if any of the restrictions on the
     *          parameters that may be passed to {@code getProxyClass}
     *          are violated
     * @throws  SecurityException if a security manager, <em>s</em>, is present
     *          and any of the following conditions is met:
     *          <ul>
     *          <li> the given {@code loader} is {@code null} and
     *               the caller's class loader is not {@code null} and the
     *               invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission
     *               s.checkPermission} with
     *               {@code RuntimePermission("getClassLoader")} permission
     *               denies access;</li>
     *          <li> for each proxy interface, {@code intf},
     *               the caller's class loader is not the same as or an
     *               ancestor of the class loader for {@code intf} and
     *               invocation of {@link SecurityManager#checkPackageAccess
     *               s.checkPackageAccess()} denies access to {@code intf};</li>
     *          <li> any of the given proxy interfaces is non-public and the
     *               caller class is not in the same {@linkplain Package runtime package}
     *               as the non-public interface and the invocation of
     *               {@link SecurityManager#checkPermission s.checkPermission} with
     *               {@code ReflectPermission("newProxyInPackage.{package name}")}
     *               permission denies access.</li>
     *          </ul>
     * @throws  NullPointerException if the {@code interfaces} array
     *          argument or any of its elements are {@code null}, or
     *          if the invocation handler, {@code h}, is
     *          {@code null}
     */
    @CallerSensitive
    public static Object newProxyInstance(ClassLoader loader,
                                          Class<?>[] interfaces,
                                          InvocationHandler h)
        throws IllegalArgumentException {

        // (Objects工具类)检查指定类型的对象引用不为空null。当参数为null时,抛出空指针异常。设计这个方法主要是为了在方法、构造函数中做参数校验。
        Objects.requireNonNull(h);

        final Class<?>[] intfs = interfaces.clone();
        final SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
        if (sm != null) {
            checkProxyAccess(Reflection.getCallerClass(), loader, intfs);
        }

        /*
         * Look up or generate the designated proxy class.
         */
        Class<?> cl = getProxyClass0(loader, intfs);

        /*
         * Invoke its constructor with the designated invocation handler.
         */
        try {
            if (sm != null) {
                checkNewProxyPermission(Reflection.getCallerClass(), cl);
            }

            // Class<?>[] constructorParams ={ InvocationHandler.class };
            final Constructor<?> cons = cl.getConstructor(constructorParams);
            final InvocationHandler ih = h;
            if (!Modifier.isPublic(cl.getModifiers())) {
                AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<Void>() {
                    public Void run() {
                        cons.setAccessible(true);
                        return null;
                    }
                });
            }
            // 利用构造器对象反射生成代理对象
            return cons.newInstance(new Object[]{h});
        } catch (IllegalAccessException|InstantiationException e) {
            throw new InternalError(e.toString(), e);
        } catch (InvocationTargetException e) {
            Throwable t = e.getCause();
            if (t instanceof RuntimeException) {
                throw (RuntimeException) t;
            } else {
                throw new InternalError(t.toString(), t);
            }
        } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
            throw new InternalError(e.toString(), e);
        }
    }

  继续跟进getProxyClass0()方法,

/**
     * Generate a proxy class.  Must call the checkProxyAccess method
     * to perform permission checks before calling this.
     */
    private static Class<?> getProxyClass0(ClassLoader loader,
                                           Class<?>... interfaces) {

        // 实现接口数应小于65535                                
        if (interfaces.length > 65535) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("interface limit exceeded");
        }

        // If the proxy class defined by the given loader implementing
        // the given interfaces exists, this will simply return the cached copy;
        // otherwise, it will create the proxy class via the ProxyClassFactory
        //// 如果代理类创建,则返回缓存中的该类的副本;否则通过ProxyClassFactory创建代理类 
        return proxyClassCache.get(loader, interfaces);
    }

  到此为止还是没有看到如何生成代理类的,只知道代理类是从proxyClassCache中取得的,这个变量是与缓存相关的一个对象,查看该变量的声明与初始化:

    /**
     * a cache of proxy classes
     */
    private static final WeakCache<ClassLoader, Class<?>[], Class<?>>
        proxyClassCache = new WeakCache<>(new KeyFactory(), new ProxyClassFactory());

  继续跟进ProxyClassFactory类,

    /**
     * A factory function that generates, defines and returns the proxy class given
     * the ClassLoader and array of interfaces.
     * 根据给定的类加载器和接口数组生成代理类的工厂类 
     */
    private static final class ProxyClassFactory
        implements BiFunction<ClassLoader, Class<?>[], Class<?>>
    {
        // prefix for all proxy class names
        private static final String proxyClassNamePrefix = "$Proxy";

        // next number to use for generation of unique proxy class names
        private static final AtomicLong nextUniqueNumber = new AtomicLong();

        @Override
        public Class<?> apply(ClassLoader loader, Class<?>[] interfaces) {

            Map<Class<?>, Boolean> interfaceSet = new IdentityHashMap<>(interfaces.length);
            for (Class<?> intf : interfaces) {
                /*
                 * Verify that the class loader resolves the name of this
                 * interface to the same Class object.
                 */
                Class<?> interfaceClass = null;
                try {
                    interfaceClass = Class.forName(intf.getName(), false, loader);
                } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
                }
                if (interfaceClass != intf) {
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                        intf + " is not visible from class loader");
                }
                /*
                 * Verify that the Class object actually represents an
                 * interface.
                 */
                if (!interfaceClass.isInterface()) {
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                        interfaceClass.getName() + " is not an interface");
                }
                /*
                 * Verify that this interface is not a duplicate.
                 */
                if (interfaceSet.put(interfaceClass, Boolean.TRUE) != null) {
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                        "repeated interface: " + interfaceClass.getName());
                }
            }

            String proxyPkg = null;     // package to define proxy class in
            int accessFlags = Modifier.PUBLIC | Modifier.FINAL;

            /*
             * Record the package of a non-public proxy interface so that the
             * proxy class will be defined in the same package.  Verify that
             * all non-public proxy interfaces are in the same package.
             */
            for (Class<?> intf : interfaces) {
                int flags = intf.getModifiers();
                if (!Modifier.isPublic(flags)) {
                    accessFlags = Modifier.FINAL;
                    String name = intf.getName();
                    int n = name.lastIndexOf('.');
                    String pkg = ((n == -1) ? "" : name.substring(0, n + 1));
                    if (proxyPkg == null) {
                        proxyPkg = pkg;
                    } else if (!pkg.equals(proxyPkg)) {
                        throw new IllegalArgumentException(
                            "non-public interfaces from different packages");
                    }
                }
            }

            if (proxyPkg == null) {
                // if no non-public proxy interfaces, use com.sun.proxy package
                proxyPkg = ReflectUtil.PROXY_PACKAGE + ".";
            }

            /*
             * Choose a name for the proxy class to generate.
             */
            long num = nextUniqueNumber.getAndIncrement();
            String proxyName = proxyPkg + proxyClassNamePrefix + num;

            /*
             * Generate the specified proxy class.
             * 生成代理类字节码
             */
            byte[] proxyClassFile = ProxyGenerator.generateProxyClass(
                proxyName, interfaces, accessFlags);
            try {

                // 加载生成class对象
                return defineClass0(loader, proxyName,
                                    proxyClassFile, 0, proxyClassFile.length);
            } catch (ClassFormatError e) {
                /*
                 * A ClassFormatError here means that (barring bugs in the
                 * proxy class generation code) there was some other
                 * invalid aspect of the arguments supplied to the proxy
                 * class creation (such as virtual machine limitations
                 * exceeded).
                 */
                throw new IllegalArgumentException(e.toString());
            }
        }
    }

  由ProxyClassFactory类可以知道产生代理类的具体逻辑大致上是,根据传递的被代理类及其实现的接口生成代理类的字节码,然后进行加载并生成对应的Class对象。


  对于JDK动态代理,在运行时我们可以设置JVM参数(-Dsun.misc.ProxyGenerator.saveGeneratedFiles=true)来得到动态生成 的class文件,然后通过 Java Decompiler 反编译上述得到的class文件,有:

package com.sun.proxy;

import com.youku.zixu.api.HelloService;
import java.lang.reflect.InvocationHandler;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.lang.reflect.Proxy;
import java.lang.reflect.UndeclaredThrowableException;

// JDK动态代理生成的代理类继承于父类Proxy
public final class $Proxy0 extends Proxy
  implements HelloService {

  private static Method m1;
  private static Method m3;
  private static Method m2;
  private static Method m4;
  private static Method m0;

  // 构造函数
  public $Proxy0(InvocationHandler paramInvocationHandler){
    super(paramInvocationHandler);
  }

  public final boolean equals(Object paramObject){
    try{
      return ((Boolean)this.h.invoke(this, m1, new Object[] { paramObject })).booleanValue();
    }catch (Error|RuntimeException localError){
      throw localError;
    }catch (Throwable localThrowable){
      throw new UndeclaredThrowableException(localThrowable);
    }
  }

  public final String hi(String paramString){
    try{
      return (String)this.h.invoke(this, m3, new Object[] { paramString });
    }catch (Error|RuntimeException localError){
      throw localError;
    }catch (Throwable localThrowable){
      throw new UndeclaredThrowableException(localThrowable);
    }
  }

  public final String toString(){
    try{
      return (String)this.h.invoke(this, m2, null);
    }catch (Error|RuntimeException localError){
      throw localError;
    }catch (Throwable localThrowable){
      throw new UndeclaredThrowableException(localThrowable);
    }
  }

  public final String hello(String paramString){
    try{
      return (String)this.h.invoke(this, m4, new Object[] { paramString });
    }catch (Error|RuntimeException localError){
      throw localError;
    }catch (Throwable localThrowable){
      throw new UndeclaredThrowableException(localThrowable);
    }
  }

  public final int hashCode(){
    try{
      return ((Integer)this.h.invoke(this, m0, null)).intValue();
    }catch (Error|RuntimeException localError){
      throw localError;
    }catch (Throwable localThrowable){
      throw new UndeclaredThrowableException(localThrowable);
    }
  }

  static{
    try{
      m1 = Class.forName("java.lang.Object").getMethod("equals", new Class[] { Class.forName("java.lang.Object") });
      m3 = Class.forName("com.youku.zixu.api.HelloService").getMethod("hi", new Class[] { Class.forName("java.lang.String") });
      m2 = Class.forName("java.lang.Object").getMethod("toString", new Class[0]);
      m4 = Class.forName("com.youku.zixu.api.HelloService").getMethod("hello", new Class[] { Class.forName("java.lang.String") });
      m0 = Class.forName("java.lang.Object").getMethod("hashCode", new Class[0]);
      return;
    }catch (NoSuchMethodException localNoSuchMethodException){
      throw new NoSuchMethodError(localNoSuchMethodException.getMessage());
    }catch (ClassNotFoundException localClassNotFoundException){
      throw new NoClassDefFoundError(localClassNotFoundException.getMessage());
    }
  }
}

  由上述反编译结果我们可以知道:

  • JDK动态代理生成的代理类继承了Proxy类,这正是JDK动态代理只能实现接口代理而不能实现类代理的原因,即Java不允许多继承,而动态代理生成的代理类本身就已经继承了Proxy类;

  • JDK动态代理生成的代理类也代理了三个Object类的方法:equals()方法、hashCode()方法和toString()方法;


四、小结

  1、实现动态代理的关键技术是反射;

  2、代理对象是对目标对象的增强,以便对消息进行预处理和后处理;

  3、InvocationHandler中的invoke()方法是代理类完整逻辑的集中体现,包括要切入的增强逻辑和进行反射执行的真实业务逻辑;

  4、使用JDK动态代理机制为某一真实业务对象生成代理,只需要指定目标接口、目标接口的类加载器以及具体的InvocationHandler即可。

  5、JDK动态代理的典型应用包括但不仅限于AOP、RPC、Struts2、Spring等重要经典框架。


引用:

Java设计模式——代理模式实现及原理
Java Decompiler
Java 动态代理机制分析及扩展,第 1 部分

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