决策树-ID3算法代码

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#ID3算法
from math import log
import operator
import pickle
import treePlotter

#计算香农熵
def calcShannonEnt(dataSet):
    numEntries = len(dataSet)
    labelCounts = {}
    for featVec in dataSet:
        currentLabel = featVec[-1]
        if currentLabel not in labelCounts.keys():
            labelCounts[currentLabel] = 0
        labelCounts[currentLabel] += 1
    shannonEnt = 0.0
    for key in labelCounts:
        prob = float(labelCounts[key])/numEntries
        shannonEnt -= prob*log(prob,2)
    return shannonEnt

#按照给定特征划分数据集
def splitDataSet(dataSet,axis,value):
    retDataSet = []
    for featVec in dataSet:
        if featVec[axis] == value:
            reducedFeatVec = featVec[:axis]
            reducedFeatVec.extend(featVec[axis+1:])
            retDataSet.append(reducedFeatVec)
    return retDataSet

#计算信息增益选择最优数据集划分方式
def chooseBestFeatureToSplit(dataSet):
    numFeatures = len(dataSet[0]) - 1
    baseEntropy = calcShannonEnt(dataSet)
    bestInfoGain = 0.0
    bestFeature = -1
    for i in range(numFeatures):
        featList = [example[i] for example in dataSet]
        uniqueVals = set(featList)
        newEntropy = 0.0
        for value in uniqueVals:
            subDataSet = splitDataSet(dataSet,i,value)
            prob = len(subDataSet)/float(len(dataSet))
            newEntropy += prob*calcShannonEnt(subDataSet)
        infoGain = baseEntropy - newEntropy
        if (infoGain > bestInfoGain):
            bestInfoGain = infoGain
            bestFeature = i
    return bestFeature

def majorityCnt(classList):
    classCount = {}
    for vote in classList:
        if vote not in classCount.keys():
            classCount[vote] = 0
        classCount[vote] += 1
    sortedClassCount = sorted(classCount.iteritems(),key=operator.itemgetter(1),reverse=True)
    return sortedClassCount[0][0]

def createTree(dataSet,labels):
    classList = [example[-1] for example in dataSet]
    if classList.count(classList[0]) == len(classList):
        return classList[0]
    if len(dataSet[0]) == 1:
        return majorityCnt(classList)
    bestFeat = chooseBestFeatureToSplit(dataSet)
    bestFeatLabel = labels[bestFeat]
    myTree = {bestFeatLabel:{}}
    del(labels[bestFeat])
    featValues = [example[bestFeat] for example in dataSet]
    uniqueVals = set(featValues)
    for value in uniqueVals:
        subLabels = labels[:]
        myTree[bestFeatLabel][value] = createTree(splitDataSet(dataSet,bestFeat,value),subLabels)
    return myTree

def classify(inputTree,featLabels,testVec):
    firstStr = inputTree.keys()[0]
    secondDict = inputTree[firstStr]
    featIndex = featLabels.index(firstStr)
    key = testVec[featIndex]
    valueOfFeat = secondDict[key]
    #判断valueOfFeat的数据类型若为dict则返回True
    if isinstance(valueOfFeat, dict):
        classLabel = classify(valueOfFeat, featLabels, testVec)
    else:
        classLabel = valueOfFeat
    return classLabel

#pickle模块存储决策树
def storeTree(inputTree,filename):
    fw = open(filename,'w')
    pickle.dump(inputTree,fw)
    fw.close()

def grabTree(filename):
    fr = open(filename)
    return pickle.load(fr)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    fr = open('lenses.txt')
    #解析Tab键分割的数据行
    lenses = [inst.strip().split('\t') for inst in fr.readlines()]
    lensesLabels = ['age', 'prescript', 'astigmatic', 'tearRate']
    lensesTree = createTree(lenses, lensesLabels)
    # print lensesTree
    treePlotter.createPlot(lensesTree)



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