Python+OpenCV实现AI人脸识别身份认证系统(2)—人脸数据采集、存储

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/m0_38106923/article/details/87348332

目录

实现原理

实施步骤

实现程序


了解人脸检测、识别的原理后,让我们开始人脸识别系统的设计吧~

首先展示下数据采集、存储的界面设计:

  • 实现原理

 数据采集、存储实现原理:使用OpenCv检测用户人脸(支持内置、外置摄像头两种模式),检测到人脸信息后即可采集人来数据,填写用户信息,将采集到的数据集存储到数据库中。

  • 实施步骤

第一步:添加用户信息,稍后和采集的图像数据绑定,并存储到数据库:

第二步:人脸采集数据(注意需要开启人脸检测,仅采集人脸,避免采集过多无用信息): 

可以看一下采集到的灰度图像(采集RGB彩色图像,内存大,训练消耗更多时间,并且对人脸识别的准确性无太大的提升):

第三步:结束人脸数据采集:

 第四步:同步到数据库:

  • 实现程序

现在呈现上实现Demo,注释十分详细了,不再讲解,小伙伴们可以看看~

#!/usr/bin/env python3
#CSDN:https://blog.csdn.net/m0_38106923
#邮箱:www.1345070491@qq.com
import cv2

from PyQt5.QtCore import QTimer, QRegExp, pyqtSignal
from PyQt5.QtGui import QImage, QPixmap, QIcon, QRegExpValidator, QTextCursor
from PyQt5.QtWidgets import QDialog, QApplication, QWidget, QMessageBox
from PyQt5.uic import loadUi

import logging
import logging.config
import queue
import threading
import sqlite3
import os
import sys

from datetime import datetime


# 用户取消了更新数据库操作
class OperationCancel(Exception):
    pass


# 采集过程中出现干扰
class RecordDisturbance(Exception):
    pass


class DataRecordUI(QWidget):
    receiveLogSignal = pyqtSignal(str)

    def __init__(self):
        super(DataRecordUI, self).__init__()
        loadUi('./ui/DataRecord.ui', self)
        self.setWindowIcon(QIcon('./icons/icon.png'))
        self.setFixedSize(1011, 601)

        # OpenCV
        self.cap = cv2.VideoCapture()
        self.faceCascade = cv2.CascadeClassifier('./haarcascades/haarcascade_frontalface_default.xml')

        self.logQueue = queue.Queue()  # 日志队列

        # 图像捕获
        self.isExternalCameraUsed = False
        self.useExternalCameraCheckBox.stateChanged.connect(
            lambda: self.useExternalCamera(self.useExternalCameraCheckBox))
        self.startWebcamButton.toggled.connect(self.startWebcam)
        self.startWebcamButton.setCheckable(True)

        # 定时器
        self.timer = QTimer(self)
        self.timer.timeout.connect(self.updateFrame)

        # 人脸检测
        self.isFaceDetectEnabled = False
        self.enableFaceDetectButton.toggled.connect(self.enableFaceDetect)
        self.enableFaceDetectButton.setCheckable(True)

        # 数据库
        self.database = './FaceBase.db'
        self.datasets = './datasets'
        self.isDbReady = False
        self.initDbButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/warning.png'))
        self.initDbButton.clicked.connect(self.initDb)

        # 用户信息
        self.isUserInfoReady = False
        self.userInfo = {'stu_id': '', 'cn_name': '', 'en_name': ''}
        self.addOrUpdateUserInfoButton.clicked.connect(self.addOrUpdateUserInfo)
        self.migrateToDbButton.clicked.connect(self.migrateToDb)

        # 人脸采集
        self.startFaceRecordButton.clicked.connect(lambda: self.startFaceRecord(self.startFaceRecordButton))
        # self.startFaceRecordButton.setCheckable(True)
        self.faceRecordCount = 0
        self.minFaceRecordCount = 100
        self.isFaceDataReady = False
        self.isFaceRecordEnabled = False
        self.enableFaceRecordButton.clicked.connect(self.enableFaceRecord)

        # 日志系统
        self.receiveLogSignal.connect(lambda log: self.logOutput(log))
        self.logOutputThread = threading.Thread(target=self.receiveLog, daemon=True)
        self.logOutputThread.start()

    # 是否使用外接摄像头
    def useExternalCamera(self, useExternalCameraCheckBox):
        if useExternalCameraCheckBox.isChecked():
            self.isExternalCameraUsed = True
        else:
            self.isExternalCameraUsed = False

    # 打开/关闭摄像头
    def startWebcam(self, status):
        if status:
            if self.isExternalCameraUsed:
                camID = 1
            else:
                camID = 0
            self.cap.open(camID)
            self.cap.set(cv2.CAP_PROP_FRAME_WIDTH, 640)
            self.cap.set(cv2.CAP_PROP_FRAME_HEIGHT, 480)
            ret, frame = self.cap.read()

            if not ret:
                logging.error('无法调用电脑摄像头{}'.format(camID))
                self.logQueue.put('Error:初始化摄像头失败')
                self.cap.release()
                self.startWebcamButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/error.png'))
                self.startWebcamButton.setChecked(False)
            else:
                self.startWebcamButton.setText('关闭摄像头')
                self.enableFaceDetectButton.setEnabled(True)
                self.timer.start(5)
                self.startWebcamButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/success.png'))
        else:
            if self.cap.isOpened():
                if self.timer.isActive():
                    self.timer.stop()
                self.cap.release()
                self.faceDetectCaptureLabel.clear()
                self.faceDetectCaptureLabel.setText('<font color=red>摄像头未开启</font>')
                self.startWebcamButton.setText('打开摄像头')
                self.enableFaceDetectButton.setEnabled(False)
                self.startWebcamButton.setIcon(QIcon())

    # 开启/关闭人脸检测
    def enableFaceDetect(self, status):
        if self.cap.isOpened():
            if status:
                self.enableFaceDetectButton.setText('关闭人脸检测')
                self.isFaceDetectEnabled = True
            else:
                self.enableFaceDetectButton.setText('开启人脸检测')
                self.isFaceDetectEnabled = False

    # 采集当前捕获帧
    def enableFaceRecord(self):
        if not self.isFaceRecordEnabled:
            self.isFaceRecordEnabled = True

    # 开始/结束采集人脸数据
    def startFaceRecord(self, startFaceRecordButton):
        if startFaceRecordButton.text() == '开始采集人脸数据':
            if self.isFaceDetectEnabled:
                if self.isUserInfoReady:
                    self.addOrUpdateUserInfoButton.setEnabled(False)
                    if not self.enableFaceRecordButton.isEnabled():
                        self.enableFaceRecordButton.setEnabled(True)
                    self.enableFaceRecordButton.setIcon(QIcon())
                    self.startFaceRecordButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/success.png'))
                    self.startFaceRecordButton.setText('结束当前人脸采集')
                else:
                    self.startFaceRecordButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/error.png'))
                    self.startFaceRecordButton.setChecked(False)
                    self.logQueue.put('Error:操作失败,系统未检测到有效的用户信息')
            else:
                self.startFaceRecordButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/error.png'))
                self.logQueue.put('Error:操作失败,请开启人脸检测')
        else:
            if self.faceRecordCount < self.minFaceRecordCount:
                text = '系统当前采集了 <font color=blue>{}</font> 帧图像,采集数据过少会导致较大的识别误差。'.format(self.faceRecordCount)
                informativeText = '<b>请至少采集 <font color=red>{}</font> 帧图像。</b>'.format(self.minFaceRecordCount)
                DataRecordUI.callDialog(QMessageBox.Information, text, informativeText, QMessageBox.Ok)

            else:
                text = '系统当前采集了 <font color=blue>{}</font> 帧图像,继续采集可以提高识别准确率。'.format(self.faceRecordCount)
                informativeText = '<b>你确定结束当前人脸采集吗?</b>'
                ret = DataRecordUI.callDialog(QMessageBox.Question, text, informativeText,
                                              QMessageBox.Yes | QMessageBox.No,
                                              QMessageBox.No)

                if ret == QMessageBox.Yes:
                    self.isFaceDataReady = True
                    if self.isFaceRecordEnabled:
                        self.isFaceRecordEnabled = False
                    self.enableFaceRecordButton.setEnabled(False)
                    self.enableFaceRecordButton.setIcon(QIcon())
                    self.startFaceRecordButton.setText('开始采集人脸数据')
                    self.startFaceRecordButton.setEnabled(False)
                    self.startFaceRecordButton.setIcon(QIcon())
                    self.migrateToDbButton.setEnabled(True)

    # 定时器,实时更新画面
    def updateFrame(self):
        ret, frame = self.cap.read()
        # self.image = cv2.flip(self.image, 1)
        if ret:
            self.displayImage(frame)

            if self.isFaceDetectEnabled:
                detected_frame = self.detectFace(frame)
                self.displayImage(detected_frame)
            else:
                self.displayImage(frame)

    # 检测人脸
    def detectFace(self, frame):
        gray = cv2.cvtColor(frame, cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)
        faces = self.faceCascade.detectMultiScale(gray, 1.3, 5, minSize=(90, 90))

        stu_id = self.userInfo.get('stu_id')

        for (x, y, w, h) in faces:
            if self.isFaceRecordEnabled:
                try:
                    if not os.path.exists('{}/stu_{}'.format(self.datasets, stu_id)):
                        os.makedirs('{}/stu_{}'.format(self.datasets, stu_id))
                    if len(faces) > 1:
                        raise RecordDisturbance

                    cv2.imwrite('{}/stu_{}/img.{}.jpg'.format(self.datasets, stu_id, self.faceRecordCount + 1),
                                gray[y - 20:y + h + 20, x - 20:x + w + 20])
                except RecordDisturbance:
                    self.isFaceRecordEnabled = False
                    logging.error('检测到多张人脸或环境干扰')
                    self.logQueue.put('Warning:检测到多张人脸或环境干扰,请解决问题后继续')
                    self.enableFaceRecordButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/warning.png'))
                    continue
                except Exception as e:
                    logging.error('写入人脸图像文件到计算机过程中发生异常')
                    self.enableFaceRecordButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/error.png'))
                    self.logQueue.put('Error:无法保存人脸图像,采集当前捕获帧失败')
                else:
                    self.enableFaceRecordButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/success.png'))
                    self.faceRecordCount = self.faceRecordCount + 1
                    if self.faceRecordCount > 100:
                        self.isFaceRecordEnabled = False
                    self.faceRecordCountLcdNum.display(self.faceRecordCount)
            cv2.rectangle(frame, (x - 5, y - 10), (x + w + 5, y + h + 10), (0, 0, 255), 2)

        return frame

    # 显示图像
    def displayImage(self, img):
        # BGR -> RGB
        img = cv2.cvtColor(img, cv2.COLOR_BGR2RGB)
        # default:The image is stored using 8-bit indexes into a colormap, for example:a gray image
        qformat = QImage.Format_Indexed8

        if len(img.shape) == 3:  # rows[0], cols[1], channels[2]
            if img.shape[2] == 4:
                # The image is stored using a 32-bit byte-ordered RGBA format (8-8-8-8)
                # A: alpha channel,不透明度参数。如果一个像素的alpha通道数值为0%,那它就是完全透明的
                qformat = QImage.Format_RGBA8888
            else:
                qformat = QImage.Format_RGB888

        # img.shape[1]:图像宽度width,img.shape[0]:图像高度height,img.shape[2]:图像通道数
        # QImage.__init__ (self, bytes data, int width, int height, int bytesPerLine, Format format)
        # 从内存缓冲流获取img数据构造QImage类
        # img.strides[0]:每行的字节数(width*3),rgb为3,rgba为4
        # strides[0]为最外层(即一个二维数组所占的字节长度),strides[1]为次外层(即一维数组所占字节长度),strides[2]为最内层(即一个元素所占字节长度)
        # 从里往外看,strides[2]为1个字节长度(uint8),strides[1]为3*1个字节长度(3即rgb 3个通道)
        # strides[0]为width*3个字节长度,width代表一行有几个像素

        outImage = QImage(img, img.shape[1], img.shape[0], img.strides[0], qformat)
        self.faceDetectCaptureLabel.setPixmap(QPixmap.fromImage(outImage))
        self.faceDetectCaptureLabel.setScaledContents(True)

    # 初始化数据库
    def initDb(self):
        conn = sqlite3.connect(self.database)
        cursor = conn.cursor()
        try:
            # 检测人脸数据目录是否存在,不存在则创建
            if not os.path.isdir(self.datasets):
                os.makedirs(self.datasets)

            # 查询数据表是否存在,不存在则创建
            cursor.execute('''CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS users (
                              stu_id VARCHAR(12) PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL,
                              face_id INTEGER DEFAULT -1,
                              cn_name VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,
                              en_name VARCHAR(16) NOT NULL,
                              created_time DATE DEFAULT (date('now','localtime'))
                              )
                          ''')
            # 查询数据表记录数
            cursor.execute('SELECT Count(*) FROM users')
            result = cursor.fetchone()
            dbUserCount = result[0]
        except Exception as e:
            logging.error('读取数据库异常,无法完成数据库初始化')
            self.isDbReady = False
            self.initDbButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/error.png'))
            self.logQueue.put('Error:初始化数据库失败')
        else:
            self.isDbReady = True
            self.dbUserCountLcdNum.display(dbUserCount)
            self.logQueue.put('Success:数据库初始化完成')
            self.initDbButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/success.png'))
            self.initDbButton.setEnabled(False)
            self.addOrUpdateUserInfoButton.setEnabled(True)
        finally:
            cursor.close()
            conn.commit()
            conn.close()

    # 增加/修改用户信息
    def addOrUpdateUserInfo(self):
        self.userInfoDialog = UserInfoDialog()

        stu_id, cn_name, en_name = self.userInfo.get('stu_id'), self.userInfo.get('cn_name'), self.userInfo.get(
            'en_name')
        self.userInfoDialog.stuIDLineEdit.setText(stu_id)
        self.userInfoDialog.cnNameLineEdit.setText(cn_name)
        self.userInfoDialog.enNameLineEdit.setText(en_name)

        self.userInfoDialog.okButton.clicked.connect(self.checkToApplyUserInfo)
        self.userInfoDialog.exec()

    # 校验用户信息并提交
    def checkToApplyUserInfo(self):
        if not (self.userInfoDialog.stuIDLineEdit.hasAcceptableInput() and
                self.userInfoDialog.cnNameLineEdit.hasAcceptableInput() and
                self.userInfoDialog.enNameLineEdit.hasAcceptableInput()):
            self.userInfoDialog.msgLabel.setText('<font color=red>你的输入有误,提交失败,请检查并重试!</font>')
        else:
            # 获取用户输入
            self.userInfo['stu_id'] = self.userInfoDialog.stuIDLineEdit.text().strip()
            self.userInfo['cn_name'] = self.userInfoDialog.cnNameLineEdit.text().strip()
            self.userInfo['en_name'] = self.userInfoDialog.enNameLineEdit.text().strip()

            # 信息确认
            stu_id, cn_name, en_name = self.userInfo.get('stu_id'), self.userInfo.get('cn_name'), self.userInfo.get(
                'en_name')
            self.stuIDLineEdit.setText(stu_id)
            self.cnNameLineEdit.setText(cn_name)
            self.enNameLineEdit.setText(en_name)

            self.isUserInfoReady = True
            if not self.startFaceRecordButton.isEnabled():
                self.startFaceRecordButton.setEnabled(True)
            self.migrateToDbButton.setIcon(QIcon())

            # 关闭对话框
            self.userInfoDialog.close()

    # 同步用户信息到数据库
    def migrateToDb(self):
        if self.isFaceDataReady:
            stu_id, cn_name, en_name = self.userInfo.get('stu_id'), self.userInfo.get('cn_name'), self.userInfo.get(
                'en_name')
            conn = sqlite3.connect(self.database)
            cursor = conn.cursor()

            try:
                cursor.execute('SELECT * FROM users WHERE stu_id=?', (stu_id,))
                if cursor.fetchall():
                    text = '数据库已存在学号为 <font color=blue>{}</font> 的用户记录。'.format(stu_id)
                    informativeText = '<b>是否覆盖?</b>'
                    ret = DataRecordUI.callDialog(QMessageBox.Warning, text, informativeText,
                                                  QMessageBox.Yes | QMessageBox.No)

                    if ret == QMessageBox.Yes:
                        # 更新已有记录
                        cursor.execute('UPDATE users SET cn_name=?, en_name=? WHERE stu_id=?',
                                       (cn_name, en_name, stu_id,))
                    else:
                        raise OperationCancel  # 记录取消覆盖操作
                else:
                    # 插入新记录
                    cursor.execute('INSERT INTO users (stu_id, cn_name, en_name) VALUES (?, ?, ?)',
                                   (stu_id, cn_name, en_name,))

                cursor.execute('SELECT Count(*) FROM users')
                result = cursor.fetchone()
                dbUserCount = result[0]
            except OperationCancel:
                pass
            except Exception as e:
                logging.error('读写数据库异常,无法向数据库插入/更新记录')
                self.migrateToDbButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/error.png'))
                self.logQueue.put('Error:读写数据库异常,同步失败')
            else:
                text = '<font color=blue>{}</font> 已添加/更新到数据库。'.format(stu_id)
                informativeText = '<b><font color=blue>{}</font> 的人脸数据采集已完成!</b>'.format(cn_name)
                DataRecordUI.callDialog(QMessageBox.Information, text, informativeText, QMessageBox.Ok)

                # 清空用户信息缓存
                for key in self.userInfo.keys():
                    self.userInfo[key] = ''
                self.isUserInfoReady = False

                self.faceRecordCount = 0
                self.isFaceDataReady = False
                self.faceRecordCountLcdNum.display(self.faceRecordCount)
                self.dbUserCountLcdNum.display(dbUserCount)

                # 清空历史输入
                self.stuIDLineEdit.clear()
                self.cnNameLineEdit.clear()
                self.enNameLineEdit.clear()
                self.migrateToDbButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/success.png'))

                # 允许继续增加新用户
                self.addOrUpdateUserInfoButton.setEnabled(True)
                self.migrateToDbButton.setEnabled(False)

            finally:
                cursor.close()
                conn.commit()
                conn.close()
        else:
            self.logQueue.put('Error:操作失败,你尚未完成人脸数据采集')
            self.migrateToDbButton.setIcon(QIcon('./icons/error.png'))

    # 系统日志服务常驻,接收并处理系统日志
    def receiveLog(self):
        while True:
            data = self.logQueue.get()
            if data:
                self.receiveLogSignal.emit(data)
            else:
                continue

    # LOG输出
    def logOutput(self, log):
        # 获取当前系统时间
        time = datetime.now().strftime('[%Y/%m/%d %H:%M:%S]')
        log = time + ' ' + log + '\n'

        self.logTextEdit.moveCursor(QTextCursor.End)
        self.logTextEdit.insertPlainText(log)
        self.logTextEdit.ensureCursorVisible()  # 自动滚屏

    # 系统对话框
    @staticmethod
    def callDialog(icon, text, informativeText, standardButtons, defaultButton=None):
        msg = QMessageBox()
        msg.setWindowIcon(QIcon('./icons/icon.png'))
        msg.setWindowTitle('OpenCV Face Recognition System - DataRecord')
        msg.setIcon(icon)
        msg.setText(text)
        msg.setInformativeText(informativeText)
        msg.setStandardButtons(standardButtons)
        if defaultButton:
            msg.setDefaultButton(defaultButton)
        return msg.exec()

    # 窗口关闭事件,关闭定时器、摄像头
    def closeEvent(self, event):
        if self.timer.isActive():
            self.timer.stop()
        if self.cap.isOpened():
            self.cap.release()
        event.accept()


# 用户信息填写对话框
class UserInfoDialog(QDialog):
    def __init__(self):
        super(UserInfoDialog, self).__init__()
        loadUi('./ui/UserInfoDialog.ui', self)
        self.setWindowIcon(QIcon('./icons/icon.png'))
        self.setFixedSize(425, 300)

        # 使用正则表达式限制用户输入
        stu_id_regx = QRegExp('^[0-9]{12}$')
        stu_id_validator = QRegExpValidator(stu_id_regx, self.stuIDLineEdit)
        self.stuIDLineEdit.setValidator(stu_id_validator)

        cn_name_regx = QRegExp('^[\u4e00-\u9fa5]{1,10}$')
        cn_name_validator = QRegExpValidator(cn_name_regx, self.cnNameLineEdit)
        self.cnNameLineEdit.setValidator(cn_name_validator)

        en_name_regx = QRegExp('^[ A-Za-z]{1,16}$')
        en_name_validator = QRegExpValidator(en_name_regx, self.enNameLineEdit)
        self.enNameLineEdit.setValidator(en_name_validator)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    logging.config.fileConfig('./config/logging.cfg')
    app = QApplication(sys.argv)
    window = DataRecordUI()
    window.show()
    sys.exit(app.exec())

本项目资源下载地址:https://download.csdn.net/download/m0_38106923/10958540

Python+OpenCv实现AI人脸识别身份认证系统(1)——人脸识别原理:

https://blog.csdn.net/m0_38106923/article/details/86489773

Python+OpenCv实现AI人脸识别身份认证系统(3)——训练人脸识别模型:

https://blog.csdn.net/m0_38106923/article/details/88879876

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