MFC下截屏 & 灰度显示

PomeloWu原作,转载请指明出处

用MFC很容易把当前屏幕截取,并显示在自己程序的UI上。以对话框为例,在执行绘制的单元(比如OnPaint)中调用下面这个函数就能做到:<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 

BOOL CSrnShotDlg::GetMyScreen(

                   CDC *pdc                                      // 目标DC

)

{

                   CDC dc;

                   dc.CreateDC("DISPLAY", NULL, NULL, NULL); // 屏幕DC

 

                   CRect clientRect;

                   GetClientRect(clientRect);                                           // 对话框矩形区域

 

                   pdc->BitBlt(0, 0,                                                             // 起始位置

                                     clientRect.Width(),clientRect.Height(),    // 宽高

                                     &dc,                                                                 // CDC对象

                                     0, 0,                                                                    // 源位置

                                     SRCCOPY                                                       // 复制方法

                                     );

                   dc.DeleteDC();
                   return TRUE;

}

 

接下来改造一下,把屏幕截图先转换为灰度(Gray Scale)图,再显示出来。转换灰度图的公式是,对一个RGB值,RGB分别是其3色分量,计算:

              Gray = R * 0.299 + G *0.587 + B * 0.114

然后将Gray分别替换掉原来的3色分量。到这个地方,很自然想到用SetPixel/GetPixel来实现。因为要对DC进行操作,当然就不能直接在上面GetMyScreen里边的dc直接操作了,为此对GetMyScreen进行一下改造,并且,为了程序的可读性,增加一个ConvertToGray函数负责转换(与上面代码不同的地方用红色区分)

 

void ConvertToGray (CDC * pdc)

{

                   for (int xx = 0; xx < clientRect.right ; xx ++)

                                     for (int yy = 0; yy < clientRect.bottom ; yy ++)

                                     {

                                                        COLORREF crTemp = pdc->GetPixel(xx,yy);

                                                        BYTE pixelR = GetRValue(crTemp);

                                                        BYTE pixelG = GetGValue(crTemp);

                                                        BYTE pixelB = GetBValue(crTemp);

                                                        BYTE gray = (BYTE) (pixelR * 0.299 + pixelG * 0.587 +pixelB * 0.114);

                                                        pdc->SetPixelV(xx,yy,RGB(gray, gray, gray));

                                     }

}

 

BOOL CSrnShotDlg::GetMyScreen(

                   CDC *pdc                                      // 目标DC

)

{

                   CDC dc;

                   dc.CreateDC("DISPLAY", NULL, NULL, NULL); // 屏幕DC

 

                   CRect clientRect;

                   GetClientRect(clientRect);                                           // 对话框矩形区域

 

                   CDC          *pMemDC = NULL;                                    // 兼容DC

 

                   pMemDC = new CDC;

                   if (!pMemDC)

                                     return FALSE;

                   pMemDC->CreateCompatibleDC(&dc);

                   ShowWindow(SW_HIDE);

                   pMemDC->BitBlt(0, 0,

                                     clientRect.Width(), clientRect.Height(),

                                     &dc, 0, 0, SRCCOPY);

 

                   ConvertToGray(pMemDC);

 

                   pdc->BitBlt(0, 0,                                                             // 起始位置

                                     clientRect.Width(),clientRect.Height(),    // 宽高

                                     pMemDC,                                                        // CDC对象

                                     0, 0,                                                                    // 源位置

                                     SRCCOPY                                                       // 复制方法

                                     );

                   pMemDC->DeleteDC();

                   delete pMemDC;

                   dc.DeleteDC();

                   return TRUE;

}

 

效果出来了,但是并不完美。实际上我用SetPixelV代替了SetPixel,但显示的速度还是很慢,CPU使用率也很高。如何提高效率呢?直接改DC上附着的位图数据似乎是个好办法。下面就转而对CBitmap类对象进行操作。

因为是直接截屏,所以需要先用CDC::GetDeviceCapsBITSPIXEL参数获得屏幕色深,因为不同色深的位图的储存方式不同。简要说明一下:16位色位图,每个象素占2字节;24位色,每个象素占3字节;32位色,每个象素占4字节储存空间。我们可以用CBitmap::GetBitmapBits函数来获得位图数据,这其实是一个BYTE数组。这个数组的结构,最简单的是24位色的情况。前面说过了每个象素占3个字节,按数组下标从低到高分别是BGR3色分量,而32位色的情况跟24位色类似,4个字节只不过多了一个alpha值。下面就是处理24位色深的ConvertToGray24

 

#define BITS24        (int)(1024 * 768 * 3)

void ConvertToGray24(CBitmap *pBmp)

{

                   LPBYTE lpbits = NULL;

                   lpbits = new BYTE[BITS24];

                   if (!lpbits)

                                     return;

 

                   ZeroMemory(lpbits, BITS24);

                   pBmp->GetBitmapBits(BITS24, lpbits);

                   for (int index = 0, j = 0, k = 0; index < BITS24; index ++)

                   {

                                     lpbits[index] = (BYTE)(0.114 * lpbits[index]);

                                     j = index + 1; k = index + 2;

                                     lpbits[j] = (BYTE)(0.587 * lpbits[j]);

                                     lpbits[k] = (BYTE)(0.299 * lpbits[k]);

                                     lpbits[index] += lpbits[j] + lpbits[k];

                                     lpbits[j] = lpbits[index];

                                     lpbits[k] = lpbits[index];

                                     index = k;

                   }

 

                   pBmp->SetBitmapBits(BITS24, lpbits);

                   delete [] lpbits;

}

 

GetDeviceCaps(BITSPIXEL)返回16的时候,又有两种情况:16位色和15位色。16位色的情况下,位图数组使用2字节保存数据,其中从高位往低位分别是BGR3色分量按位565占用。需要用位操作来获得每个分量的色值:

 

#define GetRValueX(rgb)      ((BYTE)(rgb) & 0x1f)

#define GetGValueX(rgb)      ((BYTE)(((rgb) & 0x07E0) >> 5))

#define GetBValueX(rgb)      ((BYTE)(((rgb) & 0xF800) >> 11))

#define RGBX(r,g,b) /

          ((WORD)(((BYTE)(r)|((WORD)((BYTE)(g))<<5))|(((WORD)(BYTE)(b))<<11)))

 

要注意的是因为绿色分量占用了6bit,其储存精度是其它两个分量的2倍,所以在进行后继的计算的时候公式的因数会有所改变。(另外,使用15位色的适配器比较少,其储存规则也是占用2字节,但是最高位无意义,其余15位按555分配,这里不详细讨论了。)

#define BITS16        (int)(1024 * 768 * 2)

void ConvertToGray16(CBitmap *pBmp)

{

                   LPBYTE lpbits = NULL;

                   WORD *wBits;

                   lpbits = new BYTE[BITS16];

                   if (!lpbits)

                                     return;

 

                   ZeroMemory(lpDibits, BITS16);

                   pBmp->GetBitmapBits(BITS16, lpbits);

                   for (int index = 0, j = 0, k = 0; index < BITS16; index ++)

                   {

                                     wBits = (WORD *)(lpbits + index);

                                     BYTE pixelR = GetRValueX(*wBits) * 2;

                                     BYTE pixelG = GetGValueX(*wBits) ;     // 注意系数

                                     BYTE pixelB = GetBValueX(*wBits) * 2;

                                     BYTE gray =(BYTE) (pixelR * 0.299 + pixelG * 0.587 +pixelB * 0.114);

                                     *wBits = RGBX(gray / (BYTE)2, gray, gray / (BYTE)2);

                                     index ++;

                   }

                   pBmp->SetBitmapBits(BITS16, lpbits);

                   delete [] lpbits;

}

 

 

最后,第三次改造GetMyScreen

 

BOOL CSrnShotDlg::GetMyScreen(

                   CDC *pdc                                      // 目标DC

)

{

                   CDC dc;

                   dc.CreateDC("DISPLAY", NULL, NULL, NULL); // 屏幕DC

 

                   CRect clientRect;

                   GetClientRect(clientRect);                                           // 对话框矩形区域

 

                   CDC          *pMemDC = NULL;                                    // 兼容DC

                   CBitmap *pBmp = NULL;                                           // 兼容位图

 

                   pMemDC = new CDC;

                   if (!pMemDC)

                                     return FALSE;

                   pMemDC->CreateCompatibleDC(&dc);

                  

                   pBmp = new CBitmap;

                   if (!pBmp)

                   {

                                     pMemDC->DeleteDC();

                                     delete pMemDC;

                                     return FALSE;

                   }

                   pBmp->CreateCompatibleBitmap(&dc, clientRect.Width(),clientRect.Height());

                   pMemDC->SelectObject(pBmp);

                   ShowWindow(SW_HIDE);

                   pMemDC->BitBlt(0, 0,

                                     clientRect.Width(), clientRect.Height(),

                                     &dc, 0, 0, SRCCOPY);

 

                   switch(pMemDC->GetDeviceCaps(BITSPIXEL))

                   {

                   case: 16

                                     ConvertToGray16(pBmp);

                                     break;

                   case: 24

                                     ConvertToGray24(pBmp);

                                     break;

                   case: 32

                                     ConvertToGray32(pBmp);                          //未给出

                                     break;

                   default:

                                     pBmp->DeleteObject();

                                     pMemDC->DeleteDC();

                                     delete pBmp;

                                     delete pMemDC;

                                     dc.DeleteDC();

                                     return FALSE;

                   }

                   pdc->BitBlt(0, 0,                                                             // 起始位置

                                     clientRect.Width(),clientRect.Height(),    // 宽高

                                     pMemDC,                                                       // CDC对象

                                     0, 0,                                                                    // 源位置

                                     SRCCOPY                                                       // 复制方法

                                     );

 

                   pBmp->DeleteObject();

                   pMemDC->DeleteDC();

                   delete pBmp;

                   delete pMemDC;

                   dc.DeleteDC();

                   return TRUE;

}

 

附,感谢puhuofeie的帮助

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