InSAR学习（二）基本原理中的一些细节

1 平地效应和高程灵敏度

ϕ=4πλ B  qR

ϕ=4πλ B  sRtanθ 4πλ B  hRsinθ

• 这一项是由斜距引起的，因为如果两点的斜距相等，则s=0 $s=0$，第一项不存在。
• 这一项跟地面的起伏无关，其中不含有h，因此这一项通常称为平地效应引起的相位差。在实际处理中，一般需要进行“去平地效应” (phase flattening)，处理的结果称为flattened interferogram，即剩下了上式等号右侧中的第二项：
ϕ flat =4πλ B  hRsinθ

h a =λRsinθ2B   ==λHtanθ2B

2 形变引起的相位变化

ϕ flat =4πλ B  hRsinθ +ϕ def

• 利用一个已有的DEM模拟出地形引起相位信息，然后在待处理的相位信息中减去这一项。 The most common procedure is to use an existing DEM and the InSAR imaging geometry to produce a synthetic interferogram (a representation of the phase image that would be produced by topography alone) and subtract it from the interferogram to be studied . This is the so-called 2-pass InSAR approach
• Alternatively, the synthetic interferogram that represents the topographic contribution can come from a different interferogram of the same area. The procedures are then called 3-pass or 4-pass InSAR

第一种方法里一般有两个步骤：DEM重采样和相位模拟。

3 相干性和critical baseline

Remember the pre-conditionφ scatt,1 =φ scatt,2  $\varphi_{scatt,1}=\varphi_{scatt,2}$ ? Unfortunately, it is not the case in reality.
An InSAR coherence image is a cross-correlation product derived from two co-registered complex-valued (both intensity and phase components) SAR images It depicts changes in backscattering characteristics on the scale of the radar wavelength. Loss of InSAR coherence is often referred to as decorrelation. 容易发现相干性会影响InSAR处理得到的DEM和形变图的精度。相干系数的定义为：

γ=ΣC 1 C  2 e jϕ det  ΣC 1  2 ΣC 2  2  − − − − − − − − − − −

where C 1  $C_1$ and C 2  $C_2$ are complex-valued backscattering coefﬁcients, C 2  $C_2$ is the complex conjugate of C 2  $C_2$ , ϕ det  $\phi_{det}$ is the deterministic phase due to baseline error, topography, or large deformation in the correlation window.

ρ=1γ

which can have several causes: (1) thermal decorrelation is caused by uncorrelated noise sources in radar instruments; (2) geometric decorrelation results from imaging a target from much different look angles; (3) volume decorrelation is caused by volume backscattering effects; and (4) temporal decorrelation can be due to environmental changes over time. SAR image misregistration and other InSAR processing errors also can reduce the level of InSAR coherence.

B c =λRB w tan(θα)c

critical baseline是一个很重要的概念，因为它可以指导影像选取和处理策略。分析上式可知，critical baseline 与波长、带宽、侧视角、地形坡度有关。这对于干涉配置、滤波算法具有指导意义。举一个例子:
Envisat and ERS-2 images can be combined to preserve InSAR coherence in spite of a large baseline of about 2 km, which is twice as large as the critical baseline for either an ERS-2 or Envisat interferogram, which is because of the 31 MHz carrier frequency difference. The resulting interferogram is very sensitive to the
surface topography and can be used to generate a high-
precision DEM.

4 简单说明InSAR（DInSAR）的处理流程

InSAR处理简单示例

• 图a SAR影像强度图
• 图b 对应的相位图，从中得不到有价值的信息
• 图c 另一幅不同时间获取的SAR影像对应的相位图，从中得不到有价值的信息
• 图d 干涉图，要得到干涉图，关键一步是配准
• 图e 去平地效应之后的干涉图，相比图d，条纹变稀疏了，进一步通过滤波处理、相位解缠、基线估计等可以得到DEM
• 图f 图d中的由地形引起的干涉图，这是模拟出来的
• 图g 从图d中由地形因素得到的干涉图，剩下的是干涉条纹主要由形变、噪声、大气延迟等引起
• 图h 将图g地理编码，并与影像叠置
• 图i 由实测形变数据模拟得到的相位图

图片来源及主要参考

Zhong, L., & Dzurisin, D. (2014). Insar imaging of aleutian volcanoes. Springer Praxis Books, 2014(8), 1778–1786.