5 live555源码分析(五)——live555 RTSP工作流程(二)

上一篇我们通过WireShark抓包获取到了RTSP通信的流程,本篇文章通过代码去分析每个流程的工作原理。
live555的继承关系太过复杂,所以做了个图简单记录一下与h264文件传输相关的类继承关系
在这里插入图片描述

一、OPTION

OPTION比较简单,就是客户端向服务端请求可用的方法。服务端收到客户端发来的OPTION指令后,调用函数handleCmd_OPTIONS进行处理

void RTSPServer::RTSPClientConnection::handleCmd_OPTIONS() {
  snprintf((char*)fResponseBuffer, sizeof fResponseBuffer,
	   "RTSP/1.0 200 OK\r\nCSeq: %s\r\n%sPublic: %s\r\n\r\n",
	   fCurrentCSeq, dateHeader(), fOurRTSPServer.allowedCommandNames());
}

服务端处理就是按照合适把自己支持的命令发送回客户端。可用看到live555支持的RTSP指令有
OPTIONS, DESCRIBE, SETUP, TEARDOWN, PLAY, PAUSE, GET_PARAMETER, SET_PARAMETER。

char const* RTSPServer::allowedCommandNames() {
  return "OPTIONS, DESCRIBE, SETUP, TEARDOWN, PLAY, PAUSE, GET_PARAMETER, SET_PARAMETER";
}

二、DESCRIBE

live555很多类的关键变量命名是一样的,所以做了个图简单记录下在模拟h264RTP时的关键变量的实际类型。后面分析代码时觉得乱时可以回头看看这张图。
在这里插入图片描述

DESCRIBE的过程是客户端向服务端请求媒体描述文件,服务端向客户端回复sdp信息。

1.处理DESCRIBE命令

void RTSPServer::RTSPClientConnection
::handleCmd_DESCRIBE(char const* urlPreSuffix, char const* urlSuffix, char const* fullRequestStr) {
  char urlTotalSuffix[2*RTSP_PARAM_STRING_MAX];
      // enough space for urlPreSuffix/urlSuffix'\0'
  urlTotalSuffix[0] = '\0';
  if (urlPreSuffix[0] != '\0') {
    strcat(urlTotalSuffix, urlPreSuffix);
    strcat(urlTotalSuffix, "/");
  }
  strcat(urlTotalSuffix, urlSuffix);
    
  if (!authenticationOK("DESCRIBE", urlTotalSuffix, fullRequestStr)) return;
    
  // We should really check that the request contains an "Accept:" #####
  // for "application/sdp", because that's what we're sending back #####
    
  // Begin by looking up the "ServerMediaSession" object for the specified "urlTotalSuffix":
  fOurServer.lookupServerMediaSession(urlTotalSuffix, DESCRIBELookupCompletionFunction, this);
}

可以看到,服务端的handleCmd_DESCRIBE函数。首先是通过urlTotalSuffix找到对应的MediaSession,找到后调用ESCRIBELookupCompletionFunction函数。

void RTSPServer::RTSPClientConnection
::DESCRIBELookupCompletionFunction(void* clientData, ServerMediaSession* sessionLookedUp) {
  RTSPServer::RTSPClientConnection* connection = (RTSPServer::RTSPClientConnection*)clientData;
  connection->handleCmd_DESCRIBE_afterLookup(sessionLookedUp);
}

void RTSPServer::RTSPClientConnection
::handleCmd_DESCRIBE_afterLookup(ServerMediaSession* session) {
  char* sdpDescription = NULL;
  char* rtspURL = NULL;
  do {
    if (session == NULL) {
      handleCmd_notFound();
      break;
    }
    
    // Increment the "ServerMediaSession" object's reference count, in case someone removes it
    // while we're using it:
    session->incrementReferenceCount();

    // Then, assemble a SDP description for this session:
    sdpDescription = session->generateSDPDescription(fAddressFamily);
    if (sdpDescription == NULL) {
      // This usually means that a file name that was specified for a
      // "ServerMediaSubsession" does not exist.
      setRTSPResponse("404 File Not Found, Or In Incorrect Format");
      break;
    }
    unsigned sdpDescriptionSize = strlen(sdpDescription);
    
    // Also, generate our RTSP URL, for the "Content-Base:" header
    // (which is necessary to ensure that the correct URL gets used in subsequent "SETUP" requests).
    rtspURL = fOurRTSPServer.rtspURL(session, fClientInputSocket);
    
    snprintf((char*)fResponseBuffer, sizeof fResponseBuffer,
	     "RTSP/1.0 200 OK\r\nCSeq: %s\r\n"
	     "%s"
	     "Content-Base: %s/\r\n"
	     "Content-Type: application/sdp\r\n"
	     "Content-Length: %d\r\n\r\n"
	     "%s",
	     fCurrentCSeq,
	     dateHeader(),
	     rtspURL,
	     sdpDescriptionSize,
	     sdpDescription);
  } while (0);
  
  if (session != NULL) {
    // Decrement its reference count, now that we're done using it:
    session->decrementReferenceCount();
    if (session->referenceCount() == 0 && session->deleteWhenUnreferenced()) {
      fOurServer.removeServerMediaSession(session);
    }
  }

  delete[] sdpDescription;
  delete[] rtspURL;
}

2.生成SDP信息

找到session后,让这个session生成SDP描述信息。调用generateSDPDescription函数

    for (subsession = fSubsessionsHead; subsession != NULL;
	 subsession = subsession->fNext) {
      char const* sdpLines = subsession->sdpLines(addressFamily);
      if (sdpLines == NULL) continue; // the media's not available
      sdpLength += strlen(sdpLines);
    }

在generateSDPDescription时,查找session的subsession,添加每个subsession的sdp信息。
我们这个例子中只有一个subsession,就是H264VideoFileServerMediaSubsession。
而H264VideoFileServerMediaSubsession继承于OnDemandServerMediaSubsession。所以接下来会调用OnDemandServerMediaSubsession的sdpLines来生成sdp信息。

3.获取subsession的sdp信息

char const*
OnDemandServerMediaSubsession::sdpLines(int addressFamily) {
  if (fSDPLines == NULL) {
    // We need to construct a set of SDP lines that describe this
    // subsession (as a unicast stream).  To do so, we first create
    // dummy (unused) source and "RTPSink" objects,
    // whose parameters we use for the SDP lines:
    unsigned estBitrate;
    FramedSource* inputSource = createNewStreamSource(0, estBitrate);
    if (inputSource == NULL) return NULL; // file not found

    Groupsock* dummyGroupsock = createGroupsock(nullAddress(addressFamily), 0);
    unsigned char rtpPayloadType = 96 + trackNumber()-1; // if dynamic
    RTPSink* dummyRTPSink = createNewRTPSink(dummyGroupsock, rtpPayloadType, inputSource);
    if (dummyRTPSink != NULL && dummyRTPSink->estimatedBitrate() > 0) estBitrate = dummyRTPSink->estimatedBitrate();

    setSDPLinesFromRTPSink(dummyRTPSink, inputSource, estBitrate);
    Medium::close(dummyRTPSink);
    delete dummyGroupsock;
    closeStreamSource(inputSource);
  }

  return fSDPLines;
}

由于初始化时我们不知道H264VideoFileServerMediaSubsession的sps和pps等信息,所以live555通过模拟发送RTP流的方式,先读取H264文件并解析来获取sps和pps信息。
首先是创建一个输入源;
然后创建一个模拟的Groupsock,这个模拟的Groupsock是个空的地址,端口也设置的是0;
然后利用这个Groupsock和输入源创建一个RTP消费者,由于这个RTPSink的IP端口都是假的,所以就不会真正的发送RTP流。
最后通过setSDPLinesFromRTPSink获取到这个subsession的SDP信息。
由于这个过程只是为了获取SDP信息,所以获取到SDP信息以后就把创建的这些模拟的媒体资源全部释放掉了。

4.创建媒体输入源

这个Subsession是H264VideoFileServerMediaSubsession类型的,所以会调用H264VideoFileServerMediaSubsession的createNewStreamSource。

FramedSource* H264VideoFileServerMediaSubsession::createNewStreamSource(unsigned /*clientSessionId*/, unsigned& estBitrate) {
  estBitrate = 500; // kbps, estimate

  // Create the video source:
  ByteStreamFileSource* fileSource = ByteStreamFileSource::createNew(envir(), fFileName);
  if (fileSource == NULL) return NULL;
  fFileSize = fileSource->fileSize();

  // Create a framer for the Video Elementary Stream:
  return H264VideoStreamFramer::createNew(envir(), fileSource);
}

在这个函数里,会先创建文件源,创建了一个ByteStreamFileSource类型的字节流文件源。
然后利用这个文件源创建一个H264VideoStreamFramer。

H264VideoStreamFramer
::H264VideoStreamFramer(UsageEnvironment& env, FramedSource* inputSource, Boolean createParser,
			Boolean includeStartCodeInOutput, Boolean insertAccessUnitDelimiters)
  : H264or5VideoStreamFramer(264, env, inputSource, createParser,
			     includeStartCodeInOutput, insertAccessUnitDelimiters) {
}

H264VideoStreamFramer继承于H264or5VideoStreamFramer。

H264or5VideoStreamFramer
::H264or5VideoStreamFramer(int hNumber, UsageEnvironment& env, FramedSource* inputSource,
			   Boolean createParser,
			   Boolean includeStartCodeInOutput, Boolean insertAccessUnitDelimiters)
  : MPEGVideoStreamFramer(env, inputSource),
    fHNumber(hNumber), fIncludeStartCodeInOutput(includeStartCodeInOutput),
    fInsertAccessUnitDelimiters(insertAccessUnitDelimiters),
    fLastSeenVPS(NULL), fLastSeenVPSSize(0),
    fLastSeenSPS(NULL), fLastSeenSPSSize(0),
    fLastSeenPPS(NULL), fLastSeenPPSSize(0) {
  fParser = createParser
    ? new H264or5VideoStreamParser(hNumber, this, inputSource, includeStartCodeInOutput)
    : NULL;
  fFrameRate = 30.0; // We assume a frame rate of 30 fps, unless we learn otherwise (from parsing a VPS or SPS NAL unit)
}

在这里面会创建一个解析器,来解析h264的文件。

5.获取SDPLine

void OnDemandServerMediaSubsession
::setSDPLinesFromRTPSink(RTPSink* rtpSink, FramedSource* inputSource, unsigned estBitrate) {
  if (rtpSink == NULL) return;

  char const* mediaType = rtpSink->sdpMediaType();
  unsigned char rtpPayloadType = rtpSink->rtpPayloadType();
  struct sockaddr_storage const& addressForSDP = rtpSink->groupsockBeingUsed().groupAddress();
  portNumBits portNumForSDP = ntohs(rtpSink->groupsockBeingUsed().port().num());

  AddressString ipAddressStr(addressForSDP);
  char* rtpmapLine = rtpSink->rtpmapLine();
  char const* rtcpmuxLine = fMultiplexRTCPWithRTP ? "a=rtcp-mux\r\n" : "";
  char const* rangeLine = rangeSDPLine();
  char const* auxSDPLine = getAuxSDPLine(rtpSink, inputSource);
  if (auxSDPLine == NULL) auxSDPLine = "";

  char const* const sdpFmt =
    "m=%s %u RTP/AVP %d\r\n"
    "c=IN %s %s\r\n"
    "b=AS:%u\r\n"
    "%s"
    "%s"
    "%s"
    "%s"
    "a=control:%s\r\n";
  unsigned sdpFmtSize = strlen(sdpFmt)
    + strlen(mediaType) + 5 /* max short len */ + 3 /* max char len */
    + 3/*IP4 or IP6*/ + strlen(ipAddressStr.val())
    + 20 /* max int len */
    + strlen(rtpmapLine)
    + strlen(rtcpmuxLine)
    + strlen(rangeLine)
    + strlen(auxSDPLine)
    + strlen(trackId());
  char* sdpLines = new char[sdpFmtSize];
  sprintf(sdpLines, sdpFmt,
	  mediaType, // m= <media>
	  portNumForSDP, // m= <port>
	  rtpPayloadType, // m= <fmt list>
	  addressForSDP.ss_family == AF_INET ? "IP4" : "IP6", ipAddressStr.val(), // c= address
	  estBitrate, // b=AS:<bandwidth>
	  rtpmapLine, // a=rtpmap:... (if present)
	  rtcpmuxLine, // a=rtcp-mux:... (if present)
	  rangeLine, // a=range:... (if present)
	  auxSDPLine, // optional extra SDP line
	  trackId()); // a=control:<track-id>
  delete[] (char*)rangeLine; delete[] rtpmapLine;

  delete[] fSDPLines; fSDPLines = strDup(sdpLines);
  delete[] sdpLines;
}

以此生成sdp媒体类型、负载类型、IP地址等等信息。
重点在getAuxSDPLine函数,这个函数会去生成h264文件相关的Sdp信息。
由于我们是H264VideoFileServerMediaSubsession,所以回去调用H264VideoFileServerMediaSubsession的getAuxSDPLine函数。

char const* H264VideoFileServerMediaSubsession::getAuxSDPLine(RTPSink* rtpSink, FramedSource* inputSource) {
  if (fAuxSDPLine != NULL) return fAuxSDPLine; // it's already been set up (for a previous client)

  if (fDummyRTPSink == NULL) { // we're not already setting it up for another, concurrent stream
    // Note: For H264 video files, the 'config' information ("profile-level-id" and "sprop-parameter-sets") isn't known
    // until we start reading the file.  This means that "rtpSink"s "auxSDPLine()" will be NULL initially,
    // and we need to start reading data from our file until this changes.
    fDummyRTPSink = rtpSink;

    // Start reading the file:
    fDummyRTPSink->startPlaying(*inputSource, afterPlayingDummy, this);

    // Check whether the sink's 'auxSDPLine()' is ready:
    checkForAuxSDPLine(this);
  }

  envir().taskScheduler().doEventLoop(&fDoneFlag);

  return fAuxSDPLine;
}

这个函数去判断目前是否已经生成了sdpline了,如果没有,就通过启动模拟RTPSink的方式去生成Sdpline。并且checkForAuxSDPLine来检测是否生成。
我们先来看一下checkForAuxSDPLine函数

void H264VideoFileServerMediaSubsession::checkForAuxSDPLine1() {
  nextTask() = NULL;

  char const* dasl;
  if (fAuxSDPLine != NULL) {
    // Signal the event loop that we're done:
    setDoneFlag();
  } else if (fDummyRTPSink != NULL && (dasl = fDummyRTPSink->auxSDPLine()) != NULL) {
    fAuxSDPLine = strDup(dasl);
    fDummyRTPSink = NULL;

    // Signal the event loop that we're done:
    setDoneFlag();
  } else if (!fDoneFlag) {
    // try again after a brief delay:
    int uSecsToDelay = 100000; // 100 ms
    nextTask() = envir().taskScheduler().scheduleDelayedTask(uSecsToDelay,
			      (TaskFunc*)checkForAuxSDPLine, this);
  }
}

可以看到,这个函数就是一直循环检测SDPLine或者模拟RTPSink的SDPLine是否生成,如果没生成就过100ms继续检测,直到生成后就把fDoneFlag置位,这时任务调度器就会停止工作。

char const* H264VideoRTPSink::auxSDPLine() {
  // Generate a new "a=fmtp:" line each time, using our SPS and PPS (if we have them),
  // otherwise parameters from our framer source (in case they've changed since the last time that
  // we were called):
  H264or5VideoStreamFramer* framerSource = NULL;
  u_int8_t* vpsDummy = NULL; unsigned vpsDummySize = 0;
  u_int8_t* sps = fSPS; unsigned spsSize = fSPSSize;
  u_int8_t* pps = fPPS; unsigned ppsSize = fPPSSize;
  if (sps == NULL || pps == NULL) {
    // We need to get SPS and PPS from our framer source:
    if (fOurFragmenter == NULL) return NULL; // we don't yet have a fragmenter (and therefore not a source)
    framerSource = (H264or5VideoStreamFramer*)(fOurFragmenter->inputSource());
    if (framerSource == NULL) return NULL; // we don't yet have a source

    framerSource->getVPSandSPSandPPS(vpsDummy, vpsDummySize, sps, spsSize, pps, ppsSize);
    if (sps == NULL || pps == NULL) return NULL; // our source isn't ready
  }

  // Set up the "a=fmtp:" SDP line for this stream:
  u_int8_t* spsWEB = new u_int8_t[spsSize]; // "WEB" means "Without Emulation Bytes"
  unsigned spsWEBSize = removeH264or5EmulationBytes(spsWEB, spsSize, sps, spsSize);
  if (spsWEBSize < 4) { // Bad SPS size => assume our source isn't ready
    delete[] spsWEB;
    return NULL;
  }
  u_int32_t profileLevelId = (spsWEB[1]<<16) | (spsWEB[2]<<8) | spsWEB[3];
  delete[] spsWEB;

  char* sps_base64 = base64Encode((char*)sps, spsSize);
  char* pps_base64 = base64Encode((char*)pps, ppsSize);

  char const* fmtpFmt =
    "a=fmtp:%d packetization-mode=1"
    ";profile-level-id=%06X"
    ";sprop-parameter-sets=%s,%s\r\n";
  unsigned fmtpFmtSize = strlen(fmtpFmt)
    + 3 /* max char len */
    + 6 /* 3 bytes in hex */
    + strlen(sps_base64) + strlen(pps_base64);
  char* fmtp = new char[fmtpFmtSize];
  sprintf(fmtp, fmtpFmt,
          rtpPayloadType(),
	  profileLevelId,
          sps_base64, pps_base64);

  delete[] sps_base64;
  delete[] pps_base64;

  delete[] fFmtpSDPLine; fFmtpSDPLine = fmtp;
  return fFmtpSDPLine;
}

可以看到,这个函数就是检测是否有SPS和PPS信息,如果有就能根据SPS和PPS生成对应的SDPLine。
然后我们回过头来继续看一下启动RTPSink后是如何生成SPS和PPS信息的的。

6.启动RTPSink

Boolean MediaSink::startPlaying(MediaSource& source,
				afterPlayingFunc* afterFunc,
				void* afterClientData) {
  // Make sure we're not already being played:
  if (fSource != NULL) {
    envir().setResultMsg("This sink is already being played");
    return False;
  }

  // Make sure our source is compatible:
  if (!sourceIsCompatibleWithUs(source)) {
    envir().setResultMsg("MediaSink::startPlaying(): source is not compatible!");
    return False;
  }
  fSource = (FramedSource*)&source;

  fAfterFunc = afterFunc;
  fAfterClientData = afterClientData;
  return continuePlaying();
}

开始播放后会去调用虚函数continuePlaying。我们的RTPSink是H264or5VideoRTPSink类型的,所以就去调用H264or5VideoRTPSink的continuePlaying

Boolean H264or5VideoRTPSink::continuePlaying() {
  // First, check whether we have a 'fragmenter' class set up yet.
  // If not, create it now:
  if (fOurFragmenter == NULL) {
    fOurFragmenter = new H264or5Fragmenter(fHNumber, envir(), fSource, OutPacketBuffer::maxSize,
					   ourMaxPacketSize() - 12/*RTP hdr size*/);
  } else {
    fOurFragmenter->reassignInputSource(fSource);
  }
  fSource = fOurFragmenter;

  // Then call the parent class's implementation:
  return MultiFramedRTPSink::continuePlaying();
}

这里面创建了一个H264或H265的分片管理器。然后调用父类MultiFramedRTPSink::continuePlaying;

Boolean MultiFramedRTPSink::continuePlaying() {
  // Send the first packet.
  // (This will also schedule any future sends.)
  buildAndSendPacket(True);
  return True;
}
...
void MultiFramedRTPSink::buildAndSendPacket(Boolean isFirstPacket) {
  nextTask() = NULL;
  fIsFirstPacket = isFirstPacket;

  // Set up the RTP header:
  unsigned rtpHdr = 0x80000000; // RTP version 2; marker ('M') bit not set (by default; it can be set later)
  rtpHdr |= (fRTPPayloadType<<16);
  rtpHdr |= fSeqNo; // sequence number
  fOutBuf->enqueueWord(rtpHdr);

  // Note where the RTP timestamp will go.
  // (We can't fill this in until we start packing payload frames.)
  fTimestampPosition = fOutBuf->curPacketSize();
  fOutBuf->skipBytes(4); // leave a hole for the timestamp

  fOutBuf->enqueueWord(SSRC());

  // Allow for a special, payload-format-specific header following the
  // RTP header:
  fSpecialHeaderPosition = fOutBuf->curPacketSize();
  fSpecialHeaderSize = specialHeaderSize();
  fOutBuf->skipBytes(fSpecialHeaderSize);

  // Begin packing as many (complete) frames into the packet as we can:
  fTotalFrameSpecificHeaderSizes = 0;
  fNoFramesLeft = False;
  fNumFramesUsedSoFar = 0;
  packFrame();
}
void MultiFramedRTPSink::packFrame() {
  // Get the next frame.

  // First, skip over the space we'll use for any frame-specific header:
  fCurFrameSpecificHeaderPosition = fOutBuf->curPacketSize();
  fCurFrameSpecificHeaderSize = frameSpecificHeaderSize();
  fOutBuf->skipBytes(fCurFrameSpecificHeaderSize);
  fTotalFrameSpecificHeaderSizes += fCurFrameSpecificHeaderSize;

  // See if we have an overflow frame that was too big for the last pkt
  if (fOutBuf->haveOverflowData()) {
    // Use this frame before reading a new one from the source
    unsigned frameSize = fOutBuf->overflowDataSize();
    struct timeval presentationTime = fOutBuf->overflowPresentationTime();
    unsigned durationInMicroseconds = fOutBuf->overflowDurationInMicroseconds();
    fOutBuf->useOverflowData();

    afterGettingFrame1(frameSize, 0, presentationTime, durationInMicroseconds);
  } else {
    // Normal case: we need to read a new frame from the source
    if (fSource == NULL) return;
    fSource->getNextFrame(fOutBuf->curPtr(), fOutBuf->totalBytesAvailable(),
			  afterGettingFrame, this, ourHandleClosure, this);
  }
}

continuePlaying以此调用到了packFrame函数,这个函数中检测到数据不足时会调用fSource->getNextFrame。要记得这个fSource就是之前创建的片段管理器,类型是H264or5Fragmenter。
getNextFrame函数都会去调用虚函数doGetNextFrame,doGetNextFrame是每个子类自己实现的。
所以这里会调用到H264or5Fragmenter的doGetNextFrame函数。

  if (fNumValidDataBytes == 1) {
    // We have no NAL unit data currently in the buffer.  Read a new one:
    fInputSource->getNextFrame(&fInputBuffer[1], fInputBufferSize - 1,
			       afterGettingFrame, this,
			       FramedSource::handleClosure, this);
  }

H264or5Fragmenter的doGetNextFrame又会去调用InputSource->getNextFrame。
而这个InputSource的类型是H264VideoStreamFramer,可以回去看关键变量类型图。
所以就调用到H264VideoStreamFramer::doGetNextFrame。它继承自H264or5VideoStreamFramer,自身没有重写虚函数,所以调用H264or5VideoStreamFramer::doGetNextFrame.

 else {
    // Do the normal delivery of a NAL unit from the parser:
    MPEGVideoStreamFramer::doGetNextFrame();
  }

它又去调用MPEGVideoStreamFramer::doGetNextFrame()

void MPEGVideoStreamFramer::doGetNextFrame() {
  fParser->registerReadInterest(fTo, fMaxSize);
  continueReadProcessing();
}

continueReadProcessing又去调用解析器的解析函数。

unsigned acquiredFrameSize = fParser->parse();

这个fParser是H264or5VideoStreamParser类型的,所以会去调用H264or5VideoStreamParser::parse。
在parse函数中可以看到,读取文件数据并解析,解析后判断是否是SPS或PPS类型的nalu,如果是的话就设置SPS和PPS等信息。至此算是得到了SPS和PPS信息了。

usingSource()->saveCopyOfSPS(fStartOfFrame + fOutputStartCodeSize, curFrameSize() - fOutputStartCodeSize);
...
usingSource()->saveCopyOfPPS(fStartOfFrame + fOutputStartCodeSize, curFrameSize() - fOutputStartCodeSize);

得到SPS和PPS信息后,结合之前H264VideoRTPSink::auxSDPLine()函数,就能生成对应的SDPLine信息了。从而生成了SDP信息并发送给客户端。完成DESCRIBE的整个流程。

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