GStreamer基础教程06——媒体格式和pad的Capabilities

目标
      Pad的Capabilities是一个GStreamer element的基础,因为framework大部分时间是自动处理的,所以我们几乎感觉不到它的存在。本教程比较偏向原理,介绍了:
      什么是Pad Capabilities
      如何获得这个东西
      什么时候应该去获得这个东西
      为什么你需要了解他们

介绍
Pads
      Pads允许信息进入或者离开一个element——就像曾经展示过得一样。这个Capabilities(或者简单地叫做Caps)就是指定哪些信息可以通过Pad来传输。例如:“”RGB视频,尺寸为320x200并且每秒30帧“或者”16位的音频采样,5.1声道,每秒采样44.1k“甚至可以是类似于mp3/h264之类的压缩格式。
      Pads支持多重Capabilities(比如,一个视频的sink可以支持RGB输出或者YUV输出),Capabilities可以指定一个范围而不必须是一个特定值(比如,一个音频sink可以支持从1~48000的采样率)。然而,数据从一个pad流向另一个pad的时候,必须是一个双方都能支持的格式。某一种数据形式是两个pad都能支持的,这样Pads的Capabilities就固定下来(只有一个钟个数,并且不再是一个数据区间了),这个过程被称为协商。下面的例子会更清楚的说明这一点。
      为了两个element可以连接,他们必须有一个共同的Capabilities子集(否则它们肯定不能互相连接)。这就是Capabilities存在的主要目的。
      作为一个应用开发者,我们通常都是用连接一个个element的方法来建立pipeline的。在这个例子中,你需要了解你使用的element的Pad的Caps。
Pad模板
      Pad是由Pad模板创建的,模板里面会列出一个Pad所有可能的Capabilities。模板对于创建几个相似的Pad是很有帮助的,但也会比较早就判断出两个element是否可以相连:如果连两个Pad的模板都不具备共同的子集的化,就没必要进行更深层的协商了。
      Pad模板检查是协商流程的第一步。随着流程的逐步深入,Pad会正式初始化,也会确定他们的Capability(除非协商失败了)。

Capabilities例子

SINK template: 'sink'
  Availability: Always
  Capabilities:
    audio/x-raw-int
               signed: true
                width: 16
                depth: 16
                 rate: [ 1, 2147483647 ]
             channels: [ 1, 2 ]
    audio/x-raw-int
               signed: false
                width: 8
                depth: 8
                 rate: [ 1, 2147483647 ]
             channels: [ 1, 2 ]
      这是一个element的永久sink pad。它支持2种媒体格式,都是音频的原始数据(audio/x-raw-int),16位的符号数和8位的无符号数。方括号表示一个范围,例如,频道(channels)的范围是1到2.

SRC template: 'src'
  Availability: Always
  Capabilities:
    video/x-raw-yuv
                width: [ 1, 2147483647 ]
               height: [ 1, 2147483647 ]
            framerate: [ 0/1, 2147483647/1 ]
               format: { I420, NV12, NV21, YV12, YUY2, Y42B, Y444, YUV9, YVU9, Y41B, Y800, Y8  , GREY, Y16 , UYVY, YVYU, IYU1, v308, AYUV, A420 } 
      video/x-raw-yur表示这个source pad用YUV格式输出视频。它支持一个很广的维数和帧率,一系列的YUV格式(用花括号列出了)。所有这些格式都显示不同的图像打包和子采样程度。

最后的总结 

      你可以使用gst-inspect-0.10这个工具(在后面教程中会介绍)来查看一下element的Caps。

      记住有些element会查看底层的硬件来确定支持的格式和能提供的Pad的Caps(通常在进入READY或更后面的状态)。因此,这个显示的Caps由于平台的不同是不一样的,甚至可能在每一次运行都不相同(这种情况很少)。

      本教程会创建2个element,显示它们各自的Pad模板,连接起来并把pipeline设置成PLAY状态。在每个状态切换的过程中,sink element的Pad的Capabilities会显示出来,这样你就可以观察到协商过程是如何进行的,最后Pad的Caps是怎么定下来的。


一个简单地Pad Capabilities例子

#include <gst/gst.h>
  
/* Functions below print the Capabilities in a human-friendly format */
static gboolean print_field (GQuark field, const GValue * value, gpointer pfx) {
  gchar *str = gst_value_serialize (value);
  
  g_print ("%s  %15s: %s\n", (gchar *) pfx, g_quark_to_string (field), str);
  g_free (str);
  return TRUE;
}
  
static void print_caps (const GstCaps * caps, const gchar * pfx) {
  guint i;
  
  g_return_if_fail (caps != NULL);
  
  if (gst_caps_is_any (caps)) {
    g_print ("%sANY\n", pfx);
    return;
  }
  if (gst_caps_is_empty (caps)) {
    g_print ("%sEMPTY\n", pfx);
    return;
  }
  
  for (i = 0; i < gst_caps_get_size (caps); i++) {
    GstStructure *structure = gst_caps_get_structure (caps, i);
    
    g_print ("%s%s\n", pfx, gst_structure_get_name (structure));
    gst_structure_foreach (structure, print_field, (gpointer) pfx);
  }
}
  
/* Prints information about a Pad Template, including its Capabilities */
static void print_pad_templates_information (GstElementFactory * factory) {
  const GList *pads;
  GstStaticPadTemplate *padtemplate;
  
  g_print ("Pad Templates for %s:\n", gst_element_factory_get_longname (factory));
  if (!factory->numpadtemplates) {
    g_print ("  none\n");
    return;
  }
  
  pads = factory->staticpadtemplates;
  while (pads) {
    padtemplate = (GstStaticPadTemplate *) (pads->data);
    pads = g_list_next (pads);
    
    if (padtemplate->direction == GST_PAD_SRC)
      g_print ("  SRC template: '%s'\n", padtemplate->name_template);
    else if (padtemplate->direction == GST_PAD_SINK)
      g_print ("  SINK template: '%s'\n", padtemplate->name_template);
    else
      g_print ("  UNKNOWN!!! template: '%s'\n", padtemplate->name_template);
    
    if (padtemplate->presence == GST_PAD_ALWAYS)
      g_print ("    Availability: Always\n");
    else if (padtemplate->presence == GST_PAD_SOMETIMES)
      g_print ("    Availability: Sometimes\n");
    else if (padtemplate->presence == GST_PAD_REQUEST) {
      g_print ("    Availability: On request\n");
    } else
      g_print ("    Availability: UNKNOWN!!!\n");
    
    if (padtemplate->static_caps.string) {
      g_print ("    Capabilities:\n");
      print_caps (gst_static_caps_get (&padtemplate->static_caps), "      ");
    }
    
    g_print ("\n");
  }
}
  
/* Shows the CURRENT capabilities of the requested pad in the given element */
static void print_pad_capabilities (GstElement *element, gchar *pad_name) {
  GstPad *pad = NULL;
  GstCaps *caps = NULL;
  
  /* Retrieve pad */
  pad = gst_element_get_static_pad (element, pad_name);
  if (!pad) {
    g_printerr ("Could not retrieve pad '%s'\n", pad_name);
    return;
  }
  
  /* Retrieve negotiated caps (or acceptable caps if negotiation is not finished yet) */
  caps = gst_pad_get_negotiated_caps (pad);
  if (!caps)
    caps = gst_pad_get_caps_reffed (pad);
  
  /* Print and free */
  g_print ("Caps for the %s pad:\n", pad_name);
  print_caps (caps, "      ");
  gst_caps_unref (caps);
  gst_object_unref (pad);
}
  
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
  GstElement *pipeline, *source, *sink;
  GstElementFactory *source_factory, *sink_factory;
  GstBus *bus;
  GstMessage *msg;
  GstStateChangeReturn ret;
  gboolean terminate = FALSE;
  
  /* Initialize GStreamer */
  gst_init (&argc, &argv);
   
  /* Create the element factories */
  source_factory = gst_element_factory_find ("audiotestsrc");
  sink_factory = gst_element_factory_find ("autoaudiosink");
  if (!source_factory || !sink_factory) {
    g_printerr ("Not all element factories could be created.\n");
    return -1;
  }
  
  /* Print information about the pad templates of these factories */
  print_pad_templates_information (source_factory);
  print_pad_templates_information (sink_factory);
  
  /* Ask the factories to instantiate actual elements */
  source = gst_element_factory_create (source_factory, "source");
  sink = gst_element_factory_create (sink_factory, "sink");
  
  /* Create the empty pipeline */
  pipeline = gst_pipeline_new ("test-pipeline");
  
  if (!pipeline || !source || !sink) {
    g_printerr ("Not all elements could be created.\n");
    return -1;
  }
  
  /* Build the pipeline */
  gst_bin_add_many (GST_BIN (pipeline), source, sink, NULL);
  if (gst_element_link (source, sink) != TRUE) {
    g_printerr ("Elements could not be linked.\n");
    gst_object_unref (pipeline);
    return -1;
  }
  
  /* Print initial negotiated caps (in NULL state) */
  g_print ("In NULL state:\n");
  print_pad_capabilities (sink, "sink");
  
  /* Start playing */
  ret = gst_element_set_state (pipeline, GST_STATE_PLAYING);
  if (ret == GST_STATE_CHANGE_FAILURE) {
    g_printerr ("Unable to set the pipeline to the playing state (check the bus for error messages).\n");
  }
  
  /* Wait until error, EOS or State Change */
  bus = gst_element_get_bus (pipeline);
  do {
    msg = gst_bus_timed_pop_filtered (bus, GST_CLOCK_TIME_NONE, GST_MESSAGE_ERROR | GST_MESSAGE_EOS |
        GST_MESSAGE_STATE_CHANGED);
  
    /* Parse message */
    if (msg != NULL) {
      GError *err;
      gchar *debug_info;
    
      switch (GST_MESSAGE_TYPE (msg)) {
        case GST_MESSAGE_ERROR:
          gst_message_parse_error (msg, &err, &debug_info);
          g_printerr ("Error received from element %s: %s\n", GST_OBJECT_NAME (msg->src), err->message);
          g_printerr ("Debugging information: %s\n", debug_info ? debug_info : "none");
          g_clear_error (&err);
          g_free (debug_info);
          terminate = TRUE;
          break;
        case GST_MESSAGE_EOS:
          g_print ("End-Of-Stream reached.\n");
          terminate = TRUE;
          break;
        case GST_MESSAGE_STATE_CHANGED:
          /* We are only interested in state-changed messages from the pipeline */
          if (GST_MESSAGE_SRC (msg) == GST_OBJECT (pipeline)) {
            GstState old_state, new_state, pending_state;
            gst_message_parse_state_changed (msg, &old_state, &new_state, &pending_state);
            g_print ("\nPipeline state changed from %s to %s:\n",
                gst_element_state_get_name (old_state), gst_element_state_get_name (new_state));
            /* Print the current capabilities of the sink element */
            print_pad_capabilities (sink, "sink");
          }
          break;
        default:
          /* We should not reach here because we only asked for ERRORs, EOS and STATE_CHANGED */
          g_printerr ("Unexpected message received.\n");
          break;
      }
      gst_message_unref (msg);
    }
  } while (!terminate);
  
  /* Free resources */
  gst_object_unref (bus);
  gst_element_set_state (pipeline, GST_STATE_NULL);
  gst_object_unref (pipeline);
  gst_object_unref (source_factory);
  gst_object_unref (sink_factory);
  return 0;
}

工作流程

      这里的print_field,print_caps和print_pad_templates仅仅简单的用方便阅读的方式显示Capabilities结构。如果你想学到GstCaps数据结构的内在组织,那么请度以下Gstreamer文档关于Pad Caps的部分。

/* Shows the CURRENT capabilities of the requested pad in the given element */
static void print_pad_capabilities (GstElement *element, gchar *pad_name) {
  GstPad *pad = NULL;
  GstCaps *caps = NULL;
  
  /* Retrieve pad */
  pad = gst_element_get_static_pad (element, pad_name);
  if (!pad) {
    g_printerr ("Could not retrieve pad '%s'\n", pad_name);
    return;
  }
  
  /* Retrieve negotiated caps (or acceptable caps if negotiation is not finished yet) */
  caps = gst_pad_get_negotiated_caps (pad);
  if (!caps)
    caps = gst_pad_get_caps_reffed (pad);
  
  /* Print and free */
  g_print ("Caps for the %s pad:\n", pad_name);
  print_caps (caps, "      ");
  gst_caps_unref (caps);
  gst_object_unref (pad);
}

      gst_element_get_static_pad()方法会从给定的element里面取得Pad的名字。这个Pad是静态的,因为它会一直存在。要进一步了解Pad请阅读GStreamer文档关于Pad的部分。

      然后我们调用gst_pad_get_negotiated_caps()方法来获得Pad当前的Capabilities,无论是否已经固定下来,都会依赖协商过程的状态。这时Capabilities可能是不存在的,如果遇到这种情况,我们就调用gst_pad_get_caps_reffed()方法来建立一个当前可以接受的Pad Capabilities。这个所谓的当前可接受的Caps时Pad Template的在NULL状态下的Caps,但后面这个可能会改变,因为还会查询实际的硬件。

      gst_pad_get_caps_reffed()通常来说比gst_pad_get_caps()快一点,而且如果我们不需要改变获得的Caps的话也足够用了。然后我们就打印出这些Capabilities。

  /* Create the element factories */
  source_factory = gst_element_factory_find ("audiotestsrc");
  sink_factory = gst_element_factory_find ("autoaudiosink");
  if (!source_factory || !sink_factory) {
    g_printerr ("Not all element factories could be created.\n");
    return -1;
  }
  
  /* Print information about the pad templates of these factories */
  print_pad_templates_information (source_factory);
  print_pad_templates_information (sink_factory);
  
  /* Ask the factories to instantiate actual elements */
  source = gst_element_factory_create (source_factory, "source");
  sink = gst_element_factory_create (sink_factory, "sink");
      在前面的教程中我们直接使用gst_element_factory_make()方法来创建element,而忽略了工厂本身,我们现在补上这一部分。一个GstElementFactory是负责通过一个工厂名来实例化一个element的。

      你可以使用gst_element_factory_find()来创建一个“videotestsrc”工厂,然后通过gst_element_factory_create()来实例化多个“videotestsrc” element。gst_element_factory_make()实际上只是这个过程的一个封装。

      通过工程,Pad模板实际上已经可以访问了,所以工厂一建立我们立刻打印这些信息。

      我们跳过pipeline的创建和启动部分,直接跳到状态切换消息的处理:

        case GST_MESSAGE_STATE_CHANGED:
          /* We are only interested in state-changed messages from the pipeline */
          if (GST_MESSAGE_SRC (msg) == GST_OBJECT (pipeline)) {
            GstState old_state, new_state, pending_state;
            gst_message_parse_state_changed (msg, &old_state, &new_state, &pending_state);
            g_print ("\nPipeline state changed from %s to %s:\n",
                gst_element_state_get_name (old_state), gst_element_state_get_name (new_state));
            /* Print the current capabilities of the sink element */
            print_pad_capabilities (sink, "sink");
          }
          break;
      这里只是在每次pipeline状态切换的时候简单地打印当前的Pad Caps。你可以看到,在输出信息里面,初始的Caps(Pad模板的Caps)是如何逐步变化直到确定下来的(仅包含一个类型而且数值固定)。


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