blockchain 区块链200行代码:在JavaScript实现的一个简单的例子

了解blockchain的概念很简单(区块链,交易链块):它是分布式的(即不是放置在同一台机器上,不同的网络设备上的)数据库支持主办记录日益增长的名单。但是,这也是容易混淆blockchain与我们试图帮他解决了目标 - 在人们心中的那一刻,这个词是相当强烈的交易,合同或智能cryptocurrency的概念有关。
只有在这里blockchain - 是不是一回事比特币,并理解链块的基本知识比它似乎更容易,尤其是在,它是基于源代码的情况下。在本文中,我们提出了建立与在JavaScript中200行代码的简单模型。这个项目,我们称之为NaiveChain的源代码,可以在GitHub上找到。
第1部分和第2部分:如果您需要刷上它的功能,使用我们的备忘单,我们将使用标准的ECMAScript 6。

块结构

第一步 - 确定应包含块的元素。为简单起见,我们只包括最必要的:先前块的指数(指数),时间标记(时间戳),数据(数据),散列和散列,要录制,以保持电路的结构完整性。


class Block {
    constructor(index, previousHash, timestamp, data, hash) {
        this.index = index;
        this.previousHash = previousHash.toString();
        this.timestamp = timestamp;
        this.data = data;
        this.hash = hash.toString();
    }
}

散列单元

哈希块需要保持数据的完整性。在我们的例子,这适用于算法SHA-256。这种类型的散列是不相关的开采,因为在这种情况下,我们并没有用表现证明实施保护。

var calculateHash = (index, previousHash, timestamp, data) => {
    return CryptoJS.SHA256(index + previousHash + timestamp + data).toString();
};

产生单元

要生成块,我们需要知道前一个块的哈希,使我们在结构已经确定了元素的其余部分。数据由最终用户提供。

var generateNextBlock = (blockData) => {
    var previousBlock = getLatestBlock();
    var nextIndex = previousBlock.index + 1;
    var nextTimestamp = new Date().getTime() / 1000;
    var nextHash = calculateHash(nextIndex, previousBlock.hash, nextTimestamp, blockData);
    return new Block(nextIndex, previousBlock.hash, nextTimestamp, blockData, nextHash);
};

存储单元

使用blockchain 存储阵列。第一个块总是硬编码“创世纪块”。

var getGenesisBlock = () => {
    return new Block(0, "0", 1465154705, "my genesis block!!", "816534932c2b7154836da6afc367695e6337db8a921823784c14378abed4f7d7");
};
 
var blockchain = [getGenesisBlock()];

确认块的完整性

我们必须始终能够确认单元或电路的完整性。尤其是当你从其他单位新的单位,必须决定是否接受它们。

var isValidNewBlock = (newBlock, previousBlock) => {
    if (previousBlock.index + 1 !== newBlock.index) {
        console.log('invalid index');
        return false;
    } else if (previousBlock.hash !== newBlock.previousHash) {
        console.log('invalid previoushash');
        return false;
    } else if (calculateHashForBlock(newBlock) !== newBlock.hash) {
        console.log(typeof (newBlock.hash) + ' ' + typeof calculateHashForBlock(newBlock));
        console.log('invalid hash: ' + calculateHashForBlock(newBlock) + ' ' + newBlock.hash);
        return false;
    }
    return true;
};

选择链最长的

在电路块的顺序必须被明确指定,但是在发生冲突的情况下(例如,两个节点同时在同一生成的块和相同数量),我们选择电路,其中包含的块的数量较多。

var replaceChain = (newBlocks) => {
    if (isValidChain(newBlocks) && newBlocks.length > blockchain.length) {
        console.log('Received blockchain is valid. Replacing current blockchain with received blockchain');
        blockchain = newBlocks;
        broadcast(responseLatestMsg());
    } else {
        console.log('Received blockchain invalid');
    }
};

消息到其它网络节点

该网站的一个组成部分 - 与其他节点的数据交换。下列规则用于维护网络同步:
当一个节点产生新的单元,它会报告给网络;
当本机连接到新的盛宴,他要求有关最后生成的块信息;
当一个节点正面临着一个块,其中有一个指标比他还大,他增加了一个块到电路或请求的完整链条的信息。
自动搜索同龄人不执行,所有环节都手动添加。

单元的控制

用户应该能够以某种方式控制节点,通过将HTTP服务器解决。当与节点相互作用有以下功能:
打印所有单元的列表;
创建用户生成内容的新单元;
打印列表,或添加的节日。
互动的最直接的方式 - 通过卷曲:


一个节点上的所有块#名单
curl http://localhost:3001/blocks


架构


值得注意的是,该网站是指两个Web服务器:HTTP进行用户控制的装置和向所述的WebSocket HTTP来安装节点之间的P2P连接。


如下为js 200行代码

'use strict';
var CryptoJS = require("crypto-js");
var express = require("express");
var bodyParser = require('body-parser');
var WebSocket = require("ws");

var http_port = process.env.HTTP_PORT || 3001;
var p2p_port = process.env.P2P_PORT || 6001;
var initialPeers = process.env.PEERS ? process.env.PEERS.split(',') : [];

class Block {
    constructor(index, previousHash, timestamp, data, hash) {
        this.index = index;
        this.previousHash = previousHash.toString();
        this.timestamp = timestamp;
        this.data = data;
        this.hash = hash.toString();
    }
}

var sockets = [];
var MessageType = {
    QUERY_LATEST: 0,
    QUERY_ALL: 1,
    RESPONSE_BLOCKCHAIN: 2
};

var getGenesisBlock = () => {
    return new Block(0, "0", 1465154705, "my genesis block!!", "816534932c2b7154836da6afc367695e6337db8a921823784c14378abed4f7d7");
};

var blockchain = [getGenesisBlock()];

var initHttpServer = () => {
    var app = express();
    app.use(bodyParser.json());

    app.get('/blocks', (req, res) => res.send(JSON.stringify(blockchain)));
    app.post('/mineBlock', (req, res) => {
        var newBlock = generateNextBlock(req.body.data);
        addBlock(newBlock);
        broadcast(responseLatestMsg());
        console.log('block added: ' + JSON.stringify(newBlock));
        res.send();
    });
    app.get('/peers', (req, res) => {
        res.send(sockets.map(s => s._socket.remoteAddress + ':' + s._socket.remotePort));
    });
    app.post('/addPeer', (req, res) => {
        connectToPeers([req.body.peer]);
        res.send();
    });
    app.listen(http_port, () => console.log('Listening http on port: ' + http_port));
};


var initP2PServer = () => {
    var server = new WebSocket.Server({port: p2p_port});
    server.on('connection', ws => initConnection(ws));
    console.log('listening websocket p2p port on: ' + p2p_port);

};

var initConnection = (ws) => {
    sockets.push(ws);
    initMessageHandler(ws);
    initErrorHandler(ws);
    write(ws, queryChainLengthMsg());
};

var initMessageHandler = (ws) => {
    ws.on('message', (data) => {
        var message = JSON.parse(data);
        console.log('Received message' + JSON.stringify(message));
        switch (message.type) {
            case MessageType.QUERY_LATEST:
                write(ws, responseLatestMsg());
                break;
            case MessageType.QUERY_ALL:
                write(ws, responseChainMsg());
                break;
            case MessageType.RESPONSE_BLOCKCHAIN:
                handleBlockchainResponse(message);
                break;
        }
    });
};

var initErrorHandler = (ws) => {
    var closeConnection = (ws) => {
        console.log('connection failed to peer: ' + ws.url);
        sockets.splice(sockets.indexOf(ws), 1);
    };
    ws.on('close', () => closeConnection(ws));
    ws.on('error', () => closeConnection(ws));
};


var generateNextBlock = (blockData) => {
    var previousBlock = getLatestBlock();
    var nextIndex = previousBlock.index + 1;
    var nextTimestamp = new Date().getTime() / 1000;
    var nextHash = calculateHash(nextIndex, previousBlock.hash, nextTimestamp, blockData);
    return new Block(nextIndex, previousBlock.hash, nextTimestamp, blockData, nextHash);
};


var calculateHashForBlock = (block) => {
    return calculateHash(block.index, block.previousHash, block.timestamp, block.data);
};

var calculateHash = (index, previousHash, timestamp, data) => {
    return CryptoJS.SHA256(index + previousHash + timestamp + data).toString();
};

var addBlock = (newBlock) => {
    if (isValidNewBlock(newBlock, getLatestBlock())) {
        blockchain.push(newBlock);
    }
};

var isValidNewBlock = (newBlock, previousBlock) => {
    if (previousBlock.index + 1 !== newBlock.index) {
        console.log('invalid index');
        return false;
    } else if (previousBlock.hash !== newBlock.previousHash) {
        console.log('invalid previoushash');
        return false;
    } else if (calculateHashForBlock(newBlock) !== newBlock.hash) {
        console.log(typeof (newBlock.hash) + ' ' + typeof calculateHashForBlock(newBlock));
        console.log('invalid hash: ' + calculateHashForBlock(newBlock) + ' ' + newBlock.hash);
        return false;
    }
    return true;
};

var connectToPeers = (newPeers) => {
    newPeers.forEach((peer) => {
        var ws = new WebSocket(peer);
        ws.on('open', () => initConnection(ws));
        ws.on('error', () => {
            console.log('connection failed')
        });
    });
};

var handleBlockchainResponse = (message) => {
    var receivedBlocks = JSON.parse(message.data).sort((b1, b2) => (b1.index - b2.index));
    var latestBlockReceived = receivedBlocks[receivedBlocks.length - 1];
    var latestBlockHeld = getLatestBlock();
    if (latestBlockReceived.index > latestBlockHeld.index) {
        console.log('blockchain possibly behind. We got: ' + latestBlockHeld.index + ' Peer got: ' + latestBlockReceived.index);
        if (latestBlockHeld.hash === latestBlockReceived.previousHash) {
            console.log("We can append the received block to our chain");
            blockchain.push(latestBlockReceived);
            broadcast(responseLatestMsg());
        } else if (receivedBlocks.length === 1) {
            console.log("We have to query the chain from our peer");
            broadcast(queryAllMsg());
        } else {
            console.log("Received blockchain is longer than current blockchain");
            replaceChain(receivedBlocks);
        }
    } else {
        console.log('received blockchain is not longer than received blockchain. Do nothing');
    }
};

var replaceChain = (newBlocks) => {
    if (isValidChain(newBlocks) && newBlocks.length > blockchain.length) {
        console.log('Received blockchain is valid. Replacing current blockchain with received blockchain');
        blockchain = newBlocks;
        broadcast(responseLatestMsg());
    } else {
        console.log('Received blockchain invalid');
    }
};

var isValidChain = (blockchainToValidate) => {
    if (JSON.stringify(blockchainToValidate[0]) !== JSON.stringify(getGenesisBlock())) {
        return false;
    }
    var tempBlocks = [blockchainToValidate[0]];
    for (var i = 1; i < blockchainToValidate.length; i++) {
        if (isValidNewBlock(blockchainToValidate[i], tempBlocks[i - 1])) {
            tempBlocks.push(blockchainToValidate[i]);
        } else {
            return false;
        }
    }
    return true;
};

var getLatestBlock = () => blockchain[blockchain.length - 1];
var queryChainLengthMsg = () => ({'type': MessageType.QUERY_LATEST});
var queryAllMsg = () => ({'type': MessageType.QUERY_ALL});
var responseChainMsg = () =>({
    'type': MessageType.RESPONSE_BLOCKCHAIN, 'data': JSON.stringify(blockchain)
});
var responseLatestMsg = () => ({
    'type': MessageType.RESPONSE_BLOCKCHAIN,
    'data': JSON.stringify([getLatestBlock()])
});

var write = (ws, message) => ws.send(JSON.stringify(message));
var broadcast = (message) => sockets.forEach(socket => write(socket, message));

connectToPeers(initialPeers);
initHttpServer();
initP2PServer();




            
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