Linux Kernel Parameters

转载 2012年03月30日 17:43:41
                          Kernel Parameters

The following is a consolidated list of the kernel parameters as implemented
(mostly) by the __setup() macro and sorted into English Dictionary order
(defined as ignoring all punctuation and sorting digits before letters in a
case insensitive manner), and with descriptions where known.

Module parameters for loadable modules are specified only as the
parameter name with optional '=' and value as appropriate, such as:

	modprobe usbcore blinkenlights=1

Module parameters for modules that are built into the kernel image
are specified on the kernel command line with the module name plus
'.' plus parameter name, with '=' and value if appropriate, such as:


Hyphens (dashes) and underscores are equivalent in parameter names, so
	log_buf_len=1M print-fatal-signals=1
can also be entered as
	log-buf-len=1M print_fatal_signals=1

This document may not be entirely up to date and comprehensive. The command
"modinfo -p ${modulename}" shows a current list of all parameters of a loadable
module. Loadable modules, after being loaded into the running kernel, also
reveal their parameters in /sys/module/${modulename}/parameters/. Some of these
parameters may be changed at runtime by the command
"echo -n ${value} > /sys/module/${modulename}/parameters/${parm}".

The parameters listed below are only valid if certain kernel build options were
enabled and if respective hardware is present. The text in square brackets at
the beginning of each description states the restrictions within which a
parameter is applicable:

	ACPI	ACPI support is enabled.
	AGP	AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) is enabled.
	ALSA	ALSA sound support is enabled.
	APIC	APIC support is enabled.
	APM	Advanced Power Management support is enabled.
	AVR32	AVR32 architecture is enabled.
	AX25	Appropriate AX.25 support is enabled.
	BLACKFIN Blackfin architecture is enabled.
	DRM	Direct Rendering Management support is enabled.
	DYNAMIC_DEBUG Build in debug messages and enable them at runtime
	EDD	BIOS Enhanced Disk Drive Services (EDD) is enabled
	EFI	EFI Partitioning (GPT) is enabled
	EIDE	EIDE/ATAPI support is enabled.
	FB	The frame buffer device is enabled.
	GCOV	GCOV profiling is enabled.
	HW	Appropriate hardware is enabled.
	IA-64	IA-64 architecture is enabled.
	IMA     Integrity measurement architecture is enabled.
	IOSCHED	More than one I/O scheduler is enabled.
	IP_PNP	IP DHCP, BOOTP, or RARP is enabled.
	IPV6	IPv6 support is enabled.
	ISAPNP	ISA PnP code is enabled.
	ISDN	Appropriate ISDN support is enabled.
	JOY	Appropriate joystick support is enabled.
	KGDB	Kernel debugger support is enabled.
	KVM	Kernel Virtual Machine support is enabled.
	LIBATA  Libata driver is enabled
	LP	Printer support is enabled.
	LOOP	Loopback device support is enabled.
	M68k	M68k architecture is enabled.
			These options have more detailed description inside of
	MCA	MCA bus support is enabled.
	MDA	MDA console support is enabled.
	MOUSE	Appropriate mouse support is enabled.
	MSI	Message Signaled Interrupts (PCI).
	MTD	MTD (Memory Technology Device) support is enabled.
	NET	Appropriate network support is enabled.
	NUMA	NUMA support is enabled.
	NFS	Appropriate NFS support is enabled.
	OSS	OSS sound support is enabled.
	PV_OPS	A paravirtualized kernel is enabled.
	PARIDE	The ParIDE (parallel port IDE) subsystem is enabled.
	PARISC	The PA-RISC architecture is enabled.
	PCI	PCI bus support is enabled.
	PCIE	PCI Express support is enabled.
	PCMCIA	The PCMCIA subsystem is enabled.
	PNP	Plug & Play support is enabled.
	PPC	PowerPC architecture is enabled.
	PPT	Parallel port support is enabled.
	PS2	Appropriate PS/2 support is enabled.
	RAM	RAM disk support is enabled.
	S390	S390 architecture is enabled.
	SCSI	Appropriate SCSI support is enabled.
			A lot of drivers have their options described inside
			the Documentation/scsi/ sub-directory.
	SECURITY Different security models are enabled.
	SELINUX SELinux support is enabled.
	APPARMOR AppArmor support is enabled.
	SERIAL	Serial support is enabled.
	SH	SuperH architecture is enabled.
	SMP	The kernel is an SMP kernel.
	SPARC	Sparc architecture is enabled.
	SWSUSP	Software suspend (hibernation) is enabled.
	SUSPEND	System suspend states are enabled.
	FTRACE	Function tracing enabled.
	TPM	TPM drivers are enabled.
	TS	Appropriate touchscreen support is enabled.
	UMS	USB Mass Storage support is enabled.
	USB	USB support is enabled.
	USBHID	USB Human Interface Device support is enabled.
	V4L	Video For Linux support is enabled.
	VGA	The VGA console has been enabled.
	VT	Virtual terminal support is enabled.
	WDT	Watchdog support is enabled.
	XT	IBM PC/XT MFM hard disk support is enabled.
	X86-32	X86-32, aka i386 architecture is enabled.
	X86-64	X86-64 architecture is enabled.
			More X86-64 boot options can be found in
			Documentation/x86/x86_64/boot-options.txt .
	X86	Either 32bit or 64bit x86 (same as X86-32+X86-64)
	XEN	Xen support is enabled

In addition, the following text indicates that the option:

	BUGS=	Relates to possible processor bugs on the said processor.
	KNL	Is a kernel start-up parameter.
	BOOT	Is a boot loader parameter.

Parameters denoted with BOOT are actually interpreted by the boot
loader, and have no meaning to the kernel directly.
Do not modify the syntax of boot loader parameters without extreme
need or coordination with <Documentation/x86/boot.txt>.

There are also arch-specific kernel-parameters not documented here.
See for example <Documentation/x86/x86_64/boot-options.txt>.

Note that ALL kernel parameters listed below are CASE SENSITIVE, and that
a trailing = on the name of any parameter states that that parameter will
be entered as an environment variable, whereas its absence indicates that
it will appear as a kernel argument readable via /proc/cmdline by programs
running once the system is up.

The number of kernel parameters is not limited, but the length of the
complete command line (parameters including spaces etc.) is limited to
a fixed number of characters. This limit depends on the architecture
and is between 256 and 4096 characters. It is defined in the file
./include/asm/setup.h as COMMAND_LINE_SIZE.

Finally, the [KMG] suffix is commonly described after a number of kernel
parameter values. These 'K', 'M', and 'G' letters represent the _binary_
multipliers 'Kilo', 'Mega', and 'Giga', equalling 2^10, 2^20, and 2^30
bytes respectively. Such letter suffixes can also be entirely omitted.

	acpi=		[HW,ACPI,X86]
			Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
			Format: { force | off | strict | noirq | rsdt }
			force -- enable ACPI if default was off
			off -- disable ACPI if default was on
			noirq -- do not use ACPI for IRQ routing
			strict -- Be less tolerant of platforms that are not
				strictly ACPI specification compliant.
			rsdt -- prefer RSDT over (default) XSDT
			copy_dsdt -- copy DSDT to memory

			See also Documentation/power/pm.txt, pci=noacpi

	acpi_apic_instance=	[ACPI, IOAPIC]
			Format: <int>
			2: use 2nd APIC table, if available
			1,0: use 1st APIC table
			default: 0

	acpi_backlight=	[HW,ACPI]
			If set to vendor, prefer vendor specific driver
			(e.g. thinkpad_acpi, sony_acpi, etc.) instead
			of the ACPI video.ko driver.

	acpi.debug_layer=	[HW,ACPI,ACPI_DEBUG]
	acpi.debug_level=	[HW,ACPI,ACPI_DEBUG]
			Format: <int>
			CONFIG_ACPI_DEBUG must be enabled to produce any ACPI
			debug output.  Bits in debug_layer correspond to a
			_COMPONENT in an ACPI source file, e.g.,
			Bits in debug_level correspond to a level in
			ACPI_DEBUG_PRINT statements, e.g.,
			The debug_level mask defaults to "info".  See
			Documentation/acpi/debug.txt for more information about
			debug layers and levels.

			Enable processor driver info messages:
			Enable PCI/PCI interrupt routing info messages:
			Enable AML "Debug" output, i.e., stores to the Debug
			object while interpreting AML:
			    acpi.debug_layer=0xffffffff acpi.debug_level=0x2
			Enable all messages related to ACPI hardware:
			    acpi.debug_layer=0x2 acpi.debug_level=0xffffffff

			Some values produce so much output that the system is
			unusable.  The "log_buf_len" parameter may be useful
			if you need to capture more output.

	acpi_irq_balance [HW,ACPI]
			ACPI will balance active IRQs
			default in APIC mode

	acpi_irq_nobalance [HW,ACPI]
			ACPI will not move active IRQs (default)
			default in PIC mode

	acpi_irq_isa=	[HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, mark listed IRQs used by ISA
			Format: <irq>,<irq>...

	acpi_irq_pci=	[HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, clear listed IRQs for
			use by PCI
			Format: <irq>,<irq>...

	acpi_no_auto_ssdt	[HW,ACPI] Disable automatic loading of SSDT

	acpi_os_name=	[HW,ACPI] Tell ACPI BIOS the name of the OS
			Format: To spoof as Windows 98: ="Microsoft Windows"

	acpi_osi=	[HW,ACPI] Modify list of supported OS interface strings
			acpi_osi="string1"	# add string1 -- only one string
			acpi_osi="!string2"	# remove built-in string2
			acpi_osi=		# disable all strings

	acpi_pm_good	[X86]
			Override the pmtimer bug detection: force the kernel
			to assume that this machine's pmtimer latches its value
			and always returns good values.

	acpi_sci=	[HW,ACPI] ACPI System Control Interrupt trigger mode
			Format: { level | edge | high | low }

	acpi_serialize	[HW,ACPI] force serialization of AML methods

	acpi_skip_timer_override [HW,ACPI]
			Recognize and ignore IRQ0/pin2 Interrupt Override.
			For broken nForce2 BIOS resulting in XT-PIC timer.

	acpi_sleep=	[HW,ACPI] Sleep options
			Format: { s3_bios, s3_mode, s3_beep, s4_nohwsig,
				  old_ordering, nonvs, sci_force_enable }
			See Documentation/power/video.txt for information on
			s3_bios and s3_mode.
			s3_beep is for debugging; it makes the PC's speaker beep
			as soon as the kernel's real-mode entry point is called.
			s4_nohwsig prevents ACPI hardware signature from being
			used during resume from hibernation.
			old_ordering causes the ACPI 1.0 ordering of the _PTS
			control method, with respect to putting devices into
			low power states, to be enforced (the ACPI 2.0 ordering
			of _PTS is used by default).
			nonvs prevents the kernel from saving/restoring the
			ACPI NVS memory during suspend/hibernation and resume.
			sci_force_enable causes the kernel to set SCI_EN directly
			on resume from S1/S3 (which is against the ACPI spec,
			but some broken systems don't work without it).

	acpi_use_timer_override [HW,ACPI]
			Use timer override. For some broken Nvidia NF5 boards
			that require a timer override, but don't have HPET

	acpi_enforce_resources=	[ACPI]
			{ strict | lax | no }
			Check for resource conflicts between native drivers
			and ACPI OperationRegions (SystemIO and SystemMemory
			only). IO ports and memory declared in ACPI might be
			used by the ACPI subsystem in arbitrary AML code and
			can interfere with legacy drivers.
			strict (default): access to resources claimed by ACPI
			is denied; legacy drivers trying to access reserved
			resources will fail to bind to device using them.
			lax: access to resources claimed by ACPI is allowed;
			legacy drivers trying to access reserved resources
			will bind successfully but a warning message is logged.
			no: ACPI OperationRegions are not marked as reserved,
			no further checks are performed.

	add_efi_memmap	[EFI; X86] Include EFI memory map in
			kernel's map of available physical RAM.

	agp=		[AGP]
			{ off | try_unsupported }
			off: disable AGP support
			try_unsupported: try to drive unsupported chipsets
				(may crash computer or cause data corruption)

			See Documentation/sound/alsa/alsa-parameters.txt

	alignment=	[KNL,ARM]
			Allow the default userspace alignment fault handler
			behaviour to be specified.  Bit 0 enables warnings,
			bit 1 enables fixups, and bit 2 sends a segfault.

	amd_iommu=	[HW,X86-84]
			Pass parameters to the AMD IOMMU driver in the system.
			Possible values are:
			fullflush - enable flushing of IO/TLB entries when
				    they are unmapped. Otherwise they are
				    flushed before they will be reused, which
				    is a lot of faster
			off	  - do not initialize any AMD IOMMU found in
				    the system	[HW,JOY] Amiga joystick support
			Map of devices attached to JOY0DAT and JOY1DAT
			Format: <a>,<b>
			See also Documentation/kernel/input/joystick.txt	[HW,JOY] Analog joystick and gamepad support
			Specifies type or capabilities of an analog joystick
			connected to one of 16 gameports
			Format: <type1>,<type2>,..<type16>

	apc=		[HW,SPARC]
			Power management functions (SPARCstation-4/5 + deriv.)
			Format: noidle
			Disable APC CPU standby support. SPARCstation-Fox does
			not play well with APC CPU idle - disable it if you have
			APC and your system crashes randomly.

	apic=		[APIC,X86-32] Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
			Change the output verbosity whilst booting
			Format: { quiet (default) | verbose | debug }
			Change the amount of debugging information output
			when initialising the APIC and IO-APIC components.

	autoconf=	[IPV6]
			See Documentation/networking/ipv6.txt.

	show_lapic=	[APIC,X86] Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
			Limit apic dumping. The parameter defines the maximal
			number of local apics being dumped. Also it is possible
			to set it to "all" by meaning -- no limit here.
			Format: { 1 (default) | 2 | ... | all }.
			The parameter valid if only apic=debug or
			apic=verbose is specified.
			Example: apic=debug show_lapic=all

	apm=		[APM] Advanced Power Management
			See header of arch/x86/kernel/apm_32.c.

	arcrimi=	[HW,NET] ARCnet - "RIM I" (entirely mem-mapped) cards
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<nodeID>

	ataflop=	[HW,M68k]

	atarimouse=	[HW,MOUSE] Atari Mouse

	atkbd.extra=	[HW] Enable extra LEDs and keys on IBM RapidAccess,
			EzKey and similar keyboards

	atkbd.reset=	[HW] Reset keyboard during initialization

	atkbd.set=	[HW] Select keyboard code set
			Format: <int> (2 = AT (default), 3 = PS/2)

	atkbd.scroll=	[HW] Enable scroll wheel on MS Office and similar

	atkbd.softraw=	[HW] Choose between synthetic and real raw mode
			Format: <bool> (0 = real, 1 = synthetic (default))

	atkbd.softrepeat= [HW]
			Use software keyboard repeat

	autotest	[IA64]

	baycom_epp=	[HW,AX25]
			Format: <io>,<mode>

	baycom_par=	[HW,AX25] BayCom Parallel Port AX.25 Modem
			Format: <io>,<mode>
			See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_par.c.

	baycom_ser_fdx=	[HW,AX25]
			BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem (Full Duplex Mode)
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<mode>[,<baud>]
			See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_ser_fdx.c.

	baycom_ser_hdx=	[HW,AX25]
			BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem (Half Duplex Mode)
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<mode>
			See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_ser_hdx.c.

	boot_delay=	Milliseconds to delay each printk during boot.
			Values larger than 10 seconds (10000) are changed to
			no delay (0).
			Format: integer

	bootmem_debug	[KNL] Enable bootmem allocator debug messages.

	bttv.card=	[HW,V4L] bttv (bt848 + bt878 based grabber cards)	Most important insmod options are available as
			kernel args too.
	bttv.pll=	See Documentation/video4linux/bttv/Insmod-options
	bttv.tuner=	and Documentation/video4linux/bttv/CARDLIST

	bulk_remove=off	[PPC]  This parameter disables the use of the pSeries
			firmware feature for flushing multiple hpte entries
			at a time.

	c101=		[NET] Moxa C101 synchronous serial card

	cachesize=	[BUGS=X86-32] Override level 2 CPU cache size detection.
			Sometimes CPU hardware bugs make them report the cache
			size incorrectly. The kernel will attempt work arounds
			to fix known problems, but for some CPUs it is not
			possible to determine what the correct size should be.
			This option provides an override for these situations.

			[SECURITY] Disable capabilities.  This would normally
			be used only if an alternative security model is to be
			configured.  Potentially dangerous and should only be
			used if you are entirely sure of the consequences.

	ccw_timeout_log [S390]
			See Documentation/s390/CommonIO for details.

	cgroup_disable= [KNL] Disable a particular controller
			Format: {name of the controller(s) to disable}
				{Currently supported controllers - "memory"}

	checkreqprot	[SELINUX] Set initial checkreqprot flag value.
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
			0 -- check protection applied by kernel (includes
				any implied execute protection).
			1 -- check protection requested by application.
			Default value is set via a kernel config option.
			Value can be changed at runtime via

	cio_ignore=	[S390]
			See Documentation/s390/CommonIO for details.

	clock=		[BUGS=X86-32, HW] gettimeofday clocksource override.
			Forces specified clocksource (if available) to be used
			when calculating gettimeofday(). If specified
			clocksource is not available, it defaults to PIT.
			Format: { pit | tsc | cyclone | pmtmr }

	clocksource=	Override the default clocksource
			Format: <string>
			Override the default clocksource and use the clocksource
			with the name specified.
			Some clocksource names to choose from, depending on
			the platform:
			[all] jiffies (this is the base, fallback clocksource)
			[ACPI] acpi_pm
			[ARM] imx_timer1,OSTS,netx_timer,mpu_timer2,
			[AVR32] avr32
			[X86-32] pit,hpet,tsc;
				scx200_hrt on Geode; cyclone on IBM x440
			[PARISC] cr16
			[S390] tod
			[SH] SuperH
			[SPARC64] tick
			[X86-64] hpet,tsc

	clearcpuid=BITNUM [X86]
			Disable CPUID feature X for the kernel. See
			arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeature.h for the valid bit
			numbers. Note the Linux specific bits are not necessarily
			stable over kernel options, but the vendor specific
			ones should be.
			Also note that user programs calling CPUID directly
			or using the feature without checking anything
			will still see it. This just prevents it from
			being used by the kernel or shown in /proc/cpuinfo.
			Also note the kernel might malfunction if you disable
			some critical bits.

	cmo_free_hint=	[PPC] Format: { yes | no }
			Specify whether pages are marked as being inactive
			when they are freed.  This is used in CMO environments
			to determine OS memory pressure for page stealing by
			a hypervisor.
			Default: yes

	code_bytes	[X86] How many bytes of object code to print
			in an oops report.
			Range: 0 - 8192
			Default: 64

	com20020=	[HW,NET] ARCnet - COM20020 chipset

	com90io=	[HW,NET] ARCnet - COM90xx chipset (IO-mapped buffers)
			Format: <io>[,<irq>]

	com90xx=	[HW,NET]
			ARCnet - COM90xx chipset (memory-mapped buffers)
			Format: <io>[,<irq>[,<memstart>]]

	condev=		[HW,S390] console device

	console=	[KNL] Output console device and options.

		tty<n>	Use the virtual console device <n>.

			Use the specified serial port.  The options are of
			the form "bbbbpnf", where "bbbb" is the baud rate,
			"p" is parity ("n", "o", or "e"), "n" is number of
			bits, and "f" is flow control ("r" for RTS or
			omit it).  Default is "9600n8".

			See Documentation/serial-console.txt for more
			information.  See
			Documentation/networking/netconsole.txt for an

			Start an early, polled-mode console on the 8250/16550
			UART at the specified I/O port or MMIO address,
			switching to the matching ttyS device later.  The
			options are the same as for ttyS, above.

                If the device connected to the port is not a TTY but a braille
                device, prepend "brl," before the device type, for instance
		For now, only VisioBraille is supported.

	consoleblank=	[KNL] The console blank (screen saver) timeout in
			seconds. Defaults to 10*60 = 10mins. A value of 0
			disables the blank timer.

			[KNL] Change the default value for
			See also Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt.

	cpcihp_generic=	[HW,PCI] Generic port I/O CompactPCI driver

			[KNL] Using kexec, Linux can switch to a 'crash kernel'
			upon panic. This parameter reserves the physical
			memory region [offset, offset + size] for that kernel
			image. If '@offset' is omitted, then a suitable offset
			is selected automatically. Check
			Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt for further details.

			[KNL] Same as above, but depends on the memory
			in the running system. The syntax of range is
			start-[end] where start and end are both
			a memory unit (amount[KMG]). See also
			Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt for an example.

	cs89x0_dma=	[HW,NET]
			Format: <dma>

	cs89x0_media=	[HW,NET]
			Format: { rj45 | aui | bnc }

	dasd=		[HW,NET]
			See header of drivers/s390/block/dasd_devmap.c.[2|3]=	[HW,JOY] Multisystem joystick support via parallel port
			(one device per port)
			Format: <port#>,<type>
			See also Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt

	ddebug_query=   [KNL,DYNAMIC_DEBUG] Enable debug messages at early boot
			time. See Documentation/dynamic-debug-howto.txt for

	debug		[KNL] Enable kernel debugging (events log level).

			[KNL] verbose self-tests
			Print debugging info while doing the locking API
			We default to 0 (no extra messages), setting it to
			1 will print _a lot_ more information - normally
			only useful to kernel developers.

	debug_objects	[KNL] Enable object debugging

			[KNL] Disable object debugging

	debugpat	[X86] Enable PAT debugging

	decnet.addr=	[HW,NET]
			Format: <area>[,<node>]
			See also Documentation/networking/decnet.txt.

			[same as hugepagesz=] The size of the default
			HugeTLB page size. This is the size represented by
			the legacy /proc/ hugepages APIs, used for SHM, and
			default size when mounting hugetlbfs filesystems.
			Defaults to the default architecture's huge page size
			if not specified.

	dhash_entries=	[KNL]
			Set number of hash buckets for dentry cache.

	digi=		[HW,SERIAL]
			IO parameters + enable/disable command.

	digiepca=	[HW,SERIAL]
			See drivers/char/README.epca and

	disable=	[IPV6]
			See Documentation/networking/ipv6.txt.

	disable_ddw     [PPC/PSERIES]
			Disable Dynamic DMA Window support. Use this if
			to workaround buggy firmware.

	disable_ipv6=	[IPV6]
			See Documentation/networking/ipv6.txt.

	disable_mtrr_cleanup [X86]
			The kernel tries to adjust MTRR layout from continuous
			to discrete, to make X server driver able to add WB
			entry later. This parameter disables that.

	disable_mtrr_trim [X86, Intel and AMD only]
			By default the kernel will trim any uncacheable
			memory out of your available memory pool based on
			MTRR settings.  This parameter disables that behavior,
			possibly causing your machine to run very slowly.

	disable_timer_pin_1 [X86]
			Disable PIN 1 of APIC timer
			Can be useful to work around chipset bugs.

	dma_debug=off	If the kernel is compiled with DMA_API_DEBUG support,
			this option disables the debugging code at boot.

			This option allows to tune the number of preallocated
			entries for DMA-API debugging code. One entry is
			required per DMA-API allocation. Use this if the
			DMA-API debugging code disables itself because the
			architectural default is too low.

			With this option the DMA-API debugging driver
			filter feature can be enabled at boot time. Just
			pass the driver to filter for as the parameter.
			The filter can be disabled or changed to another
			driver later using sysfs.

	dscc4.setup=	[NET]

	earlycon=	[KNL] Output early console device and options.
			Start an early, polled-mode console on the 8250/16550
			UART at the specified I/O port or MMIO address.
			MMIO inter-register address stride is either 8bit (mmio)
                        or 32bit (mmio32).
			The options are the same as for ttyS, above.

	earlyprintk=	[X86,SH,BLACKFIN]

			Append ",keep" to not disable it when the real console
			takes over.

			Only vga or serial or usb debug port at a time.

			Currently only ttyS0 and ttyS1 are supported.

			Interaction with the standard serial driver is not
			very good.

			The VGA output is eventually overwritten by the real

	ekgdboc=	[X86,KGDB] Allow early kernel console debugging

			This is designed to be used in conjunction with
			the boot argument: earlyprintk=vga

	edd=		[EDD]
			Format: {"off" | "on" | "skip[mbr]"}

	eisa_irq_edge=	[PARISC,HW]
			See header of drivers/parisc/eisa.c.

	elanfreq=	[X86-32]
			See comment before function elanfreq_setup() in

	elevator=	[IOSCHED]
			Format: {"cfq" | "deadline" | "noop"}
			See Documentation/block/as-iosched.txt and
			Documentation/block/deadline-iosched.txt for details.

	elfcorehdr=	[IA64,PPC,SH,X86]
			Specifies physical address of start of kernel core
			image elf header. Generally kexec loader will
			pass this option to capture kernel.
			See Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt for details.

	enable_mtrr_cleanup [X86]
			The kernel tries to adjust MTRR layout from continuous
			to discrete, to make X server driver able to add WB
			entry later. This parameter enables that.

	enable_timer_pin_1 [X86]
			Enable PIN 1 of APIC timer
			Can be useful to work around chipset bugs
			(in particular on some ATI chipsets).
			The kernel tries to set a reasonable default.

	enforcing	[SELINUX] Set initial enforcing status.
			Format: {"0" | "1"}
			See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
			0 -- permissive (log only, no denials).
			1 -- enforcing (deny and log).
			Default value is 0.
			Value can be changed at runtime via /selinux/enforce.

	erst_disable	[ACPI]
			Disable Error Record Serialization Table (ERST)

	ether=		[HW,NET] Ethernet cards parameters
			This option is obsoleted by the "netdev=" option, which
			has equivalent usage. See its documentation for details.

			General fault injection mechanism.
			Format: <interval>,<probability>,<space>,<times>
			See also /Documentation/fault-injection/.

	floppy=		[HW]
			See Documentation/blockdev/floppy.txt.

			[IA-64] Avoid check_sal_cache_flush which may hang on
			buggy SAL_CACHE_FLUSH implementations. Using this
			parameter will force ia64_sal_cache_flush to call
			ia64_pal_cache_flush instead of SAL_CACHE_FLUSH.

			[FTRACE] will set and start the specified tracer
			as early as possible in order to facilitate early
			boot debugging.

			[FTRACE] will dump the trace buffers on oops.
			If no parameter is passed, ftrace will dump
			buffers of all CPUs, but if you pass orig_cpu, it will
			dump only the buffer of the CPU that triggered the

			[FTRACE] Limit the functions traced by the function
			tracer at boot up. function-list is a comma separated
			list of functions. This list can be changed at run
			time by the set_ftrace_filter file in the debugfs
			tracing directory. 

			[FTRACE] Do not trace the functions specified in
			function-list. This list can be changed at run time
			by the set_ftrace_notrace file in the debugfs
			tracing directory.

			[FTRACE] Limit the top level callers functions traced
			by the function graph tracer at boot up.
			function-list is a comma separated list of functions
			that can be changed at run time by the
			set_graph_function file in the debugfs tracing directory.[2|3]=
			[HW,JOY] Multisystem joystick and NES/SNES/PSX pad
			support via parallel port (up to 5 devices per port)
			Format: <port#>,<pad1>,<pad2>,<pad3>,<pad4>,<pad5>
			See also Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt

	gamma=		[HW,DRM]

	gart_fix_e820=  [X86_64] disable the fix e820 for K8 GART
			Format: off | on
			default: on

	gcov_persist=	[GCOV] When non-zero (default), profiling data for
			kernel modules is saved and remains accessible via
			debugfs, even when the module is unloaded/reloaded.
			When zero, profiling data is discarded and associated
			debugfs files are removed at module unload time.

	gpt		[EFI] Forces disk with valid GPT signature but
			invalid Protective MBR to be treated as GPT.

	hashdist=	[KNL,NUMA] Large hashes allocated during boot
			are distributed across NUMA nodes.  Defaults on
			for 64bit NUMA, off otherwise.
			Format: 0 | 1 (for off | on)

	hcl=		[IA-64] SGI's Hardware Graph compatibility layer

	hd=		[EIDE] (E)IDE hard drive subsystem geometry
			Format: <cyl>,<head>,<sect>

	hest_disable	[ACPI]
			Disable Hardware Error Source Table (HEST) support;
			corresponding firmware-first mode error processing
			logic will be disabled.

	highmem=nn[KMG]	[KNL,BOOT] forces the highmem zone to have an exact
			size of <nn>. This works even on boxes that have no
			highmem otherwise. This also works to reduce highmem
			size on bigger boxes.

	highres=	[KNL] Enable/disable high resolution timer mode.
			Valid parameters: "on", "off"
			Default: "on"

	hisax=		[HW,ISDN]
			See Documentation/isdn/README.HiSax.

	hlt		[BUGS=ARM,SH]

	hpet=		[X86-32,HPET] option to control HPET usage
			Format: { enable (default) | disable | force |
				verbose }
			disable: disable HPET and use PIT instead
			force: allow force enabled of undocumented chips (ICH4,
				VIA, nVidia)
			verbose: show contents of HPET registers during setup

	hugepages=	[HW,X86-32,IA-64] HugeTLB pages to allocate at boot.
	hugepagesz=	[HW,IA-64,PPC,X86-64] The size of the HugeTLB pages.
			On x86-64 and powerpc, this option can be specified
			multiple times interleaved with hugepages= to reserve
			huge pages of different sizes. Valid pages sizes on
			x86-64 are 2M (when the CPU supports "pse") and 1G
			(when the CPU supports the "pdpe1gb" cpuinfo flag)
			Note that 1GB pages can only be allocated at boot time
			using hugepages= and not freed afterwards.

	hvc_iucv=	[S390] Number of z/VM IUCV hypervisor console (HVC)
			       terminal devices. Valid values: 0..8
	hvc_iucv_allow=	[S390] Comma-separated list of z/VM user IDs.
			       If specified, z/VM IUCV HVC accepts connections
			       from listed z/VM user IDs only.

	keep_bootcon	[KNL]
			Do not unregister boot console at start. This is only
			useful for debugging when something happens in the window
			between unregistering the boot console and initializing
			the real console.

	i2c_bus=	[HW] Override the default board specific I2C bus speed
			     or register an additional I2C bus that is not
			     registered from board initialization code.

	i8042.debug	[HW] Toggle i8042 debug mode	[HW] Put keyboard port into non-translated mode
	i8042.dumbkbd	[HW] Pretend that controller can only read data from
			     keyboard and cannot control its state
			     (Don't attempt to blink the leds)
	i8042.noaux	[HW] Don't check for auxiliary (== mouse) port
	i8042.nokbd	[HW] Don't check/create keyboard port
	i8042.noloop	[HW] Disable the AUX Loopback command while probing
			     for the AUX port
	i8042.nomux	[HW] Don't check presence of an active multiplexing
	i8042.nopnp	[HW] Don't use ACPIPnP / PnPBIOS to discover KBD/AUX
	i8042.notimeout	[HW] Ignore timeout condition signalled by conroller
	i8042.reset	[HW] Reset the controller during init and cleanup
	i8042.unlock	[HW] Unlock (ignore) the keylock

	i810=		[HW,DRM]

	i8k.ignore_dmi	[HW] Continue probing hardware even if DMI data
			indicates that the driver is running on unsupported
	i8k.force	[HW] Activate i8k driver even if SMM BIOS signature
			does not match list of supported models.
			[HW] Report power status in /proc/i8k
			(disabled by default)
	i8k.restricted	[HW] Allow controlling fans only if SYS_ADMIN
			capability is set.

	icn=		[HW,ISDN]
			Format: <io>[,<membase>[,<icn_id>[,<icn_id2>]]]

	ide-core.nodma=	[HW] (E)IDE subsystem
			Format: =0.0 to prevent dma on hda, =0.1 hdb =1.0 hdc
			.vlb_clock .pci_clock .noflush .nohpa .noprobe .nowerr
			.cdrom .chs .ignore_cable are additional options
			See Documentation/ide/ide.txt.

	ide-pci-generic.all-generic-ide [HW] (E)IDE subsystem
			Claim all unknown PCI IDE storage controllers.

	idle=		[X86]
			Format: idle=poll, idle=mwait, idle=halt, idle=nomwait
			Poll forces a polling idle loop that can slightly
			improve the performance of waking up a idle CPU, but
			will use a lot of power and make the system run hot.
			Not recommended.
			idle=mwait: On systems which support MONITOR/MWAIT but
			the kernel chose to not use it because it doesn't save
			as much power as a normal idle loop, use the
			MONITOR/MWAIT idle loop anyways. Performance should be
			the same as idle=poll.
			idle=halt: Halt is forced to be used for CPU idle.
			In such case C2/C3 won't be used again.
			idle=nomwait: Disable mwait for CPU C-states

	ignore_loglevel	[KNL]
			Ignore loglevel setting - this will print /all/
			kernel messages to the console. Useful for debugging.

	ihash_entries=	[KNL]
			Set number of hash buckets for inode cache.

	ima_audit=	[IMA]
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			0 -- integrity auditing messages. (Default)
			1 -- enable informational integrity auditing messages.

	ima_hash=	[IMA]
			Format: { "sha1" | "md5" }
			default: "sha1"

	ima_tcb		[IMA]
			Load a policy which meets the needs of the Trusted
			Computing Base.  This means IMA will measure all
			programs exec'd, files mmap'd for exec, and all files
			opened for read by uid=0.

	init=		[KNL]
			Format: <full_path>
			Run specified binary instead of /sbin/init as init

	initcall_debug	[KNL] Trace initcalls as they are executed.  Useful
			for working out where the kernel is dying during

	initrd=		[BOOT] Specify the location of the initial ramdisk

	inport.irq=	[HW] Inport (ATI XL and Microsoft) busmouse driver
			Format: <irq>

	intel_iommu=	[DMAR] Intel IOMMU driver (DMAR) option
			Enable intel iommu driver.
			Disable intel iommu driver.
		igfx_off [Default Off]
			By default, gfx is mapped as normal device. If a gfx
			device has a dedicated DMAR unit, the DMAR unit is
			bypassed by not enabling DMAR with this option. In
			this case, gfx device will use physical address for
		forcedac [x86_64]
			With this option iommu will not optimize to look
			for io virtual address below 32 bit forcing dual
			address cycle on pci bus for cards supporting greater
			than 32 bit addressing. The default is to look
			for translation below 32 bit and if not available
			then look in the higher range.
		strict [Default Off]
			With this option on every unmap_single operation will
			result in a hardware IOTLB flush operation as opposed
			to batching them for performance.
		sp_off [Default Off]
			By default, super page will be supported if Intel IOMMU
			has the capability. With this option, super page will
			not be supported.
	intremap=	[X86-64, Intel-IOMMU]
			Format: { on (default) | off | nosid }
			on	enable Interrupt Remapping (default)
			off	disable Interrupt Remapping
			nosid	disable Source ID checking

	inttest=	[IA64]

	iomem=		Disable strict checking of access to MMIO memory
		strict	regions from userspace.

	iommu=		[x86]
		pt	[x86, IA64]

	io7=		[HW] IO7 for Marvel based alpha systems
			See comment before marvel_specify_io7 in

	io_delay=	[X86] I/O delay method
			Standard port 0x80 based delay
			Alternate port 0xed based delay (needed on some systems)
			Simple two microseconds delay
			No delay

	ip=		[IP_PNP]
			See Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt.

	ip2=		[HW] Set IO/IRQ pairs for up to 4 IntelliPort boards
			See comment before ip2_setup() in

	irqfixup	[HW]
			When an interrupt is not handled search all handlers
			for it. Intended to get systems with badly broken
			firmware running.

	irqpoll		[HW]
			When an interrupt is not handled search all handlers
			for it. Also check all handlers each timer
			interrupt. Intended to get systems with badly broken
			firmware running.

	isapnp=		[ISAPNP]
			Format: <RDP>,<reset>,<pci_scan>,<verbosity>

	isolcpus=	[KNL,SMP] Isolate CPUs from the general scheduler.
			<cpu number>,...,<cpu number>
			<cpu number>-<cpu number>
			(must be a positive range in ascending order)
			or a mixture
			<cpu number>,...,<cpu number>-<cpu number>

			This option can be used to specify one or more CPUs
			to isolate from the general SMP balancing and scheduling
			algorithms. You can move a process onto or off an
			"isolated" CPU via the CPU affinity syscalls or cpuset.
			<cpu number> begins at 0 and the maximum value is
			"number of CPUs in system - 1".

			This option is the preferred way to isolate CPUs. The
			alternative -- manually setting the CPU mask of all
			tasks in the system -- can cause problems and
			suboptimal load balancer performance.

	iucv=		[HW,NET]

	js=		[HW,JOY] Analog joystick
			See Documentation/input/joystick.txt.

	keepinitrd	[HW,ARM]

	kernelcore=nn[KMG]	[KNL,X86,IA-64,PPC] This parameter
			specifies the amount of memory usable by the kernel
			for non-movable allocations.  The requested amount is
			spread evenly throughout all nodes in the system. The
			remaining memory in each node is used for Movable
			pages. In the event, a node is too small to have both
			kernelcore and Movable pages, kernelcore pages will
			take priority and other nodes will have a larger number
			of kernelcore pages.  The Movable zone is used for the
			allocation of pages that may be reclaimed or moved
			by the page migration subsystem.  This means that
			HugeTLB pages may not be allocated from this zone.
			Note that allocations like PTEs-from-HighMem still
			use the HighMem zone if it exists, and the Normal
			zone if it does not.

	kgdbdbgp=	[KGDB,HW] kgdb over EHCI usb debug port.
			Format: <Controller#>[,poll interval]
			The controller # is the number of the ehci usb debug
			port as it is probed via PCI.  The poll interval is
			optional and is the number seconds in between
			each poll cycle to the debug port in case you need
			the functionality for interrupting the kernel with
			gdb or control-c on the dbgp connection.  When
			not using this parameter you use sysrq-g to break into
			the kernel debugger.

	kgdboc=		[KGDB,HW] kgdb over consoles.
			Requires a tty driver that supports console polling,
			or a supported polling keyboard driver (non-usb).
			 Serial only format: <serial_device>[,baud]
			 keyboard only format: kbd
			 keyboard and serial format: kbd,<serial_device>[,baud]
			Optional Kernel mode setting:
			 kms, kbd format: kms,kbd
			 kms, kbd and serial format: kms,kbd,<ser_dev>[,baud]

	kgdbwait	[KGDB] Stop kernel execution and enter the
			kernel debugger at the earliest opportunity.

	kmac=		[MIPS] korina ethernet MAC address.
			Configure the RouterBoard 532 series on-chip
			Ethernet adapter MAC address.

	kmemleak=	[KNL] Boot-time kmemleak enable/disable
			Valid arguments: on, off
			Default: on

	kstack=N	[X86] Print N words from the kernel stack
			in oops dumps.

	kvm.ignore_msrs=[KVM] Ignore guest accesses to unhandled MSRs.
			Default is 0 (don't ignore, but inject #GP)

	kvm.oos_shadow=	[KVM] Disable out-of-sync shadow paging.
			Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm.mmu_audit=	[KVM] This is a R/W parameter which allows audit
			KVM MMU at runtime.
			Default is 0 (off)

	kvm-amd.nested=	[KVM,AMD] Allow nested virtualization in KVM/SVM.
			Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-amd.npt=	[KVM,AMD] Disable nested paging (virtualized MMU)
			for all guests.
			Default is 1 (enabled) if in 64bit or 32bit-PAE mode

			[KVM,Intel] Disables bypassing of guest page faults
			on Intel chips. Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-intel.ept=	[KVM,Intel] Disable extended page tables
			(virtualized MMU) support on capable Intel chips.
			Default is 1 (enabled)

			[KVM,Intel] Enable emulation of invalid guest states
			Default is 0 (disabled)

			[KVM,Intel] Disable FlexPriority feature (TPR shadow).
			Default is 1 (enabled)

			[KVM,Intel] Disable unrestricted guest feature
			(virtualized real and unpaged mode) on capable
			Intel chips. Default is 1 (enabled)

	kvm-intel.vpid=	[KVM,Intel] Disable Virtual Processor Identification
			feature (tagged TLBs) on capable Intel chips.
			Default is 1 (enabled)

	l2cr=		[PPC]

	l3cr=		[PPC]

	lapic		[X86-32,APIC] Enable the local APIC even if BIOS
			disabled it.

	lapic_timer_c2_ok	[X86,APIC] trust the local apic timer
			in C2 power state.

	libata.dma=	[LIBATA] DMA control
			libata.dma=0	  Disable all PATA and SATA DMA
			libata.dma=1	  PATA and SATA Disk DMA only
			libata.dma=2	  ATAPI (CDROM) DMA only
			libata.dma=4	  Compact Flash DMA only 
			Combinations also work, so libata.dma=3 enables DMA
			for disks and CDROMs, but not CFs.
	libata.ignore_hpa=	[LIBATA] Ignore HPA limit
			libata.ignore_hpa=0	  keep BIOS limits (default)
			libata.ignore_hpa=1	  ignore limits, using full disk

	libata.noacpi	[LIBATA] Disables use of ACPI in libata suspend/resume
			when set.
			Format: <int>

	libata.force=	[LIBATA] Force configurations.  The format is comma
			separated list of "[ID:]VAL" where ID is
			PORT[.DEVICE].  PORT and DEVICE are decimal numbers
			matching port, link or device.  Basically, it matches
			the ATA ID string printed on console by libata.  If
			the whole ID part is omitted, the last PORT and DEVICE
			values are used.  If ID hasn't been specified yet, the
			configuration applies to all ports, links and devices.

			If only DEVICE is omitted, the parameter applies to
			the port and all links and devices behind it.  DEVICE
			number of 0 either selects the first device or the
			first fan-out link behind PMP device.  It does not
			select the host link.  DEVICE number of 15 selects the
			host link and device attached to it.

			The VAL specifies the configuration to force.  As long
			as there's no ambiguity shortcut notation is allowed.
			For example, both 1.5 and 1.5G would work for 1.5Gbps.
			The following configurations can be forced.

			* Cable type: 40c, 80c, short40c, unk, ign or sata.
			  Any ID with matching PORT is used.

			* SATA link speed limit: 1.5Gbps or 3.0Gbps.

			* Transfer mode: pio[0-7], mwdma[0-4] and udma[0-7].
			  udma[/][16,25,33,44,66,100,133] notation is also

			* [no]ncq: Turn on or off NCQ.

			* nohrst, nosrst, norst: suppress hard, soft
                          and both resets.

			* dump_id: dump IDENTIFY data.

			If there are multiple matching configurations changing
			the same attribute, the last one is used.

	memblock=debug	[KNL] Enable memblock debug messages.

	load_ramdisk=	[RAM] List of ramdisks to load from floppy
			See Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt.

	lockd.nlm_grace_period=P  [NFS] Assign grace period.
			Format: <integer>

	lockd.nlm_tcpport=N	[NFS] Assign TCP port.
			Format: <integer>

	lockd.nlm_timeout=T	[NFS] Assign timeout value.
			Format: <integer>

	lockd.nlm_udpport=M	[NFS] Assign UDP port.
			Format: <integer>

	logibm.irq=	[HW,MOUSE] Logitech Bus Mouse Driver
			Format: <irq>

	loglevel=	All Kernel Messages with a loglevel smaller than the
			console loglevel will be printed to the console. It can
			also be changed with klogd or other programs. The
			loglevels are defined as follows:

			0 (KERN_EMERG)		system is unusable
			1 (KERN_ALERT)		action must be taken immediately
			2 (KERN_CRIT)		critical conditions
			3 (KERN_ERR)		error conditions
			4 (KERN_WARNING)	warning conditions
			5 (KERN_NOTICE)		normal but significant condition
			6 (KERN_INFO)		informational
			7 (KERN_DEBUG)		debug-level messages

	log_buf_len=n[KMG]	Sets the size of the printk ring buffer,
			in bytes.  n must be a power of two.  The default
			size is set in the kernel config file.

	logo.nologo	[FB] Disables display of the built-in Linux logo.
			This may be used to provide more screen space for
			kernel log messages and is useful when debugging
			kernel boot problems.

	lp=0		[LP]	Specify parallel ports to use, e.g,
	lp=port[,port...]	lp=none,parport0 (lp0 not configured, lp1 uses
	lp=reset		first parallel port). 'lp=0' disables the
	lp=auto			printer driver. 'lp=reset' (which can be
				specified in addition to the ports) causes
				attached printers to be reset. Using
				lp=port1,port2,... specifies the parallel ports
				to associate lp devices with, starting with
				lp0. A port specification may be 'none' to skip
				that lp device, or a parport name such as
				'parport0'. Specifying 'lp=auto' instead of a
				port specification list means that device IDs
				from each port should be examined, to see if
				an IEEE 1284-compliant printer is attached; if
				so, the driver will manage that printer.
				See also header of drivers/char/lp.c.

	lpj=n		[KNL]
			Sets loops_per_jiffy to given constant, thus avoiding
			time-consuming boot-time autodetection (up to 250 ms per
			CPU). 0 enables autodetection (default). To determine
			the correct value for your kernel, boot with normal
			autodetection and see what value is printed. Note that
			on SMP systems the preset will be applied to all CPUs,
			which is likely to cause problems if your CPUs need
			significantly divergent settings. An incorrect value
			will cause delays in the kernel to be wrong, leading to
			unpredictable I/O errors and other breakage. Although
			unlikely, in the extreme case this might damage your

	ltpc=		[NET]
			Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>

	machvec=	[IA64] Force the use of a particular machine-vector
			(machvec) in a generic kernel.
			Example: machvec=hpzx1_swiotlb

	machtype=	[Loongson] Share the same kernel image file between different
			 yeeloong laptop.
			Example: machtype=lemote-yeeloong-2f-7inch

	max_addr=nn[KMG]	[KNL,BOOT,ia64] All physical memory greater
			than or equal to this physical address is ignored.

	maxcpus=	[SMP] Maximum number of processors that	an SMP kernel
			should make use of.  maxcpus=n : n >= 0 limits the
			kernel to using 'n' processors.  n=0 is a special case,
			it is equivalent to "nosmp", which also disables
			the IO APIC.

	max_loop=	[LOOP] Maximum number of loopback devices that can
			be mounted
			Format: <1-256>

	mcatest=	[IA-64]

	mce		[X86-32] Machine Check Exception

	mce=option	[X86-64] See Documentation/x86/x86_64/boot-options.txt

	md=		[HW] RAID subsystems devices and level
			See Documentation/md.txt.

	mdacon=		[MDA]
			Format: <first>,<last>
			Specifies range of consoles to be captured by the MDA.

	mem=nn[KMG]	[KNL,BOOT] Force usage of a specific amount of memory
			Amount of memory to be used when the kernel is not able
			to see the whole system memory or for test.
			[X86-32] Use together with memmap= to avoid physical
			address space collisions. Without memmap= PCI devices
			could be placed at addresses belonging to unused RAM.

	mem=nopentium	[BUGS=X86-32] Disable usage of 4MB pages for kernel

			[KNL,SH] Allow user to override the default size for
			per-device physically contiguous DMA buffers.

	memmap=exactmap	[KNL,X86] Enable setting of an exact
			E820 memory map, as specified by the user.
			Such memmap=exactmap lines can be constructed based on
			BIOS output or other requirements. See the memmap=nn@ss
			option description.

			[KNL] Force usage of a specific region of memory
			Region of memory to be used, from ss to ss+nn.

			[KNL,ACPI] Mark specific memory as ACPI data.
			Region of memory to be used, from ss to ss+nn.

			[KNL,ACPI] Mark specific memory as reserved.
			Region of memory to be used, from ss to ss+nn.
			Example: Exclude memory from 0x18690000-0x1869ffff

	memory_corruption_check=0/1 [X86]
			Some BIOSes seem to corrupt the first 64k of
			memory when doing things like suspend/resume.
			Setting this option will scan the memory
			looking for corruption.  Enabling this will
			both detect corruption and prevent the kernel
			from using the memory being corrupted.
			However, its intended as a diagnostic tool; if
			repeatable BIOS-originated corruption always
			affects the same memory, you can use memmap=
			to prevent the kernel from using that memory.

	memory_corruption_check_size=size [X86]
			By default it checks for corruption in the low
			64k, making this memory unavailable for normal
			use.  Use this parameter to scan for
			corruption in more or less memory.

	memory_corruption_check_period=seconds [X86]
			By default it checks for corruption every 60
			seconds.  Use this parameter to check at some
			other rate.  0 disables periodic checking.

	memtest=	[KNL,X86] Enable memtest
			Format: <integer>
			default : 0 <disable>
			Specifies the number of memtest passes to be
			performed. Each pass selects another test
			pattern from a given set of patterns. Memtest
			fills the memory with this pattern, validates
			memory contents and reserves bad memory
			regions that are detected.

	meye.*=		[HW] Set MotionEye Camera parameters
			See Documentation/video4linux/meye.txt.

	mfgpt_irq=	[IA-32] Specify the IRQ to use for the
			Multi-Function General Purpose Timers on AMD Geode

	mfgptfix	[X86-32] Fix MFGPT timers on AMD Geode platforms when
			the BIOS has incorrectly applied a workaround. TinyBIOS
			version 0.98 is known to be affected, 0.99 fixes the
			problem by letting the user disable the workaround.

	mga=		[HW,DRM]

	min_addr=nn[KMG]	[KNL,BOOT,ia64] All physical memory below this
			physical address is ignored.

	mini2440=	[ARM,HW,KNL]
			Default: "0tb"
			MINI2440 configuration specification:
			0 - The attached screen is the 3.5" TFT
			1 - The attached screen is the 7" TFT
			2 - The VGA Shield is attached (1024x768)
			Leaving out the screen size parameter will not load
			the TFT driver, and the framebuffer will be left
			b - Enable backlight. The TFT backlight pin will be
			linked to the kernel VESA blanking code and a GPIO
			LED. This parameter is not necessary when using the
			VGA shield.
			c - Enable the s3c camera interface.
			t - Reserved for enabling touchscreen support. The
			touchscreen support is not enabled in the mainstream
			kernel as of 2.6.30, a preliminary port can be found
			in the "bleeding edge" mini2440 support kernel at

			[KNL] When CONFIG_DEBUG_MEMORY_INIT is set, this
			parameter allows control of the logging verbosity for
			the additional memory initialisation checks. A value
			of 0 disables mminit logging and a level of 4 will
			log everything. Information is printed at KERN_DEBUG
			so loglevel=8 may also need to be specified.

			[MOUSE] Maximum time between finger touching and
			leaving touchpad surface for touch to be considered
			a tap and be reported as a left button click (for
			touchpads working in absolute mode only).
			Format: <msecs>
	mousedev.xres=	[MOUSE] Horizontal screen resolution, used for devices
			reporting absolute coordinates, such as tablets
	mousedev.yres=	[MOUSE] Vertical screen resolution, used for devices
			reporting absolute coordinates, such as tablets

	movablecore=nn[KMG]	[KNL,X86,IA-64,PPC] This parameter
			is similar to kernelcore except it specifies the
			amount of memory used for migratable allocations.
			If both kernelcore and movablecore is specified,
			then kernelcore will be at *least* the specified
			value but may be more. If movablecore on its own
			is specified, the administrator must be careful
			that the amount of memory usable for all allocations
			is not too small.

	MTD_Partition=	[MTD]
			Format: <name>,<region-number>,<size>,<offset>

	MTD_Region=	[MTD] Format:

	mtdparts=	[MTD]
			See drivers/mtd/cmdlinepart.c.

	multitce=off	[PPC]  This parameter disables the use of the pSeries
			firmware feature for updating multiple TCE entries
			at a time.

	onenand.bdry=	[HW,MTD] Flex-OneNAND Boundary Configuration

			Format: [die0_boundary][,die0_lock][,die1_boundary][,die1_lock]

			boundary - index of last SLC block on Flex-OneNAND.
				   The remaining blocks are configured as MLC blocks.
			lock	 - Configure if Flex-OneNAND boundary should be locked.
				   Once locked, the boundary cannot be changed.
				   1 indicates lock status, 0 indicates unlock status.

	mtdset=		[ARM]
			ARM/S3C2412 JIVE boot control

			See arch/arm/mach-s3c2412/mach-jive.c

			[HW] Make the MicroTouch USB driver use raw coordinates
			('y', default) or cooked coordinates ('n')

	mtrr_chunk_size=nn[KMG] [X86]
			used for mtrr cleanup. It is largest continuous chunk
			that could hold holes aka. UC entries.

	mtrr_gran_size=nn[KMG] [X86]
			Used for mtrr cleanup. It is granularity of mtrr block.
			Default is 1.
			Large value could prevent small alignment from
			using up MTRRs.

	mtrr_spare_reg_nr=n [X86]
			Format: <integer>
			Range: 0,7 : spare reg number
			Default : 1
			Used for mtrr cleanup. It is spare mtrr entries number.
			Set to 2 or more if your graphical card needs more.

	n2=		[NET] SDL Inc. RISCom/N2 synchronous serial card

	netdev=		[NET] Network devices parameters
			Format: <irq>,<io>,<mem_start>,<mem_end>,<name>
			Note that mem_start is often overloaded to mean
			something different and driver-specific.
			This usage is only documented in each driver source
			file if at all.

			[NETFILTER] Enable connection tracking flow accounting
			0 to disable accounting
			1 to enable accounting
			Default value is 0.

	nfsaddrs=	[NFS] Deprecated.  Use ip= instead.
			See Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt.

	nfsroot=	[NFS] nfs root filesystem for disk-less boxes.
			See Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt.

	nfsrootdebug	[NFS] enable nfsroot debugging messages.
			See Documentation/filesystems/nfs/nfsroot.txt.

			[NFS] set the TCP port on which the NFSv4 callback
			channel should listen.

			[NFS] sets the pathname to the program which is used
			to update the NFS client cache entries.

			[NFS] sets the timeout after which an attempt to
			update a cache entry is deemed to have failed.

			[NFS] set the maximum lifetime for idmapper cache

			[NFS] enable 64-bit inode numbers.
			If zero, the NFS client will fake up a 32-bit inode
			number for the readdir() and stat() syscalls instead
			of returning the full 64-bit number.
			The default is to return 64-bit inode numbers.

			[NFSv4] When set, this option disables the NFSv4
			idmapper on the client, but only if the mount
			is using the 'sec=sys' security flavour. This may
			make migration from legacy NFSv2/v3 systems easier
			provided that the server has the appropriate support.
			The default is to always enable NFSv4 idmapping.

	nmi_debug=	[KNL,AVR32,SH] Specify one or more actions to take
			when a NMI is triggered.
			Format: [state][,regs][,debounce][,die]

	nmi_watchdog=	[KNL,BUGS=X86] Debugging features for SMP kernels
			Format: [panic,][nopanic,][num]
			Valid num: 0
			0 - turn nmi_watchdog off
			When panic is specified, panic when an NMI watchdog
			timeout occurs (or 'nopanic' to override the opposite
			This is useful when you use a panic=... timeout and
			need the box quickly up again.

			[NET] Specifies amount of time (in seconds) that
			netpoll should wait for a carrier. By default netpoll
			waits 4 seconds.

	no387		[BUGS=X86-32] Tells the kernel to use the 387 maths
			emulation library even if a 387 maths coprocessor
			is present.

			[HW] Never suspend the console
			Disable suspending of consoles during suspend and
			hibernate operations.  Once disabled, debugging
			messages can reach various consoles while the rest
			of the system is being put to sleep (ie, while
			debugging driver suspend/resume hooks).  This may
			not work reliably with all consoles, but is known
			to work with serial and VGA consoles.

	noaliencache	[MM, NUMA, SLAB] Disables the allocation of alien
			caches in the slab allocator.  Saves per-node memory,
			but will impact performance.

	noalign		[KNL,ARM]

	noapic		[SMP,APIC] Tells the kernel to not make use of any
			IOAPICs that may be present in the system.

	noautogroup	Disable scheduler automatic task group creation.

	nobats		[PPC] Do not use BATs for mapping kernel lowmem
			on "Classic" PPC cores.

	nocache		[ARM]

	noclflush	[BUGS=X86] Don't use the CLFLUSH instruction

	nodelayacct	[KNL] Disable per-task delay accounting

	nodisconnect	[HW,SCSI,M68K] Disables SCSI disconnects.

	nodsp		[SH] Disable hardware DSP at boot time.

	noefi		[X86] Disable EFI runtime services support.

	noexec		[IA-64]

	noexec		[X86]
			On X86-32 available only on PAE configured kernels.
			noexec=on: enable non-executable mappings (default)
			noexec=off: disable non-executable mappings

	nosmep		[X86]
			Disable SMEP (Supervisor Mode Execution Protection)
			even if it is supported by processor.

	noexec32	[X86-64]
			This affects only 32-bit executables.
			noexec32=on: enable non-executable mappings (default)
				read doesn't imply executable mappings
			noexec32=off: disable non-executable mappings
				read implies executable mappings

	nofpu		[SH] Disable hardware FPU at boot time.

	nofxsr		[BUGS=X86-32] Disables x86 floating point extended
			register save and restore. The kernel will only save
			legacy floating-point registers on task switch.

	noxsave		[BUGS=X86] Disables x86 extended register state save
			and restore using xsave. The kernel will fallback to
			enabling legacy floating-point and sse state.

	nohlt		[BUGS=ARM,SH] Tells the kernel that the sleep(SH) or
			wfi(ARM) instruction doesn't work correctly and not to
			use it. This is also useful when using JTAG debugger.

	no-hlt		[BUGS=X86-32] Tells the kernel that the hlt
			instruction doesn't work correctly and not to
			use it.

	no_file_caps	Tells the kernel not to honor file capabilities.  The
			only way then for a file to be executed with privilege
			is to be setuid root or executed by root.

	nohalt		[IA-64] Tells the kernel not to use the power saving
			function PAL_HALT_LIGHT when idle. This increases
			power-consumption. On the positive side, it reduces
			interrupt wake-up latency, which may improve performance
			in certain environments such as networked servers or
			real-time systems.

	nohz=		[KNL] Boottime enable/disable dynamic ticks
			Valid arguments: on, off
			Default: on

	noiotrap	[SH] Disables trapped I/O port accesses.

	noirqdebug	[X86-32] Disables the code which attempts to detect and
			disable unhandled interrupt sources.

	no_timer_check	[X86,APIC] Disables the code which tests for
			broken timer IRQ sources.

	noisapnp	[ISAPNP] Disables ISA PnP code.

	noinitrd	[RAM] Tells the kernel not to load any configured
			initial RAM disk.

	nointremap	[X86-64, Intel-IOMMU] Do not enable interrupt
			[Deprecated - use intremap=off]

	nointroute	[IA-64]

	nojitter	[IA64] Disables jitter checking for ITC timers.

	no-kvmclock	[X86,KVM] Disable paravirtualized KVM clock driver

	no-kvmapf	[X86,KVM] Disable paravirtualized asynchronous page
			fault handling.

	nolapic		[X86-32,APIC] Do not enable or use the local APIC.

	nolapic_timer	[X86-32,APIC] Do not use the local APIC timer.

	noltlbs		[PPC] Do not use large page/tlb entries for kernel
			lowmem mapping on PPC40x.

	nomca		[IA-64] Disable machine check abort handling

	nomce		[X86-32] Machine Check Exception

	nomfgpt		[X86-32] Disable Multi-Function General Purpose
			Timer usage (for AMD Geode machines).

	nopat		[X86] Disable PAT (page attribute table extension of
			pagetables) support.

	norandmaps	Don't use address space randomization.  Equivalent to
			echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/randomize_va_space

	noreplace-paravirt	[X86,IA-64,PV_OPS] Don't patch paravirt_ops

	noreplace-smp	[X86-32,SMP] Don't replace SMP instructions
			with UP alternatives

	noresidual	[PPC] Don't use residual data on PReP machines.

	noresume	[SWSUSP] Disables resume and restores original swap

	no-scroll	[VGA] Disables scrollback.
			This is required for the Braillex ib80-piezo Braille
			reader made by F.H. Papenmeier (Germany).

	nosbagart	[IA-64]

	nosep		[BUGS=X86-32] Disables x86 SYSENTER/SYSEXIT support.

	nosmp		[SMP] Tells an SMP kernel to act as a UP kernel,
			and disable the IO APIC.  legacy for "maxcpus=0".

	nosoftlockup	[KNL] Disable the soft-lockup detector.

	nosync		[HW,M68K] Disables sync negotiation for all devices.

	notsc		[BUGS=X86-32] Disable Time Stamp Counter

	nousb		[USB] Disable the USB subsystem

	nowatchdog	[KNL] Disable the lockup detector (NMI watchdog).

	nowb		[ARM]

	nox2apic	[X86-64,APIC] Do not enable x2APIC mode.

	nptcg=		[IA64] Override max number of concurrent global TLB
			purges which is reported from either PAL_VM_SUMMARY or

	nr_cpus=	[SMP] Maximum number of processors that	an SMP kernel
			could support.  nr_cpus=n : n >= 1 limits the kernel to
			supporting 'n' processors. Later in runtime you can not
			use hotplug cpu feature to put more cpu back to online.
			just like you compile the kernel NR_CPUS=n

	nr_uarts=	[SERIAL] maximum number of UARTs to be registered.

	numa_zonelist_order= [KNL, BOOT] Select zonelist order for NUMA.
			one of ['zone', 'node', 'default'] can be specified
			This can be set from sysctl after boot.
			See Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt for details.

	ohci1394_dma=early	[HW] enable debugging via the ohci1394 driver.
			See Documentation/debugging-via-ohci1394.txt for more

	olpc_ec_timeout= [OLPC] ms delay when issuing EC commands
			Rather than timing out after 20 ms if an EC
			command is not properly ACKed, override the length
			of the timeout.  We have interrupts disabled while
			waiting for the ACK, so if this is set too high
			interrupts *may* be lost!

	omap_mux=	[OMAP] Override bootloader pin multiplexing.
			Format: <mux_mode0.mode_name=value>...
			For example, to override I2C bus2:

	oprofile.timer=	[HW]
			Use timer interrupt instead of performance counters

	oprofile.cpu_type=	Force an oprofile cpu type
			This might be useful if you have an older oprofile
			userland or if you want common events.
			Format: { arch_perfmon }
			arch_perfmon: [X86] Force use of architectural
				perfmon on Intel CPUs instead of the
				CPU specific event set.

	oops=panic	Always panic on oopses. Default is to just kill the
			process, but there is a small probability of
			deadlocking the machine.
			This will also cause panics on machine check exceptions.
			Useful together with panic=30 to trigger a reboot.

			See Documentation/sound/oss/oss-parameters.txt

	panic=		[KNL] Kernel behaviour on panic: delay <timeout>
			seconds before rebooting
			Format: <timeout>

	parkbd.port=	[HW] Parallel port number the keyboard adapter is
			connected to, default is 0.
			Format: <parport#>
	parkbd.mode=	[HW] Parallel port keyboard adapter mode of operation,
			0 for XT, 1 for AT (default is AT).
			Format: <mode>

	parport=	[HW,PPT] Specify parallel ports. 0 disables.
			Format: { 0 | auto | 0xBBB[,IRQ[,DMA]] }
			Use 'auto' to force the driver to use any
			IRQ/DMA settings detected (the default is to
			ignore detected IRQ/DMA settings because of
			possible conflicts). You can specify the base
			address, IRQ, and DMA settings; IRQ and DMA
			should be numbers, or 'auto' (for using detected
			settings on that particular port), or 'nofifo'
			(to avoid using a FIFO even if it is detected).
			Parallel ports are assigned in the order they
			are specified on the command line, starting
			with parport0.

	parport_init_mode=	[HW,PPT]
			Configure VIA parallel port to operate in
			a specific mode. This is necessary on Pegasos
			computer where firmware has no options for setting
			up parallel port mode and sets it to spp.
			Currently this function knows 686a and 8231 chips.
			Format: [spp|ps2|epp|ecp|ecpepp]

			Halt all CPUs after the first oops has been printed for
			the specified number of seconds.  This is to be used if
			your oopses keep scrolling off the screen.

	pcbit=		[HW,ISDN]

	pcd.		[PARIDE]
			See header of drivers/block/paride/pcd.c.
			See also Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt.

	pci=option[,option...]	[PCI] various PCI subsystem options:
		earlydump	[X86] dump PCI config space before the kernel
			        changes anything
		off		[X86] don't probe for the PCI bus
		bios		[X86-32] force use of PCI BIOS, don't access
				the hardware directly. Use this if your machine
				has a non-standard PCI host bridge.
		nobios		[X86-32] disallow use of PCI BIOS, only direct
				hardware access methods are allowed. Use this
				if you experience crashes upon bootup and you
				suspect they are caused by the BIOS.
		conf1		[X86] Force use of PCI Configuration
				Mechanism 1.
		conf2		[X86] Force use of PCI Configuration
				Mechanism 2.
		noaer		[PCIE] If the PCIEAER kernel config parameter is
				enabled, this kernel boot option can be used to
				disable the use of PCIE advanced error reporting.
		nodomains	[PCI] Disable support for multiple PCI
				root domains (aka PCI segments, in ACPI-speak).
		nommconf	[X86] Disable use of MMCONFIG for PCI
		check_enable_amd_mmconf [X86] check for and enable
				properly configured MMIO access to PCI
				config space on AMD family 10h CPU
		nomsi		[MSI] If the PCI_MSI kernel config parameter is
				enabled, this kernel boot option can be used to
				disable the use of MSI interrupts system-wide.
		noioapicquirk	[APIC] Disable all boot interrupt quirks.
				Safety option to keep boot IRQs enabled. This
				should never be necessary.
		ioapicreroute	[APIC] Enable rerouting of boot IRQs to the
				primary IO-APIC for bridges that cannot disable
				boot IRQs. This fixes a source of spurious IRQs
				when the system masks IRQs.
		noioapicreroute	[APIC] Disable workaround that uses the
				boot IRQ equivalent of an IRQ that connects to
				a chipset where boot IRQs cannot be disabled.
				The opposite of ioapicreroute.
		biosirq		[X86-32] Use PCI BIOS calls to get the interrupt
				routing table. These calls are known to be buggy
				on several machines and they hang the machine
				when used, but on other computers it's the only
				way to get the interrupt routing table. Try
				this option if the kernel is unable to allocate
				IRQs or discover secondary PCI buses on your
		rom		[X86] Assign address space to expansion ROMs.
				Use with caution as certain devices share
				address decoders between ROMs and other
		norom		[X86] Do not assign address space to
				expansion ROMs that do not already have
				BIOS assigned address ranges.
		nobar		[X86] Do not assign address space to the
				BARs that weren't assigned by the BIOS.
		irqmask=0xMMMM	[X86] Set a bit mask of IRQs allowed to be
				assigned automatically to PCI devices. You can
				make the kernel exclude IRQs of your ISA cards
				this way.
		pirqaddr=0xAAAAA	[X86] Specify the physical address
				of the PIRQ table (normally generated
				by the BIOS) if it is outside the
				F0000h-100000h range.
		lastbus=N	[X86] Scan all buses thru bus #N. Can be
				useful if the kernel is unable to find your
				secondary buses and you want to tell it
				explicitly which ones they are.
		assign-busses	[X86] Always assign all PCI bus
				numbers ourselves, overriding
				whatever the firmware may have done.
		usepirqmask	[X86] Honor the possible IRQ mask stored
				in the BIOS $PIR table. This is needed on
				some systems with broken BIOSes, notably
				some HP Pavilion N5400 and Omnibook XE3
				notebooks. This will have no effect if ACPI
				IRQ routing is enabled.
		noacpi		[X86] Do not use ACPI for IRQ routing
				or for PCI scanning.
		use_crs		[X86] Use PCI host bridge window information
				from ACPI.  On BIOSes from 2008 or later, this
				is enabled by default.  If you need to use this,
				please report a bug.
		nocrs		[X86] Ignore PCI host bridge windows from ACPI.
			        If you need to use this, please report a bug.
		routeirq	Do IRQ routing for all PCI devices.
				This is normally done in pci_enable_device(),
				so this option is a temporary workaround
				for broken drivers that don't call it.
		skip_isa_align	[X86] do not align io start addr, so can
				handle more pci cards
		firmware	[ARM] Do not re-enumerate the bus but instead
				just use the configuration from the
				bootloader. This is currently used on
				IXP2000 systems where the bus has to be
				configured a certain way for adjunct CPUs.
		noearly		[X86] Don't do any early type 1 scanning.
				This might help on some broken boards which
				machine check when some devices' config space
				is read. But various workarounds are disabled
				and some IOMMU drivers will not work.
		bfsort		Sort PCI devices into breadth-first order.
				This sorting is done to get a device
				order compatible with older (<= 2.4) kernels.
		nobfsort	Don't sort PCI devices into breadth-first order.
		cbiosize=nn[KMG]	The fixed amount of bus space which is
				reserved for the CardBus bridge's IO window.
				The default value is 256 bytes.
		cbmemsize=nn[KMG]	The fixed amount of bus space which is
				reserved for the CardBus bridge's memory
				window. The default value is 64 megabytes.
				[<order of align>@][<domain>:]<bus>:<slot>.<func>[; ...]
				Specifies alignment and device to reassign
				aligned memory resources.
				If <order of align> is not specified,
				PAGE_SIZE is used as alignment.
				PCI-PCI bridge can be specified, if resource
				windows need to be expanded.
		ecrc=		Enable/disable PCIe ECRC (transaction layer
				end-to-end CRC checking).
				bios: Use BIOS/firmware settings. This is the
				the default.
				off: Turn ECRC off
				on: Turn ECRC on.
		realloc		reallocate PCI resources if allocations done by BIOS
				are erroneous.

	pcie_aspm=	[PCIE] Forcibly enable or disable PCIe Active State Power
		off	Disable ASPM.
		force	Enable ASPM even on devices that claim not to support it.
			WARNING: Forcing ASPM on may cause system lockups.

	pcie_ports=	[PCIE] PCIe ports handling:
		auto	Ask the BIOS whether or not to use native PCIe services
			associated with PCIe ports (PME, hot-plug, AER).  Use
			them only if that is allowed by the BIOS.
		native	Use native PCIe services associated with PCIe ports
		compat	Treat PCIe ports as PCI-to-PCI bridges, disable the PCIe
			ports driver.

	pcie_pme=	[PCIE,PM] Native PCIe PME signaling options:
		nomsi	Do not use MSI for native PCIe PME signaling (this makes
			all PCIe root ports use INTx for all services).

	pcmv=		[HW,PCMCIA] BadgePAD 4

	pd.		[PARIDE]
			See Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt.

	pdcchassis=	[PARISC,HW] Disable/Enable PDC Chassis Status codes at
			boot time.
			Format: { 0 | 1 }
			See arch/parisc/kernel/pdc_chassis.c

	percpu_alloc=	Select which percpu first chunk allocator to use.
			Currently supported values are "embed" and "page".
			Archs may support subset or none of the	selections.
			See comments in mm/percpu.c for details on each
			allocator.  This parameter is primarily	for debugging
			and performance comparison.

	pf.		[PARIDE]
			See Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt.

	pg.		[PARIDE]
			See Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt.

	pirq=		[SMP,APIC] Manual mp-table setup
			See Documentation/x86/i386/IO-APIC.txt.

	plip=		[PPT,NET] Parallel port network link
			Format: { parport<nr> | timid | 0 }
			See also Documentation/parport.txt.

	pmtmr=		[X86] Manual setup of pmtmr I/O Port. 
			Override pmtimer IOPort with a hex value.
			e.g. pmtmr=0x508

	pnp.debug	[PNP]
			Enable PNP debug messages.  This depends on the

	pnpacpi=	[ACPI]
			{ off }

	pnpbios=	[ISAPNP]
			{ on | off | curr | res | no-curr | no-res }

			[ISAPNP] Exclude IRQs for the autoconfiguration

			[ISAPNP] Exclude DMAs for the autoconfiguration

	pnp_reserve_io=	[ISAPNP] Exclude I/O ports for the autoconfiguration
			Ranges are in pairs (I/O port base and size).

			[ISAPNP] Exclude memory regions for the
			Ranges are in pairs (memory base and size).

	ports=		[IP_VS_FTP] IPVS ftp helper module
			Default is 21.
			Up to 8 (IP_VS_APP_MAX_PORTS) ports
			may be specified.
			Format: <port>,<port>....

			[KNL] debug: print fatal signals

			If enabled, warn about various signal handling
			related application anomalies: too many signals,
			too many POSIX.1 timers, fatal signals causing a
			coredump - etc.

			If you hit the warning due to signal overflow,
			you might want to try "ulimit -i unlimited".

			default: off.

	printk.time=	Show timing data prefixed to each printk message line
			Format: <bool>  (1/Y/y=enable, 0/N/n=disable)

	processor.max_cstate=	[HW,ACPI]
			Limit processor to maximum C-state
			max_cstate=9 overrides any DMI blacklist limit.

	processor.nocst	[HW,ACPI]
			Ignore the _CST method to determine C-states,
			instead using the legacy FADT method

	profile=	[KNL] Enable kernel profiling via /proc/profile
			Format: [schedule,]<number>
			Param: "schedule" - profile schedule points.
			Param: <number> - step/bucket size as a power of 2 for
				statistical time based profiling.
			Param: "sleep" - profile D-state sleeping (millisecs).
			Param: "kvm" - profile VM exits.

	prompt_ramdisk=	[RAM] List of RAM disks to prompt for floppy disk
			before loading.
			See Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt.

	psmouse.proto=	[HW,MOUSE] Highest PS2 mouse protocol extension to
			probe for; one of (bare|imps|exps|lifebook|any).
	psmouse.rate=	[HW,MOUSE] Set desired mouse report rate, in reports
			per second.
	psmouse.resetafter=	[HW,MOUSE]
			Try to reset the device after so many bad packets
			(0 = never).
			[HW,MOUSE] Set desired mouse resolution, in dpi.
			[HW,MOUSE] Controls Logitech smartscroll autorepeat.
			0 = disabled, 1 = enabled (default).

	pt.		[PARIDE]
			See Documentation/blockdev/paride.txt.

			[KNL] Number of legacy pty's. Overwrites compiled-in
			default number.

	quiet		[KNL] Disable most log messages

	r128=		[HW,DRM]

	raid=		[HW,RAID]
			See Documentation/md.txt.

	ramdisk_blocksize=	[RAM]
			See Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt.

	ramdisk_size=	[RAM] Sizes of RAM disks in kilobytes
			See Documentation/blockdev/ramdisk.txt.

	rcupdate.blimit=	[KNL,BOOT]
			Set maximum number of finished RCU callbacks to process
			in one batch.

	rcupdate.qhimark=	[KNL,BOOT]
			Set threshold of queued
			RCU callbacks over which batch limiting is disabled.

	rcupdate.qlowmark=	[KNL,BOOT]
			Set threshold of queued RCU callbacks below which
			batch limiting is re-enabled.

	rdinit=		[KNL]
			Format: <full_path>
			Run specified binary instead of /init from the ramdisk,
			used for early userspace startup. See initrd.

	reboot=		[BUGS=X86-32,BUGS=ARM,BUGS=IA-64] Rebooting mode
			Format: <reboot_mode>[,<reboot_mode2>[,...]]
			See arch/*/kernel/reboot.c or arch/*/kernel/process.c

			[KNL, SMP] Set scheduler's default relax_domain_level.
			See Documentation/cgroups/cpusets.txt.

	reserve=	[KNL,BUGS] Force the kernel to ignore some iomem area

	reservetop=	[X86-32]
			Format: nn[KMG]
			Reserves a hole at the top of the kernel virtual
			address space.

	reservelow=	[X86]
			Format: nn[K]
			Set the amount of memory to reserve for BIOS at
			the bottom of the address space.

	reset_devices	[KNL] Force drivers to reset the underlying device
			during initialization.

	resume=		[SWSUSP]
			Specify the partition device for software suspend

	resume_offset=	[SWSUSP]
			Specify the offset from the beginning of the partition
			given by "resume=" at which the swap header is located,
			in <PAGE_SIZE> units (needed only for swap files).
			See  Documentation/power/swsusp-and-swap-files.txt

	hibernate=	[HIBERNATION]
		noresume	Don't check if there's a hibernation image
				present during boot.
		nocompress	Don't compress/decompress hibernation images.

	retain_initrd	[RAM] Keep initrd memory after extraction

	rhash_entries=	[KNL,NET]
			Set number of hash buckets for route cache

	riscom8=	[HW,SERIAL]
			Format: <io_board1>[,<io_board2>[,...<io_boardN>]]

	ro		[KNL] Mount root device read-only on boot

	root=		[KNL] Root filesystem

	rootdelay=	[KNL] Delay (in seconds) to pause before attempting to
			mount the root filesystem

	rootflags=	[KNL] Set root filesystem mount option string

	rootfstype=	[KNL] Set root filesystem type

	rootwait	[KNL] Wait (indefinitely) for root device to show up.
			Useful for devices that are detected asynchronously
			(e.g. USB and MMC devices).

	rw		[KNL] Mount root device read-write on boot

	S		[KNL] Run init in single mode

	sa1100ir	[NET]
			See drivers/net/irda/sa1100_ir.c.

	sbni=		[NET] Granch SBNI12 leased line adapter

	sched_debug	[KNL] Enables verbose scheduler debug messages.

	security=	[SECURITY] Choose a security module to enable at boot.
			If this boot parameter is not specified, only the first
			security module asking for security registration will be
			loaded. An invalid security module name will be treated
			as if no module has been chosen.

	selinux=	[SELINUX] Disable or enable SELinux at boot time.
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
			0 -- disable.
			1 -- enable.
			Default value is set via kernel config option.
			If enabled at boot time, /selinux/disable can be used
			later to disable prior to initial policy load.

	apparmor=	[APPARMOR] Disable or enable AppArmor at boot time
			Format: { "0" | "1" }
			See security/apparmor/Kconfig help text
			0 -- disable.
			1 -- enable.
			Default value is set via kernel config option.

	serialnumber	[BUGS=X86-32]

	shapers=	[NET]
			Maximal number of shapers.

	show_msr=	[x86] show boot-time MSR settings
			Format: { <integer> }
			Show boot-time (BIOS-initialized) MSR settings.
			The parameter means the number of CPUs to show,
			for example 1 means boot CPU only.

	simeth=		[IA-64]

	slram=		[HW,MTD]

	slub_debug[=options[,slabs]]	[MM, SLUB]
			Enabling slub_debug allows one to determine the
			culprit if slab objects become corrupted. Enabling
			slub_debug can create guard zones around objects and
			may poison objects when not in use. Also tracks the
			last alloc / free. For more information see

	slub_max_order= [MM, SLUB]
			Determines the maximum allowed order for slabs.
			A high setting may cause OOMs due to memory
			fragmentation. For more information see

	slub_min_objects=	[MM, SLUB]
			The minimum number of objects per slab. SLUB will
			increase the slab order up to slub_max_order to
			generate a sufficiently large slab able to contain
			the number of objects indicated. The higher the number
			of objects the smaller the overhead of tracking slabs
			and the less frequently locks need to be acquired.
			For more information see Documentation/vm/slub.txt.

	slub_min_order=	[MM, SLUB]
			Determines the mininum page order for slabs. Must be
			lower than slub_max_order.
			For more information see Documentation/vm/slub.txt.

	slub_nomerge	[MM, SLUB]
			Disable merging of slabs with similar size. May be
			necessary if there is some reason to distinguish
			allocs to different slabs. Debug options disable
			merging on their own.
			For more information see Documentation/vm/slub.txt.

	smart2=		[HW]
			Format: <io1>[,<io2>[,...,<io8>]]

	smp-alt-once	[X86-32,SMP] On a hotplug CPU system, only
			attempt to substitute SMP alternatives once at boot.

	smsc-ircc2.nopnp	[HW] Don't use PNP to discover SMC devices
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_cfg=	[HW] Device configuration I/O port
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_sir=	[HW] SIR base I/O port
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_fir=	[HW] FIR base I/O port
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_irq=	[HW] IRQ line
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_dma=	[HW] DMA channel
	smsc-ircc2.ircc_transceiver= [HW] Transceiver type:
				0: Toshiba Satellite 1800 (GP data pin select)
				1: Fast pin select (default)
				2: ATC IRMode

			[KNL] Should the soft-lockup detector generate panics.
			Format: <integer>

	sonypi.*=	[HW] Sony Programmable I/O Control Device driver
			See Documentation/sonypi.txt

	specialix=	[HW,SERIAL] Specialix multi-serial port adapter
			See Documentation/serial/specialix.txt.

	spia_io_base=	[HW,MTD]

	stacktrace	[FTRACE]
			Enabled the stack tracer on boot up.

	sti=		[PARISC,HW]
			Format: <num>
			Set the STI (builtin display/keyboard on the HP-PARISC
			machines) console (graphic card) which should be used
			as the initial boot-console.
			See also comment in drivers/video/console/sticore.c.

	sti_font=	[HW]
			See comment in drivers/video/console/sticore.c.

	stifb=		[HW]
			Format: bpp:<bpp1>[:<bpp2>[:<bpp3>...]]

			SunRPC servers often require that client requests
			originate from a privileged port (i.e. a port in the
			range 0 < portnr < 1024).
			An administrator who wishes to reserve some of these
			ports for other uses may adjust the range that the
			kernel's sunrpc client considers to be privileged
			using these two parameters to set the minimum and
			maximum port values.

			Control how the NFS server code allocates CPUs to
			service thread pools.  Depending on how many NICs
			you have and where their interrupts are bound, this
			option will affect which CPUs will do NFS serving.
			Note: this parameter cannot be changed while the
			NFS server is running.

			auto	    the server chooses an appropriate mode
				    automatically using heuristics
			global	    a single global pool contains all CPUs
			percpu	    one pool for each CPU
			pernode	    one pool for each NUMA node (equivalent
				    to global on non-NUMA machines)

			Sets the upper limit on the number of simultaneous
			RPC calls that can be sent from the client to a
			server. Increasing these values may allow you to
			improve throughput, but will also increase the
			amount of memory reserved for use by the client.

			[KNL] Enable accounting of swap in memory resource
			controller if no parameter or 1 is given or disable
			it if 0 is given (See Documentation/cgroups/memory.txt)

	swiotlb=	[IA-64] Number of I/O TLB slabs

	switches=	[HW,M68k]

	sysfs.deprecated=0|1 [KNL]
			Enable/disable old style sysfs layout for old udev
			on older distributions. When this option is enabled
			very new udev will not work anymore. When this option
			is disabled (or CONFIG_SYSFS_DEPRECATED not compiled)
			in older udev will not work anymore.
			Default depends on CONFIG_SYSFS_DEPRECATED_V2 set in
			the kernel configuration.

			Ignore sysrq setting - this boot parameter will
			neutralize any effect of /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq.
			Useful for debugging.

	tdfx=		[HW,DRM]

	test_suspend=	[SUSPEND]
			Specify "mem" (for Suspend-to-RAM) or "standby" (for
			standby suspend) as the system sleep state to briefly
			enter during system startup.  The system is woken from
			this state using a wakeup-capable RTC alarm.

	thash_entries=	[KNL,NET]
			Set number of hash buckets for TCP connection

	thermal.act=	[HW,ACPI]
			-1: disable all active trip points in all thermal zones
			<degrees C>: override all lowest active trip points

	thermal.crt=	[HW,ACPI]
			-1: disable all critical trip points in all thermal zones
			<degrees C>: override all critical trip points

	thermal.nocrt=	[HW,ACPI]
			Set to disable actions on ACPI thermal zone
			critical and hot trip points.	[HW,ACPI]
			1: disable ACPI thermal control

	thermal.psv=	[HW,ACPI]
			-1: disable all passive trip points
			<degrees C>: override all passive trip points to this

	thermal.tzp=	[HW,ACPI]
			Specify global default ACPI thermal zone polling rate
			<deci-seconds>: poll all this frequency
			0: no polling (default)

	threadirqs	[KNL]
			Force threading of all interrupt handlers except those
			marked explicitely IRQF_NO_THREAD.

	topology=	[S390]
			Format: {off | on}
			Specify if the kernel should make use of the cpu
			topology information if the hardware supports this.
			The scheduler will make use of this information and
			e.g. base its process migration decisions on it.
			Default is on.

	tp720=		[HW,PS2]

			Format: integer pcr id
			Specify that at suspend time, the tpm driver
			should extend the specified pcr with zeros,
			as a workaround for some chips which fail to
			flush the last written pcr on TPM_SaveState.
			This will guarantee that all the other pcrs
			are saved.

			[FTRACE] will set tracing buffer size.

			[FTRACE] Set and start specified trace events in order
			to facilitate early boot debugging.
			See also Documentation/trace/events.txt

	tsc=		Disable clocksource stability checks for TSC.
			Format: <string>
			[x86] reliable: mark tsc clocksource as reliable, this
			disables clocksource verification at runtime, as well
			as the stability checks done at bootup.	Used to enable
			high-resolution timer mode on older hardware, and in
			virtualized environment.
			[x86] noirqtime: Do not use TSC to do irq accounting.
			Used to run time disable IRQ_TIME_ACCOUNTING on any
			platforms where RDTSC is slow and this accounting
			can add overhead.[2|3]=	[HW,JOY]
			TurboGraFX parallel port interface
			See also Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt

	uhash_entries=	[KNL,NET]
			Set number of hash buckets for UDP/UDP-Lite connections

			[USB] Ignore overcurrent events (default N).
			Some badly-designed motherboards generate lots of
			bogus events, for ports that aren't wired to
			anything.  Set this parameter to avoid log spamming.
			Note that genuine overcurrent events won't be
			reported either.

			[X86] Cause panic on unknown NMI.

			[USB] The autosuspend time delay (in seconds) used
			for newly-detected USB devices (default 2).  This
			is the time required before an idle device will be
			autosuspended.  Devices for which the delay is set
			to a negative value won't be autosuspended at all.

			[USB] Set to log all usbfs traffic (default 0 = off).

			[USB] Set to cycle leds on hubs (default 0 = off).

			[USB] Start with the old device initialization
			scheme (default 0 = off).

			[USB] Try the other device initialization scheme
			if the first one fails (default 1 = enabled).

			[USB] Specifies timeout for the initial 64-byte
                        USB_REQ_GET_DESCRIPTOR request in milliseconds
			(default 5000 = 5.0 seconds).

			[USBHID] The interval which mice are to be polled at.

			[UMS] The delay in seconds before a new device is
			scanned for Logical Units (default 5).

			[UMS] A list of quirks entries to supplement or
			override the built-in unusual_devs list.  List
			entries are separated by commas.  Each entry has
			the form VID:PID:Flags where VID and PID are Vendor
			and Product ID values (4-digit hex numbers) and
			Flags is a set of characters, each corresponding
			to a common usb-storage quirk flag as follows:
				a = SANE_SENSE (collect more than 18 bytes
					of sense data);
				b = BAD_SENSE (don't collect more than 18
					bytes of sense data);
				c = FIX_CAPACITY (decrease the reported
					device capacity by one sector);
				d = NO_READ_DISC_INFO (don't use
					READ_DISC_INFO command);
				e = NO_READ_CAPACITY_16 (don't use
					READ_CAPACITY_16 command);
				h = CAPACITY_HEURISTICS (decrease the
					reported device capacity by one
					sector if the number is odd);
				i = IGNORE_DEVICE (don't bind to this
				l = NOT_LOCKABLE (don't try to lock and
					unlock ejectable media);
				m = MAX_SECTORS_64 (don't transfer more
					than 64 sectors = 32 KB at a time);
				n = INITIAL_READ10 (force a retry of the
					initial READ(10) command);
				o = CAPACITY_OK (accept the capacity
					reported by the device);
				r = IGNORE_RESIDUE (the device reports
					bogus residue values);
				s = SINGLE_LUN (the device has only one
					Logical Unit);
				w = NO_WP_DETECT (don't test whether the
					medium is write-protected).
			Example: quirks=0419:aaf5:rl,0421:0433:rc

			[X86] Flags controlling user PTE allocations.

				nohigh = do not allocate PTE pages in
					HIGHMEM regardless of setting

	vdso=		[X86,SH]
			vdso=2: enable compat VDSO (default with COMPAT_VDSO)
			vdso=1: enable VDSO (default)
			vdso=0: disable VDSO mapping

	vdso32=		[X86]
			vdso32=2: enable compat VDSO (default with COMPAT_VDSO)
			vdso32=1: enable 32-bit VDSO (default)
			vdso32=0: disable 32-bit VDSO mapping

	vector=		[IA-64,SMP]
			vector=percpu: enable percpu vector domain

	video=		[FB] Frame buffer configuration
			See Documentation/fb/modedb.txt.

	vga=		[BOOT,X86-32] Select a particular video mode
			See Documentation/x86/boot.txt and
			Use vga=ask for menu.
			This is actually a boot loader parameter; the value is
			passed to the kernel using a special protocol.

	vmalloc=nn[KMG]	[KNL,BOOT] Forces the vmalloc area to have an exact
			size of <nn>. This can be used to increase the
			minimum size (128MB on x86). It can also be used to
			decrease the size and leave more room for directly
			mapped kernel RAM.

	vmhalt=		[KNL,S390] Perform z/VM CP command after system halt.
			Format: <command>

	vmpanic=	[KNL,S390] Perform z/VM CP command after kernel panic.
			Format: <command>

	vmpoff=		[KNL,S390] Perform z/VM CP command after power off.
			Format: <command>

	vt.cur_default=	[VT] Default cursor shape.
			Format: 0xCCBBAA, where AA, BB, and CC are the same as
			the parameters of the <Esc>[?A;B;Cc escape sequence;
			see VGA-softcursor.txt. Default: 2 = underline.

	vt.default_blu=	[VT]
			Format: <blue0>,<blue1>,<blue2>,...,<blue15>
			Change the default blue palette of the console.
			This is a 16-member array composed of values
			ranging from 0-255.

	vt.default_grn=	[VT]
			Format: <green0>,<green1>,<green2>,...,<green15>
			Change the default green palette of the console.
			This is a 16-member array composed of values
			ranging from 0-255.

	vt.default_red=	[VT]
			Format: <red0>,<red1>,<red2>,...,<red15>
			Change the default red palette of the console.
			This is a 16-member array composed of values
			ranging from 0-255.

			Set system-wide default UTF-8 mode for all tty's.
			Default is 1, i.e. UTF-8 mode is enabled for all
			newly opened terminals.

			Set system-wide default for whether a cursor
			is shown on new VTs. Default is -1,
			i.e. cursors will be created by default unless
			overridden by individual drivers. 0 will hide
			cursors, 1 will display them.

	watchdog timers	[HW,WDT] For information on watchdog timers,
			see Documentation/watchdog/watchdog-parameters.txt
			or other driver-specific files in the
			Documentation/watchdog/ directory.

	x2apic_phys	[X86-64,APIC] Use x2apic physical mode instead of
			default x2apic cluster mode on platforms
			supporting x2apic.

	x86_mrst_timer= [X86-32,APBT]
			Choose timer option for x86 Moorestown MID platform.
			Two valid options are apbt timer only and lapic timer
			plus one apbt timer for broadcast timer.
			x86_mrst_timer=apbt_only | lapic_and_apbt

	xd=		[HW,XT] Original XT pre-IDE (RLL encoded) disks.
	xd_geo=		See header of drivers/block/xd.c.

	xen_emul_unplug=		[HW,X86,XEN]
			Unplug Xen emulated devices
			Format: [unplug0,][unplug1]
			ide-disks -- unplug primary master IDE devices
			aux-ide-disks -- unplug non-primary-master IDE devices
			nics -- unplug network devices
			all -- unplug all emulated devices (NICs and IDE disks)
			unnecessary -- unplugging emulated devices is
				unnecessary even if the host did not respond to
				the unplug protocol
			never -- do not unplug even if version check succeeds

	xirc2ps_cs=	[NET,PCMCIA]



	Add more DRM drivers.


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