中断与时钟

0、序言

中断服务程序的执行并不存在于进程上下问中,要求中断服务程序的时间要尽量短。因此,Linux中断处理中引入上半部和下半部分离的机制。另外,内核对时钟的处理也是采用中断方式,而内核软件定时器最终依赖于时钟中断。

1、中断与定时器

基本概念……

2、Linux中断处理程序架构

中断会打断内核进程的正常调度和运行,为了提高系统的吞吐率势必要求中断服务程序尽量短小精悍。大多是真实的系统中,中断需要处理的工作并不会是短小,他可能需要进行大量耗时的处理。为了平衡执行时间尽量短和中断处理需要处理较大工作量,Linux将中断处理程序分解为两个半部:顶半部(Top Half)和底半部(Bottom Half)。

3、Linux中断编程

1)申请中断(/include/linux/interrupt.h)

static inline int __must_check
request_irq(unsigned int irq, irq_handler_t handler, unsigned long flags,
			const char *name, void *dev){
	...
}
static inline int __must_check
devm_request_irq(struct device *dev, unsigned int irq, irq_handler_t handler,
				 unsigned long irqflags, const char *devname, void *dev_id){
	...
}

2)释放中断(/include/linux/interrupt.h)

extern void free_irq(unsigned int, void *);
extern void devm_free_irq(struct device *dev, unsigned int irq, void *dev_id);

3)使能中断(/include/linux/interrupt.h)

extern void enable_irq(unsigned int irq);

4)屏蔽中断(/include/linux/interrupt.h)

extern void disable_irq_nosync(unsigned int irq);
extern void disable_irq(unsigned int irq);

4、linux底半部机制

1)tasklist(/include/linux/interrupt.h)

执行上下文是软中断,执行时机通常是顶半部返回。

extern void tasklet_init(struct tasklet_struct *t,
			void (*func)(unsigned long), unsigned long data);
static inline void tasklet_schedule(struct tasklet_struct *t){
	...
}

2)工作队列(/include/linux/workqueue.h)

执行上下文是线程,可以调度和休眠。

extern void __init_work(struct work_struct *work, int onstack);
static inline bool schedule_work(struct work_struct *work){
	...
}

3)软中断(/include/linux/interrupt.h)

不可打断,执行时机通常是顶半部返回。

extern void open_softirq(int nr, void (*action)(struct softirq_action *));
extern void raise_softirq(unsigned int nr);

4)线程化(/include/linux/interrupt.h)

申请中断和工作队列的封装。

extern int __must_check
request_threaded_irq(unsigned int irq, irq_handler_t handler,
					 irq_handler_t thread_fn,
					 unsigned long flags, const char *name, void *dev);
static inline int __must_check
request_irq(unsigned int irq, irq_handler_t handler, unsigned long flags,
			const char *name, void *dev){
	...
}

5、中断共享

多个设备共享一根硬件中断线的硬件系统广泛存在,Linux支持这种中断共享。申请中断时,只需要属性标志加上IRQF_SHARED即可。

6、内核定时器

软件意义上的定时器,最终依赖硬件定时器来实现。内部时钟发生中断,检测各定时器是否到期,到期的定时器处理函数将作为软中断于底半部执行。

0)数据结构

struct timer_list {
	/*
	 * All fields that change during normal runtime grouped to the
	 * same cacheline
	 */
	struct list_head entry;
	unsigned long expires;
	struct tvec_base *base;

	void (*function)(unsigned long);
	unsigned long data;

	int slack;

#ifdef CONFIG_TIMER_STATS
	int start_pid;
	void *start_site;
	char start_comm[16];
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_LOCKDEP
	struct lockdep_map lockdep_map;
#endif
};

1)初始化定时器(/include/linux/timer.h)

void init_timer_key(struct timer_list *timer, unsigned int flags,
        			const char *name, struct lock_class_key *key){
	...
}

2)增加定时器(/include/linux/timer.h)

extern void add_timer(struct timer_list *timer);

3)删除定时器(/include/linux/timer.h)

extern int del_timer(struct timer_list * timer);	

4)修改定时器(/include/linux/timer.h)

extern int mod_timer(struct timer_list *timer, unsigned long expires);

7、内核中延时工作

1)周期性延时(include/linux/workqueue.h)

static inline bool schedule_delayed_work(struct delayed_work *dwork,
										 unsigned long delay){
	...
}
extern bool cancel_delayed_work(struct delayed_work *dwork);
extern bool cancel_delayed_work_sync(struct delayed_work *dwork);

2)非周期性延时(/include/linux/sched.h)

extern long schedule_timeout(long timeout);
extern long schedule_timeout_interruptible(long timeout);
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