pytorch 深度学习之强化学习玩flappy bird

接下来,我们要做一个比较有挑战性的工作,那么就是使用pytorch实现强化学习网络,即DQN.目前,已经有tensorflow的实现

,所以,涉及到游戏的python代码,非我原创。

关于DQN,算法伪代码:


关于游戏的介绍,我这里就还不多说了

https://blog.csdn.net/songrotek/article/details/50951537

github上有人放出使用DQN玩Flappy Bird的代码,https://github.com/yenchenlin1994/DeepLearningFlappyBird【1】 

这个在tensorflow下的实现,这里,我主要是对其深度网络模块的设计,采用了pytorch重新设计了一遍。其余模块不变

,所以变量名基本不变。

深度学习网络设计:


所以,我们关于该网络模块的设计代码实现为:

class DeepNetWork(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(DeepNetWork, self).__init__()

        # 需要将事先训练好的词向量载入

        self.conv1 = nn.Sequential(
            nn.Conv2d(in_channels=4, out_channels=32, kernel_size=8,stride=4,padding=2),
            nn.ReLU(inplace=True),
            nn.MaxPool2d(kernel_size=2)  #
        )
        self.conv2 = nn.Sequential(
            nn.Conv2d(in_channels=32, out_channels=64, kernel_size=4, stride=2,padding=1),
            nn.ReLU(inplace=True),
        )
        self.conv3 = nn.Sequential(
            nn.Conv2d(in_channels=64, out_channels=64, kernel_size=3, stride=1, padding=1),
            nn.ReLU(inplace=True),
        )
        self.fc1=nn.Sequential(
            nn.Linear(1600,256),
            nn.ReLU(),
        )
        self.out = nn.Linear(256,2)
    def forward(self,x):
        #btach channel width,weight
        x = self.conv1(x)
        x = self.conv2(x)
        x = self.conv3(x)
        x = x.view(x.size(0), -1) # 将(batchoutchanel,w,h)展平为(batchoutchanel*w*h        x = self.fc1(x)
        output = self.out(x)
        return output
train模块

def train(self):
    # Step 1: obtain random minibatch from replay memory
    minibatch = random.sample(self.replayMemory, BATCH_SIZE)
    state_batch = [data[0] for data in minibatch]
    action_batch = [data[1] for data in minibatch]
    reward_batch = [data[2] for data in minibatch]
    nextState_batch = [data[3] for data in minibatch]
    # Step 2: calculate y
    y_batch = np.zeros([BATCH_SIZE,1])
    nextState_batch=np.array(nextState_batch)
    #print("train next state shape")
    #print(nextState_batch.shape)
    nextState_batch=torch.Tensor(nextState_batch)
    action_batch=np.array(action_batch)
    index=action_batch.argmax(axis=1)
    print("action "+str(index))
    index=np.reshape(index,[BATCH_SIZE,1])
    action_batch_tensor=torch.LongTensor(index)
    QValue_batch = self.Q_netT(nextState_batch)
    QValue_batch=QValue_batch.detach().numpy()
    for i in range(0, BATCH_SIZE):
        terminal = minibatch[i][4]
        if terminal:
            y_batch[i][0]=reward_batch[i]
        else:
            # 这里的QValue_batch[i]为数组,大小为所有动作集合大小,QValue_batch[i],代表
            # 做所有动作的Q值数组,y计算为如果游戏停止,y=rewaerd[i],如果没停止,则y=reward[i]+gamma*np.max(Qvalue[i])
            # 代表当前y值为当前reward+未来预期最大值*gamma(gamma:经验系数)
            y_batch[i][0]=reward_batch[i] + GAMMA * np.max(QValue_batch[i])
    y_batch=np.array(y_batch)
    y_batch=np.reshape(y_batch,[BATCH_SIZE,1])
    state_batch_tensor=Variable(torch.Tensor(state_batch))
    y_batch_tensor=Variable(torch.Tensor(y_batch))
    y_predict=self.Q_net(state_batch_tensor).gather(1,action_batch_tensor)
    loss=self.loss_func(y_predict,y_batch_tensor)
    print("loss is "+str(loss))
    self.optimizer.zero_grad()
    loss.backward()
    self.optimizer.step()

    if self.timeStep % UPDATE_TIME == 0:
        self.Q_netT.load_state_dict(self.Q_net.state_dict())
        self.save()

这里,Q值网络针对每个输入的状态输出的为一个大小为action的数组。所以,代表输入状态执行不同动作的的Q值。所以在计算损失时,要根据训练时动作和深度网络计算出Q值数组计算出神经网络关于某种状态下做出某种动作的Q值,与训练集中的Q值做损失计算。

最后,每次我们选择动作时,选择使得Q值最大的动作,这是强化学习的知识,这里就不用仔细讨论了。

我这里贴出这部分代码:

这是flappy_bird.py,代表主函数执行:

import sys

import cv2

sys.path.append("game/")
import wrapped_flappy_bird as game
import BrainDQN
import numpy as np

# preprocess raw image to 80*80 gray image
def preprocess(observation):
   observation = cv2.cvtColor(cv2.resize(observation, (80, 80)), cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)
   ret, observation = cv2.threshold(observation,1,255,cv2.THRESH_BINARY)
   return np.reshape(observation,(1,80,80))

def playFlappyBird():
    # Step 1: init BrainDQN
    actions = 2
    brain = BrainDQN.BrainDQNMain(actions)
    # Step 2: init Flappy Bird Game
    flappyBird = game.GameState()
    # Step 3: play game
    # Step 3.1: obtain init state
    action0 = np.array([1,0])  # do nothing
    observation0, reward0, terminal = flappyBird.frame_step(action0)
    observation0 = cv2.cvtColor(cv2.resize(observation0, (80, 80)), cv2.COLOR_BGR2GRAY)
    ret, observation0 = cv2.threshold(observation0,1,255,cv2.THRESH_BINARY)
    brain.setInitState(observation0)
    print(brain.currentState.shape)
    # Step 3.2: run the game

    while 1!= 0:
        action = brain.getAction()
        nextObservation,reward,terminal = flappyBird.frame_step(action)
        nextObservation = preprocess(nextObservation)
        #print(nextObservation.shape)
        brain.setPerception(nextObservation,action,reward,terminal)


def main():
   playFlappyBird()

if __name__ == '__main__':
   main()

然后,关于深度网络调用和学习的代码:

from collections import deque
import torch
import numpy as np
from torch.autograd import Variable
import torch.nn as nn
# Hyper Parameters:
FRAME_PER_ACTION = 1
GAMMA = 0.99 # decay rate of past observations
OBSERVE = 1000. # timesteps to observe before training
EXPLORE = 200000. # frames over which to anneal epsilon
FINAL_EPSILON = 0#0.001 # final value of epsilon
INITIAL_EPSILON = 0#0.01 # starting value of epsilon
REPLAY_MEMORY = 50000 # number of previous transitions to remember
BATCH_SIZE = 32 # size of minibatch
UPDATE_TIME = 100
width=80
height=80;
import random
class DeepNetWork(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super(DeepNetWork, self).__init__()
        self.conv1 = nn.Sequential(
            nn.Conv2d(in_channels=4, out_channels=32, kernel_size=8,stride=4,padding=2),
            nn.ReLU(inplace=True),
            nn.MaxPool2d(kernel_size=2)  #
        )
        self.conv2 = nn.Sequential(
            nn.Conv2d(in_channels=32, out_channels=64, kernel_size=4, stride=2,padding=1),
            nn.ReLU(inplace=True),
        )
        self.conv3 = nn.Sequential(
            nn.Conv2d(in_channels=64, out_channels=64, kernel_size=3, stride=1, padding=1),
            nn.ReLU(inplace=True),
        )
        self.fc1=nn.Sequential(
            nn.Linear(1600,256),
            nn.ReLU(),
        )
        self.out = nn.Linear(256,2)
    def forward(self,x):
        #btach channel width,weight
        x = self.conv1(x)
        x = self.conv2(x)
        x = self.conv3(x)
        x = x.view(x.size(0), -1) # 将(batchoutchanel,w,h)展平为(batchoutchanel*w*h        x = self.fc1(x)
        output = self.out(x)
        return output
import os
class BrainDQNMain:
    def save(self):
        print("save model param")
        torch.save(self.Q_net.state_dict(), 'params3.pth')
    def load(self):
        if os.path.exists("params3.pth"):
            print("load model param")
            self.Q_net.load_state_dict(torch.load('params3.pth'))
            self.Q_netT.load_state_dict(torch.load('params3.pth'))
    def __init__(self,actions):
        self.replayMemory = deque()
        # init some parameters
        self.timeStep = 0
        self.epsilon = INITIAL_EPSILON
        self.actions = actions
        self.Q_net=DeepNetWork()
        self.Q_netT=DeepNetWork();
        self.load()
        self.loss_func=nn.MSELoss()
        LR=1e-6
        self.optimizer = torch.optim.Adam(self.Q_net.parameters(), lr=LR)
    def train(self):
        # Step 1: obtain random minibatch from replay memory
        minibatch = random.sample(self.replayMemory, BATCH_SIZE)
        state_batch = [data[0] for data in minibatch]
        action_batch = [data[1] for data in minibatch]
        reward_batch = [data[2] for data in minibatch]
        nextState_batch = [data[3] for data in minibatch]
        # Step 2: calculate y
        y_batch = np.zeros([BATCH_SIZE,1])
        nextState_batch=np.array(nextState_batch)
        #print("train next state shape")
        #print(nextState_batch.shape)
        nextState_batch=torch.Tensor(nextState_batch)
        action_batch=np.array(action_batch)
        index=action_batch.argmax(axis=1)
        print("action "+str(index))
        index=np.reshape(index,[BATCH_SIZE,1])
        action_batch_tensor=torch.LongTensor(index)
        QValue_batch = self.Q_netT(nextState_batch)
        QValue_batch=QValue_batch.detach().numpy()
        for i in range(0, BATCH_SIZE):
            terminal = minibatch[i][4]
            if terminal:
                y_batch[i][0]=reward_batch[i]
            else:
                # 这里的QValue_batch[i]为数组,大小为所有动作集合大小,QValue_batch[i],代表
                # 做所有动作的Q值数组,y计算为如果游戏停止,y=rewaerd[i],如果没停止,则y=reward[i]+gamma*np.max(Qvalue[i])
                # 代表当前y值为当前reward+未来预期最大值*gamma(gamma:经验系数)
                y_batch[i][0]=reward_batch[i] + GAMMA * np.max(QValue_batch[i])
        y_batch=np.array(y_batch)
        y_batch=np.reshape(y_batch,[BATCH_SIZE,1])
        state_batch_tensor=Variable(torch.Tensor(state_batch))
        y_batch_tensor=Variable(torch.Tensor(y_batch))
        y_predict=self.Q_net(state_batch_tensor).gather(1,action_batch_tensor)
        loss=self.loss_func(y_predict,y_batch_tensor)
        print("loss is "+str(loss))
        self.optimizer.zero_grad()
        loss.backward()
        self.optimizer.step()

        if self.timeStep % UPDATE_TIME == 0:
            self.Q_netT.load_state_dict(self.Q_net.state_dict())
            self.save()
    def setPerception(self,nextObservation,action,reward,terminal):
        #print(nextObservation.shape)
        newState = np.append(self.currentState[1:,:,:],nextObservation,axis = 0)
        # newState = np.append(nextObservation,self.currentState[:,:,1:],axis = 2)
        self.replayMemory.append((self.currentState,action,reward,newState,terminal))
        if len(self.replayMemory) > REPLAY_MEMORY:
            self.replayMemory.popleft()
        if self.timeStep > OBSERVE:
            # Train the network
            self.train()

        # print info
        state = ""
        if self.timeStep <= OBSERVE:
            state = "observe"
        elif self.timeStep > OBSERVE and self.timeStep <= OBSERVE + EXPLORE:
            state = "explore"
        else:
            state = "train"
        print ("TIMESTEP", self.timeStep, "/ STATE", state, \
            "/ EPSILON", self.epsilon)
        self.currentState = newState
        self.timeStep += 1

    def getAction(self):
        currentState=torch.Tensor([self.currentState])
        QValue = self.Q_net(currentState)[0]
        action = np.zeros(self.actions)

        if self.timeStep % FRAME_PER_ACTION == 0:
            if random.random() <= self.epsilon:
                action_index = random.randrange(self.actions)
                print("choose random action "+str(action_index))

                action[action_index] = 1
            else:
                action_index = np.argmax(QValue.detach().numpy())
                print("choose qnet value action " + str(action_index))
                action[action_index] = 1
        else:
            action[0] = 1  # do nothing
        # change episilon
        if self.epsilon > FINAL_EPSILON and self.timeStep > OBSERVE:
            self.epsilon -= (INITIAL_EPSILON - FINAL_EPSILON) / EXPLORE

        return action

    def setInitState(self, observation):
        self.currentState = np.stack((observation, observation, observation, observation), axis=0)
        print(self.currentState.shape)
此代码是https://github.com/yenchenlin1994/DeepLearningFlappyBird的pytorch实现版本。所以关于其他细节设计,我尽量靠近原版,包括变量名。
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