2020年 ICLR 国际会议最终接受论文(poster-paper)列表(二)

编辑: ShuYini
校稿: ShuYini
时间: 2020-02-21

    2020年的ICLR会议将于今年的4月26日-4月30日在Millennium Hall, Addis Ababa ETHIOPIA(埃塞俄比亚首都亚的斯亚贝巴 千禧大厅)举行。

    2020年ICLR会议(Eighth International Conference on Learning Representations)论文接受结果刚刚出来,今年的论文接受情况如下:poster-paper共523篇,Spotlight-paper共107篇,演讲Talk共48篇,共计接受678篇文章,被拒论文(reject-paper)共计1907篇,接受率为:26.48%。


    关注 AINLPer ,回复:ICLR2020 获取会议全部列表PDF,其中一共有四个文件(2020-ICLR-accept-poster.pdf、2020-ICLR-accept-spotlight.pdf、2020-ICLR-accept-talk.pdf、2020-ICLR-reject.pdf)

Deformable Kernels: Adapting Effective Receptive Fields for Object Deformation
Author: Hang Gao, Xizhou Zhu, Stephen Lin, Jifeng Dai
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SkxSv6VFvS
Code: https://github.com/hangg7/deformable-kernels/
Abstract: Convolutional networks are not aware of an object’s geometric variations, which leads to inefficient utilization of model and data capacity. To overcome this issue, recent works on deformation modeling seek to spatially reconfigure the data towards a common arrangement such that semantic recognition suffers less from deformation. This is typically done by augmenting static operators with learned free-form sampling grids in the image space, dynamically tuned to the data and task for adapting the receptive field. Yet adapting the receptive field does not quite reach the actual goal – what really matters to the network is the effective receptive field (ERF), which reflects how much each pixel contributes. It is thus natural to design other approaches to adapt the ERF directly during runtime. In this work, we instantiate one possible solution as Deformable Kernels (DKs), a family of novel and generic convolutional operators for handling object deformations by directly adapting the ERF while leaving the receptive field untouched. At the heart of our method is the ability to resample the original kernel space towards recovering the deformation of objects. This approach is justified with theoretical insights that the ERF is strictly determined by data sampling locations and kernel values. We implement DKs as generic drop-in replacements of rigid kernels and conduct a series of empirical studies whose results conform with our theories. Over several tasks and standard base models, our approach compares favorably against prior works that adapt during runtime. In addition, further experiments suggest a working mechanism orthogonal and complementary to previous works.
Keyword: Effective Receptive Fields, Deformation Modeling, Dynamic Inference

Ensemble Distribution Distillation
Author: Andrey Malinin, Bruno Mlodozeniec, Mark Gales
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BygSP6Vtvr
Code: None
Abstract: Ensembles of models often yield improvements in system performance. These ensemble approaches have also been empirically shown to yield robust measures of uncertainty, and are capable of distinguishing between different forms of uncertainty. However, ensembles come at a computational and memory cost which may be prohibitive for many applications. There has been significant work done on the distillation of an ensemble into a single model. Such approaches decrease computational cost and allow a single model to achieve an accuracy comparable to that of an ensemble. However, information about the diversity of the ensemble, which can yield estimates of different forms of uncertainty, is lost. This work considers the novel task of Ensemble Distribution Distillation (EnD^2) - distilling the distribution of the predictions from an ensemble, rather than just the average prediction, into a single model. EnD^2 enables a single model to retain both the improved classification performance of ensemble distillation as well as information about the diversity of the ensemble, which is useful for uncertainty estimation. A solution for EnD^2 based on Prior Networks, a class of models which allow a single neural network to explicitly model a distribution over output distributions, is proposed in this work. The properties of EnD^2 are investigated on both an artificial dataset, and on the CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100 and TinyImageNet datasets, where it is shown that EnD^2 can approach the classification performance of an ensemble, and outperforms both standard DNNs and Ensemble Distillation on the tasks of misclassification and out-of-distribution input detection.
Keyword: Ensemble Distillation, Knowledge Distillation, Uncertainty Estimation, Density Estimation

Gap-Aware Mitigation of Gradient Staleness
Author: Saar Barkai, Ido Hakimi, Assaf Schuster
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=B1lLw6EYwB
Code: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1z1e_GI-6FZyfROIftoLHqz1X7xvNczWs?usp=sharing
Abstract: Cloud computing is becoming increasingly popular as a platform for distributed training of deep neural networks. Synchronous stochastic gradient descent (SSGD) suffers from substantial slowdowns due to stragglers if the environment is non-dedicated, as is common in cloud computing. Asynchronous SGD (ASGD) methods are immune to these slowdowns but are scarcely used due to gradient staleness, which encumbers the convergence process. Recent techniques have had limited success mitigating the gradient staleness when scaling up to many workers (computing nodes). In this paper we define the Gap as a measure of gradient staleness and propose Gap-Aware (GA), a novel asynchronous-distributed method that penalizes stale gradients linearly to the Gap and performs well even when scaling to large numbers of workers. Our evaluation on the CIFAR, ImageNet, and WikiText-103 datasets shows that GA outperforms the currently acceptable gradient penalization method, in final test accuracy. We also provide convergence rate proof for GA. Despite prior beliefs, we show that if GA is applied, momentum becomes beneficial in asynchronous environments, even when the number of workers scales up.
Keyword: distributed, asynchronous, large scale, gradient staleness, staleness penalization, sgd, deep learning, neural networks, optimization

Counterfactuals uncover the modular structure of deep generative models
Author: Michel Besserve, Arash Mehrjou, Rémy Sun, Bernhard Schölkopf
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJxDDpEKvH
Code: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/4qnjictmh4a2soq/AAAa5brzPDlt69QOc9n2K4uOa?dl=0
Abstract: Deep generative models can emulate the perceptual properties of complex image datasets, providing a latent representation of the data. However, manipulating such representation to perform meaningful and controllable transformations in the data space remains challenging without some form of supervision. While previous work has focused on exploiting statistical independence to \textit{disentangle} latent factors, we argue that such requirement can be advantageously relaxed and propose instead a non-statistical framework that relies on identifying a modular organization of the network, based on counterfactual manipulations. Our experiments support that modularity between groups of channels is achieved to a certain degree on a variety of generative models. This allowed the design of targeted interventions on complex image datasets, opening the way to applications such as computationally efficient style transfer and the automated assessment of robustness to contextual changes in pattern recognition systems.
Keyword: generative models, causality, counterfactuals, representation learning, disentanglement, generalization, unsupervised learning

Physics-as-Inverse-Graphics: Unsupervised Physical Parameter Estimation from Video
Author: Miguel Jaques, Michael Burke, Timothy Hospedales
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BJeKwTNFvB
Code: None
Abstract: We propose a model that is able to perform physical parameter estimation of systems from video, where the differential equations governing the scene dynamics are known, but labeled states or objects are not available. Existing physical scene understanding methods require either object state supervision, or do not integrate with differentiable physics to learn interpretable system parameters and states. We address this problem through a \textit{physics-as-inverse-graphics} approach that brings together vision-as-inverse-graphics and differentiable physics engines, where objects and explicit state and velocity representations are discovered by the model. This framework allows us to perform long term extrapolative video prediction, as well as vision-based model-predictive control. Our approach significantly outperforms related unsupervised methods in long-term future frame prediction of systems with interacting objects (such as ball-spring or 3-body gravitational systems), due to its ability to build dynamics into the model as an inductive bias. We further show the value of this tight vision-physics integration by demonstrating data-efficient learning of vision-actuated model-based control for a pendulum system. We also show that the controller’s interpretability provides unique capabilities in goal-driven control and physical reasoning for zero-data adaptation.
Keyword: None

An Inductive Bias for Distances: Neural Nets that Respect the Triangle Inequality
Author: Silviu Pitis, Harris Chan, Kiarash Jamali, Jimmy Ba
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJeiDpVFPr
Code: None
Abstract: Distances are pervasive in machine learning. They serve as similarity measures, loss functions, and learning targets; it is said that a good distance measure solves a task. When defining distances, the triangle inequality has proven to be a useful constraint, both theoretically—to prove convergence and optimality guarantees—and empirically—as an inductive bias. Deep metric learning architectures that respect the triangle inequality rely, almost exclusively, on Euclidean distance in the latent space. Though effective, this fails to model two broad classes of subadditive distances, common in graphs and reinforcement learning: asymmetric metrics, and metrics that cannot be embedded into Euclidean space. To address these problems, we introduce novel architectures that are guaranteed to satisfy the triangle inequality. We prove our architectures universally approximate norm-induced metrics on R n \mathbb{R}^n Rn, and present a similar result for modified Input Convex Neural Networks. We show that our architectures outperform existing metric approaches when modeling graph distances and have a better inductive bias than non-metric approaches when training data is limited in the multi-goal reinforcement learning setting.

Keyword: metric learning, deep metric learning, neural network architectures, triangle inequality, graph distances

A Constructive Prediction of the Generalization Error Across Scales
Author: Jonathan S. Rosenfeld, Amir Rosenfeld, Yonatan Belinkov, Nir Shavit
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=ryenvpEKDr
Code: None
Abstract: The dependency of the generalization error of neural networks on model and dataset size is of critical importance both in practice and for understanding the theory of neural networks. Nevertheless, the functional form of this dependency remains elusive. In this work, we present a functional form which approximates well the generalization error in practice. Capitalizing on the successful concept of model scaling (e.g., width, depth), we are able to simultaneously construct such a form and specify the exact models which can attain it across model/data scales. Our construction follows insights obtained from observations conducted over a range of model/data scales, in various model types and datasets, in vision and language tasks. We show that the form both fits the observations well across scales, and provides accurate predictions from small- to large-scale models and data.
Keyword: neural networks, deep learning, generalization error, scaling, scalability, vision, language

Scalable Neural Methods for Reasoning With a Symbolic Knowledge Base
Author: William W. Cohen, Haitian Sun, R. Alex Hofer, Matthew Siegler
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BJlguT4YPr
Code: None
Abstract: We describe a novel way of representing a symbolic knowledge base (KB) called a sparse-matrix reified KB. This representation enables neural modules that are fully differentiable, faithful to the original semantics of the KB, expressive enough to model multi-hop inferences, and scalable enough to use with realistically large KBs. The sparse-matrix reified KB can be distributed across multiple GPUs, can scale to tens of millions of entities and facts, and is orders of magnitude faster than naive sparse-matrix implementations. The reified KB enables very simple end-to-end architectures to obtain competitive performance on several benchmarks representing two families of tasks: KB completion, and learning semantic parsers from denotations.
Keyword: question-answering, knowledge base completion, neuro-symbolic reasoning, multihop reasoning

CLN2INV: Learning Loop Invariants with Continuous Logic Networks
Author: Gabriel Ryan, Justin Wong, Jianan Yao, Ronghui Gu, Suman Jana
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJlfuTEtvB
Code: None
Abstract: Program verification offers a framework for ensuring program correctness and therefore systematically eliminating different classes of bugs. Inferring loop invariants is one of the main challenges behind automated verification of real-world programs which often contain many loops. In this paper, we present the Continuous Logic Network (CLN), a novel neural architecture for automatically learning loop invariants directly from program execution traces. Unlike existing neural networks, CLNs can learn precise and explicit representations of formulas in Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) for loop invariants from program execution traces. We develop a new sound and complete semantic mapping for assigning SMT formulas to continuous truth values that allows CLNs to be trained efficiently. We use CLNs to implement a new inference system for loop invariants, CLN2INV, that significantly outperforms existing approaches on the popular Code2Inv dataset. CLN2INV is the first tool to solve all 124 theoretically solvable problems in the Code2Inv dataset. Moreover, CLN2INV takes only 1.1 second on average for each problem, which is 40 times faster than existing approaches. We further demonstrate that CLN2INV can even learn 12 significantly more complex loop invariants than the ones required for the Code2Inv dataset.
Keyword: loop invariants, deep learning, logic learning

NAS evaluation is frustratingly hard
Author: Antoine Yang, Pedro M. Esperança, Fabio M. Carlucci
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HygrdpVKvr
Code: https://github.com/antoyang/NAS-Benchmark
Abstract: Neural Architecture Search (NAS) is an exciting new field which promises to be as much as a game-changer as Convolutional Neural Networks were in 2012. Despite many great works leading to substantial improvements on a variety of tasks, comparison between different methods is still very much an open issue. While most algorithms are tested on the same datasets, there is no shared experimental protocol followed by all. As such, and due to the under-use of ablation studies, there is a lack of clarity regarding why certain methods are more effective than others. Our first contribution is a benchmark of 8 NAS methods on 5 datasets. To overcome the hurdle of comparing methods with different search spaces, we propose using a method’s relative improvement over the randomly sampled average architecture, which effectively removes advantages arising from expertly engineered search spaces or training protocols. Surprisingly, we find that many NAS techniques struggle to significantly beat the average architecture baseline. We perform further experiments with the commonly used DARTS search space in order to understand the contribution of each component in the NAS pipeline. These experiments highlight that: (i) the use of tricks in the evaluation protocol has a predominant impact on the reported performance of architectures; (ii) the cell-based search space has a very narrow accuracy range, such that the seed has a considerable impact on architecture rankings; (iii) the hand-designed macrostructure (cells) is more important than the searched micro-structure (operations); and (iv) the depth-gap is a real phenomenon, evidenced by the change in rankings between 8 and 20 cell architectures. To conclude, we suggest best practices, that we hope will prove useful for the community and help mitigate current NAS pitfalls, e.g. difficulties in reproducibility and comparison of search methods. The
code used is available at
Keyword: neural architecture search, nas, benchmark, reproducibility, harking

Efficient and Information-Preserving Future Frame Prediction and Beyond
Author: Wei Yu, Yichao Lu, Steve Easterbrook, Sanja Fidler
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=B1eY_pVYvB
Code: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1koVpH2RhkOl4_Xm_q8Iy1FuX3zQxC9gd/view?usp=sharing
Abstract: Applying resolution-preserving blocks is a common practice to maximize information preservation in video prediction, yet their high memory consumption greatly limits their application scenarios. We propose CrevNet, a Conditionally Reversible Network that uses reversible architectures to build a bijective two-way autoencoder and its complementary recurrent predictor. Our model enjoys the theoretically guaranteed property of no information loss during the feature extraction, much lower memory consumption and computational efficiency. The lightweight nature of our model enables us to incorporate 3D convolutions without concern of memory bottleneck, enhancing the model’s ability to capture both short-term and long-term temporal dependencies. Our proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art results on Moving MNIST, Traffic4cast and KITTI datasets. We further demonstrate the transferability of our self-supervised learning method by exploiting its learnt features for object detection on KITTI. Our competitive results indicate the potential of using CrevNet as a generative pre-training strategy to guide downstream tasks.
Keyword: self-supervised learning, generative pre-training, video prediction, reversible architecture

Order Learning and Its Application to Age Estimation
Author: Kyungsun Lim, Nyeong-Ho Shin, Young-Yoon Lee, Chang-Su Kim
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HygsuaNFwr
Code: https://github.com/changsukim-ku/order-learning
Abstract: We propose order learning to determine the order graph of classes, representing ranks or priorities, and classify an object instance into one of the classes. To this end, we design a pairwise comparator to categorize the relationship between two instances into one of three cases: one instance is greater than,'similar to,’ or `smaller than’ the other. Then, by comparing an input instance with reference instances and maximizing the consistency among the comparison results, the class of the input can be estimated reliably. We apply order learning to develop a facial age estimator, which provides the state-of-the-art performance. Moreover, the performance is further improved when the order graph is divided into disjoint chains using gender and ethnic group information or even in an unsupervised manner.
Keyword: Order learning, age estimation, aesthetic assessment

ReClor: A Reading Comprehension Dataset Requiring Logical Reasoning
Author: Weihao Yu, Zihang Jiang, Yanfei Dong, Jiashi Feng
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJgJtT4tvB
Code: http://whyu.me/reclor/
Abstract: Recent powerful pre-trained language models have achieved remarkable performance on most of the popular datasets for reading comprehension. It is time to introduce more challenging datasets to push the development of this field towards more comprehensive reasoning of text. In this paper, we introduce a new Reading Comprehension dataset requiring logical reasoning (ReClor) extracted from standardized graduate admission examinations. As earlier studies suggest, human-annotated datasets usually contain biases, which are often exploited by models to achieve high accuracy without truly understanding the text. In order to comprehensively evaluate the logical reasoning ability of models on ReClor, we propose to identify biased data points and separate them into EASY set while the rest as HARD set. Empirical results show that state-of-the-art models have an outstanding ability to capture biases contained in the dataset with high accuracy on EASY set. However, they struggle on HARD set with poor performance near that of random guess, indicating more research is needed to essentially enhance the logical reasoning ability of current models.
Keyword: reading comprehension, logical reasoning, natural language processing

AssembleNet: Searching for Multi-Stream Neural Connectivity in Video Architectures
Author: Michael S. Ryoo, AJ Piergiovanni, Mingxing Tan, Anelia Angelova
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJgMK64Ywr
Code: None
Abstract: Learning to represent videos is a very challenging task both algorithmically and computationally. Standard video CNN architectures have been designed by directly extending architectures devised for image understanding to include the time dimension, using modules such as 3D convolutions, or by using two-stream design to capture both appearance and motion in videos. We interpret a video CNN as a collection of multi-stream convolutional blocks connected to each other, and propose the approach of automatically finding neural architectures with better connectivity and spatio-temporal interactions for video understanding. This is done by evolving a population of overly-connected architectures guided by connection weight learning.
Architectures combining representations that abstract different input types (i.e., RGB and optical flow) at multiple temporal resolutions are searched for, allowing different types or sources of information to interact with each other. Our method, referred to as AssembleNet, outperforms prior approaches on public video datasets, in some cases by a great margin. We obtain 58.6% mAP on Charades and 34.27% accuracy on Moments-in-Time.
Keyword: video representation learning, video understanding, activity recognition, neural architecture search

Adversarially Robust Representations with Smooth Encoders
Author: Taylan Cemgil, Sumedh Ghaisas, Krishnamurthy (Dj) Dvijotham, Pushmeet Kohli
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=H1gfFaEYDS
Code: None
Abstract: This paper studies the undesired phenomena of over-sensitivity of representations learned by deep networks to semantically-irrelevant changes in data. We identify a cause for this shortcoming in the classical Variational Auto-encoder (VAE) objective, the evidence lower bound (ELBO). We show that the ELBO fails to control the behaviour of the encoder out of the support of the empirical data distribution and this behaviour of the VAE can lead to extreme errors in the learned representation. This is a key hurdle in the effective use of representations for data-efficient learning and transfer. To address this problem, we propose to augment the data with specifications that enforce insensitivity of the representation with respect to families of transformations. To incorporate these specifications, we propose a regularization method that is based on a selection mechanism that creates a fictive data point by explicitly perturbing an observed true data point. For certain choices of parameters, our formulation naturally leads to the minimization of the entropy regularized Wasserstein distance between representations. We illustrate our approach on standard datasets and experimentally show that significant improvements in the downstream adversarial accuracy can be achieved by learning robust representations completely in an unsupervised manner, without a reference to a particular downstream task and without a costly supervised adversarial training procedure.

Keyword: Adversarial Learning, Robust Representations, Variational AutoEncoder, Wasserstein Distance, Variational Inference

From Variational to Deterministic Autoencoders
Author: Partha Ghosh, Mehdi S. M. Sajjadi, Antonio Vergari, Michael Black, Bernhard Scholkopf
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=S1g7tpEYDS
Code: https://github.com/ParthaEth/Regularized_autoencoders-RAE-
Abstract: Variational Autoencoders (VAEs) provide a theoretically-backed and popular framework for deep generative models. However, learning a VAE from data poses still unanswered theoretical questions and considerable practical challenges. In this work, we propose an alternative framework for generative modeling that is simpler, easier to train, and deterministic, yet has many of the advantages of the VAE. We observe that sampling a stochastic encoder in a Gaussian VAE can be interpreted as simply injecting noise into the input of a deterministic decoder. We investigate how substituting this kind of stochasticity, with other explicit and implicit regularization schemes, can lead to an equally smooth and meaningful latent space without having to force it to conform to an arbitrarily chosen prior. To retrieve a generative mechanism to sample new data points, we introduce an ex-post density estimation step that can be readily applied to the proposed framework as well as existing VAEs, improving their sample quality. We show, in a rigorous empirical study, that the proposed regularized deterministic autoencoders are able to generate samples that are comparable to, or better than, those of VAEs and more powerful alternatives when applied to images as well as to structured data such as molecules.
Keyword: Unsupervised learning, Generative Models, Variational Autoencoders, Regularization

Computation Reallocation for Object Detection
Author: Feng Liang, Chen Lin, Ronghao Guo, Ming Sun, Wei Wu, Junjie Yan, Wanli Ouyang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SkxLFaNKwB
Code: None
Abstract: The allocation of computation resources in the backbone is a crucial issue in object detection. However, classification allocation pattern is usually adopted directly to object detector, which is proved to be sub-optimal. In order to reallocate the engaged computation resources in a more efficient way, we present CR-NAS (Computation Reallocation Neural Architecture Search) that can learn computation reallocation strategies across different feature resolution and spatial position diectly on the target detection dataset. A two-level reallocation space is proposed for both stage and spatial reallocation. A novel hierarchical search procedure is adopted to cope with the complex search space. We apply CR-NAS to multiple backbones and achieve consistent improvements. Our CR-ResNet50 and CR-MobileNetV2 outperforms the baseline by 1.9% and 1.7% COCO AP respectively without any additional computation budget. The models discovered by CR-NAS can be equiped to other powerful detection neck/head and be easily transferred to other dataset, e.g. PASCAL VOC, and other vision tasks, e.g. instance segmentation. Our CR-NAS can be used as a plugin to improve the performance of various networks, which is demanding.
Keyword: Neural Architecture Search, Object Detection

Finding and Visualizing Weaknesses of Deep Reinforcement Learning Agents
Author: Christian Rupprecht, Cyril Ibrahim, Christopher J. Pal
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rylvYaNYDH
Code: None
Abstract: As deep reinforcement learning driven by visual perception becomes more widely used there is a growing need to better understand and probe the learned agents. Understanding the decision making process and its relationship to visual inputs can be very valuable to identify problems in learned behavior. However, this topic has been relatively under-explored in the research community. In this work we present a method for synthesizing visual inputs of interest for a trained agent. Such inputs or states could be situations in which specific actions are necessary. Further, critical states in which a very high or a very low reward can be achieved are often interesting to understand the situational awareness of the system as they can correspond to risky states. To this end, we learn a generative model over the state space of the environment and use its latent space to optimize a target function for the state of interest. In our experiments we show that this method can generate insights for a variety of environments and reinforcement learning methods. We explore results in the standard Atari benchmark games as well as in an autonomous driving simulator. Based on the efficiency with which we have been able to identify behavioural weaknesses with this technique, we believe this general approach could serve as an important tool for AI safety applications.
Keyword: Visualization, Reinforcement Learning, Safety

A Fair Comparison of Graph Neural Networks for Graph Classification
Author: Federico Errica, Marco Podda, Davide Bacciu, Alessio Micheli
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HygDF6NFPB
Code: https://github.com/diningphil/gnn-comparison
Abstract: Experimental reproducibility and replicability are critical topics in machine learning. Authors have often raised concerns about their lack in scientific publications to improve the quality of the field. Recently, the graph representation learning field has attracted the attention of a wide research community, which resulted in a large stream of works.
As such, several Graph Neural Network models have been developed to effectively tackle graph classification. However, experimental procedures often lack rigorousness and are hardly reproducible. Motivated by this, we provide an overview of common practices that should be avoided to fairly compare with the state of the art. To counter this troubling trend, we ran more than 47000 experiments in a controlled and uniform framework to re-evaluate five popular models across nine common benchmarks. Moreover, by comparing GNNs with structure-agnostic baselines we provide convincing evidence that, on some datasets, structural information has not been exploited yet. We believe that this work can contribute to the development of the graph learning field, by providing a much needed grounding for rigorous evaluations of graph classification models.
Keyword: graph neural networks, graph classification, reproducibility, graph representation learning

Generalization bounds for deep convolutional neural networks
Author: Philip M. Long, Hanie Sedghi
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=r1e_FpNFDr
Code: None
Abstract: We prove bounds on the generalization error of convolutional networks.
The bounds are in terms of the training loss, the number of
parameters, the Lipschitz constant of the loss and the distance from
the weights to the initial weights. They are independent of the
number of pixels in the input, and the height and width of hidden
feature maps.
We present experiments using CIFAR-10 with varying
hyperparameters of a deep convolutional network, comparing our bounds
with practical generalization gaps.
Keyword: generalization, convolutional networks, statistical learning theory

SAdam: A Variant of Adam for Strongly Convex Functions
Author: Guanghui Wang, Shiyin Lu, Quan Cheng, Wei-wei Tu, Lijun Zhang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rye5YaEtPr
Code: https://github.com/SAdam-ICLR2020/codes
Abstract: The Adam algorithm has become extremely popular for large-scale machine learning. Under convexity condition, it has been proved to enjoy a data-dependent O ( T ) O(\sqrt{T}) O(T ) regret bound where T T T is the time horizon. However, whether strong convexity can be utilized to further improve the performance remains an open problem. In this paper, we give an affirmative answer by developing a variant of Adam (referred to as SAdam) which achieves a data-dependent O ( log ⁡ T ) O(\log T) O(logT) regret bound for strongly convex functions. The essential idea is to maintain a faster decaying yet under controlled step size for exploiting strong convexity. In addition, under a special configuration of hyperparameters, our SAdam reduces to SC-RMSprop, a recently proposed variant of RMSprop for strongly convex functions, for which we provide the first data-dependent logarithmic regret bound. Empirical results on optimizing strongly convex functions and training deep networks demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
Keyword: Online convex optimization, Adaptive online learning, Adam

Continual Learning with Bayesian Neural Networks for Non-Stationary Data
Author: Richard Kurle, Botond Cseke, Alexej Klushyn, Patrick van der Smagt, Stephan Günnemann
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJlsFpVtDB
Code: None
Abstract: This work addresses continual learning for non-stationary data, using Bayesian neural networks and memory-based online variational Bayes. We represent the posterior approximation of the network weights by a diagonal Gaussian distribution and a complementary memory of raw data. This raw data corresponds to likelihood terms that cannot be well approximated by the Gaussian. We introduce a novel method for sequentially updating both components of the posterior approximation. Furthermore, we propose Bayesian forgetting and a Gaussian diffusion process for adapting to non-stationary data. The experimental results show that our update method improves on existing approaches for streaming data. Additionally, the adaptation methods lead to better predictive performance for non-stationary data.
Keyword: Continual Learning, Online Variational Bayes, Non-Stationary Data, Bayesian Neural Networks, Variational Inference, Lifelong Learning, Concept Drift, Episodic Memory

Multiplicative Interactions and Where to Find Them
Author: Siddhant M. Jayakumar, Wojciech M. Czarnecki, Jacob Menick, Jonathan Schwarz, Jack Rae, Simon Osindero, Yee Whye Teh, Tim Harley, Razvan Pascanu
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rylnK6VtDH
Code: None
Abstract: We explore the role of multiplicative interaction as a unifying framework to describe a range of classical and modern neural network architectural motifs, such as gating, attention layers, hypernetworks, and dynamic convolutions amongst others.
Multiplicative interaction layers as primitive operations have a long-established presence in the literature, though this often not emphasized and thus under-appreciated. We begin by showing that such layers strictly enrich the representable function classes of neural networks. We conjecture that multiplicative interactions offer a particularly powerful inductive bias when fusing multiple streams of information or when conditional computation is required. We therefore argue that they should be considered in many situation where multiple compute or information paths need to be combined, in place of the simple and oft-used concatenation operation. Finally, we back up our claims and demonstrate the potential of multiplicative interactions by applying them in large-scale complex RL and sequence modelling tasks, where their use allows us to deliver state-of-the-art results, and thereby provides new evidence in support of multiplicative interactions playing a more prominent role when designing new neural network architectures.
Keyword: multiplicative interactions, hypernetworks, attention

Author: Jatin Chauhan, Deepak Nathani, Manohar Kaul
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=Bkeeca4Kvr
Code: https://github.com/chauhanjatin10/GraphsFewShot
Abstract: We propose to study the problem of few-shot graph classification in graph neural networks (GNNs) to recognize unseen classes, given limited labeled graph examples. Despite several interesting GNN variants being proposed recently for node and graph classification tasks, when faced with scarce labeled examples in the few-shot setting, these GNNs exhibit significant loss in classification performance. Here, we present an approach where a probability measure is assigned to each graph based on the spectrum of the graph’s normalized Laplacian. This enables us to accordingly cluster the graph base-labels associated with each graph into super-classes, where the L^p Wasserstein distance serves as our underlying distance metric. Subsequently, a super-graph constructed based on the super-classes is then fed to our proposed GNN framework which exploits the latent inter-class relationships made explicit by the super-graph to achieve better class label separation among the graphs. We conduct exhaustive empirical evaluations of our proposed method and show that it outperforms both the adaptation of state-of-the-art graph classification methods to few-shot scenario and our naive baseline GNNs. Additionally, we also extend and study the behavior of our method to semi-supervised and active learning scenarios.
Keyword: Few shot graph classification, graph spectral measures, super-classes

On Computation and Generalization of Generative Adversarial Imitation Learning
Author: Minshuo Chen, Yizhou Wang, Tianyi Liu, Zhuoran Yang, Xingguo Li, Zhaoran Wang, Tuo Zhao
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BJl-5pNKDB
Code: None
Abstract: Generative Adversarial Imitation Learning (GAIL) is a powerful and practical approach for learning sequential decision-making policies. Different from Reinforcement Learning (RL), GAIL takes advantage of demonstration data by experts (e.g., human), and learns both the policy and reward function of the unknown environment. Despite the significant empirical progresses, the theory behind GAIL is still largely unknown. The major difficulty comes from the underlying temporal dependency of the demonstration data and the minimax computational formulation of GAIL without convex-concave structure. To bridge such a gap between theory and practice, this paper investigates the theoretical properties of GAIL. Specifically, we show: (1) For GAIL with general reward parameterization, the generalization can be guaranteed as long as the class of the reward functions is properly controlled; (2) For GAIL, where the reward is parameterized as a reproducing kernel function, GAIL can be efficiently solved by stochastic first order optimization algorithms, which attain sublinear convergence to a stationary solution. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results on statistical and computational guarantees of imitation learning with reward/policy function ap- proximation. Numerical experiments are provided to support our analysis.

Keyword: None

A Target-Agnostic Attack on Deep Models: Exploiting Security Vulnerabilities of Transfer Learning
Author: Shahbaz Rezaei, Xin Liu
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BylVcTNtDS
Code: https://github.com/shrezaei/Target-Agnostic-Attack
Abstract: Due to insufficient training data and the high computational cost to train a deep neural network from scratch, transfer learning has been extensively used in many deep-neural-network-based applications. A commonly used transfer learning approach involves taking a part of a pre-trained model, adding a few layers at the end, and re-training the new layers with a small dataset. This approach, while efficient and widely used, imposes a security vulnerability because the pre-trained model used in transfer learning is usually publicly available, including to potential attackers. In this paper, we show that without any additional knowledge other than the pre-trained model, an attacker can launch an effective and efficient brute force attack that can craft instances of input to trigger each target class with high confidence. We assume that the attacker has no access to any target-specific information, including samples from target classes, re-trained model, and probabilities assigned by Softmax to each class, and thus making the attack target-agnostic. These assumptions render all previous attack models inapplicable, to the best of our knowledge. To evaluate the proposed attack, we perform a set of experiments on face recognition and speech recognition tasks and show the effectiveness of the attack. Our work reveals a fundamental security weakness of the Softmax layer when used in transfer learning settings.
Keyword: Machine learning security, Transfer learning, deep learning security, Softmax Vulnerability, Transfer learning Security

Low-Resource Knowledge-Grounded Dialogue Generation
Author: Xueliang Zhao, Wei Wu, Chongyang Tao, Can Xu, Dongyan Zhao, Rui Yan
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rJeIcTNtvS
Code: None
Abstract: Responding with knowledge has been recognized as an important capability for an intelligent conversational agent. Yet knowledge-grounded dialogues, as training data for learning such a response generation model, are difficult to obtain. Motivated by the challenge in practice, we consider knowledge-grounded dialogue generation under a natural assumption that only limited training examples are available. In such a low-resource setting, we devise a disentangled response decoder in order to isolate parameters that depend on knowledge-grounded dialogues from the entire generation model. By this means, the major part of the model can be learned from a large number of ungrounded dialogues and unstructured documents, while the remaining small parameters can be well fitted using the limited training examples. Evaluation results on two benchmarks indicate that with only 1 / 8 1/8 1/8 training data, our model can achieve the state-of-the-art performance and generalize well on out-of-domain knowledge.
Keyword: None

Deep 3D Pan via Local adaptive “t-shaped” convolutions with global and local adaptive dilations
Author: Juan Luis Gonzalez Bello, Munchurl Kim
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=B1gF56VYPH
Code: None
Abstract: Recent advances in deep learning have shown promising results in many low-level vision tasks. However, solving the single-image-based view synthesis is still an open problem. In particular, the generation of new images at parallel camera views given a single input image is of great interest, as it enables 3D visualization of the 2D input scenery. We propose a novel network architecture to perform stereoscopic view synthesis at arbitrary camera positions along the X-axis, or Deep 3D Pan, with “t-shaped” adaptive kernels equipped with globally and locally adaptive dilations. Our proposed network architecture, the monster-net, is devised with a novel t-shaped adaptive kernel with globally and locally adaptive dilation, which can efficiently incorporate global camera shift into and handle local 3D geometries of the target image’s pixels for the synthesis of naturally looking 3D panned views when a 2-D input image is given. Extensive experiments were performed on the KITTI, CityScapes and our VXXLXX_STEREO indoors dataset to prove the efficacy of our method. Our monster-net significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art method, SOTA, by a large margin in all metrics of RMSE, PSNR, and SSIM. Our proposed monster-net is capable of reconstructing more reliable image structures in synthesized images with coherent geometry. Moreover, the disparity information that can be extracted from the “t-shaped” kernel is much more reliable than that of the SOTA for the unsupervised monocular depth estimation task, confirming the effectiveness of our method.

Keyword: Deep learning, Stereoscopic view synthesis, Monocular depth, Deep 3D Pan

Tree-Structured Attention with Hierarchical Accumulation
Author: Xuan-Phi Nguyen, Shafiq Joty
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJxK5pEYvr
Code: None
Abstract: Incorporating hierarchical structures like constituency trees has been shown to be effective for various natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, it is evident that state-of-the-art (SOTA) sequence-based models like the Transformer struggle to encode such structures inherently. On the other hand, dedicated models like the Tree-LSTM, while explicitly modeling hierarchical structures, do not perform as efficiently as the Transformer. In this paper, we attempt to bridge this gap with Hierarchical Accumulation to encode parse tree structures into self-attention at constant time complexity. Our approach outperforms SOTA methods in four IWSLT translation tasks and the WMT’14 English-German task. It also yields improvements over Transformer and Tree-LSTM on three text classification tasks. We further demonstrate that using hierarchical priors can compensate for data shortage, and that our model prefers phrase-level attentions over token-level attentions.
Keyword: Tree, Constituency Tree, Hierarchical Accumulation, Machine Translation, NMT, WMT, IWSLT, Text Classification, Sentiment Analysis

The asymptotic spectrum of the Hessian of DNN throughout training
Author: Arthur Jacot, Franck Gabriel, Clement Hongler
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SkgscaNYPS
Code: None
Abstract: The dynamics of DNNs during gradient descent is described by the so-called Neural Tangent Kernel (NTK). In this article, we show that the NTK allows one to gain precise insight into the Hessian of the cost of DNNs: we obtain a full characterization of the asymptotics of the spectrum of the Hessian, at initialization and during training.
Keyword: theory of deep learning, loss surface, training, fisher information matrix

Actor-Critic Provably Finds Nash Equilibria of Linear-Quadratic Mean-Field Games
Author: Zuyue Fu, Zhuoran Yang, Yongxin Chen, Zhaoran Wang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=H1lhqpEYPr
Code: None
Abstract: We study discrete-time mean-field Markov games with infinite numbers of agents where each agent aims to minimize its ergodic cost. We consider the setting where the agents have identical linear state transitions and quadratic cost func- tions, while the aggregated effect of the agents is captured by the population mean of their states, namely, the mean-field state. For such a game, based on the Nash certainty equivalence principle, we provide sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of its Nash equilibrium. Moreover, to find the Nash equilibrium, we propose a mean-field actor-critic algorithm with linear function approxima- tion, which does not require knowing the model of dynamics. Specifically, at each iteration of our algorithm, we use the single-agent actor-critic algorithm to approximately obtain the optimal policy of the each agent given the current mean- field state, and then update the mean-field state. In particular, we prove that our algorithm converges to the Nash equilibrium at a linear rate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first success of applying model-free reinforcement learn- ing with function approximation to discrete-time mean-field Markov games with provable non-asymptotic global convergence guarantees.
Keyword: None

In Search for a SAT-friendly Binarized Neural Network Architecture
Author: Nina Narodytska, Hongce Zhang, Aarti Gupta, Toby Walsh
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJx-j64FDr
Code: None
Abstract: Analyzing the behavior of neural networks is one of the most pressing challenges in deep learning. Binarized Neural Networks are an important class of networks that allow equivalent representation in Boolean logic and can be analyzed formally with logic-based reasoning tools like SAT solvers. Such tools can be used to answer existential and probabilistic queries about the network, perform explanation generation, etc. However, the main bottleneck for all methods is their ability to reason about large BNNs efficiently. In this work, we analyze architectural design choices of BNNs and discuss how they affect the performance of logic-based reasoners. We propose changes to the BNN architecture and the training procedure to get a simpler network for SAT solvers without sacrificing accuracy on the primary task. Our experimental results demonstrate that our approach scales to larger deep neural networks compared to existing work for existential and probabilistic queries, leading to significant speed ups on all tested datasets.

Keyword: verification, Boolean satisfiability, Binarized Neural Networks

Generative Ratio Matching Networks
Author: Akash Srivastava, Kai Xu, Michael U. Gutmann, Charles Sutton
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJg7spEYDS
Code: https://github.com/GRAM-nets
Abstract: Deep generative models can learn to generate realistic-looking images, but many of the most effective methods are adversarial and involve a saddlepoint optimization, which requires a careful balancing of training between a generator network and a critic network. Maximum mean discrepancy networks (MMD-nets) avoid this issue by using kernel as a fixed adversary, but unfortunately, they have not on their own been able to match the generative quality of adversarial training. In this work, we take their insight of using kernels as fixed adversaries further and present a novel method for training deep generative models that does not involve saddlepoint optimization. We call our method generative ratio matching or GRAM for short. In GRAM, the generator and the critic networks do not play a zero-sum game against each other, instead, they do so against a fixed kernel. Thus GRAM networks are not only stable to train like MMD-nets but they also match and beat the generative quality of adversarially trained generative networks.
Keyword: deep generative model, deep learning, maximum mean discrepancy, density ratio estimation

Learning to Represent Programs with Property Signatures
Author: Augustus Odena, Charles Sutton
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rylHspEKPr
Code: https://github.com/brain-research/searcho
Abstract: We introduce the notion of property signatures, a representation for programs and
program specifications meant for consumption by machine learning algorithms.
Given a function with input type τ_in and output type τ_out, a property is a function
of type: (τ_in, τ_out) → Bool that (informally) describes some simple property
of the function under consideration. For instance, if τ_in and τ_out are both lists
of the same type, one property might ask ‘is the input list the same length as the
output list?’. If we have a list of such properties, we can evaluate them all for our
function to get a list of outputs that we will call the property signature. Crucially,
we can ‘guess’ the property signature for a function given only a set of input/output
pairs meant to specify that function. We discuss several potential applications of
property signatures and show experimentally that they can be used to improve
over a baseline synthesizer so that it emits twice as many programs in less than
one-tenth of the time.
Keyword: Program Synthesis

V4D: 4D Convonlutional Neural Networks for Video-level Representation Learning
Author: Shiwen Zhang, Sheng Guo, Weilin Huang, Matthew R. Scott, Limin Wang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJeLopEYDH
Code: None
Abstract: Most existing 3D CNN structures for video representation learning are clip-based methods, and do not consider video-level temporal evolution of spatio-temporal features. In this paper, we propose Video-level 4D Convolutional Neural Networks, namely V4D, to model the evolution of long-range spatio-temporal representation with 4D convolutions, as well as preserving 3D spatio-temporal representations with residual connections. We further introduce the training and inference methods for the proposed V4D. Extensive experiments are conducted on three video recognition benchmarks, where V4D achieves excellent results, surpassing recent 3D CNNs by a large margin.
Keyword: video-level representation learning, video action recognition, 4D CNNs

Option Discovery using Deep Skill Chaining
Author: Akhil Bagaria, George Konidaris
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=B1gqipNYwH
Code: https://github.com/deep-skill-chaining/deep-skill-chaining
Abstract: Autonomously discovering temporally extended actions, or skills, is a longstanding goal of hierarchical reinforcement learning. We propose a new algorithm that combines skill chaining with deep neural networks to autonomously discover skills in high-dimensional, continuous domains. The resulting algorithm, deep skill chaining, constructs skills with the property that executing one enables the agent to execute another. We demonstrate that deep skill chaining significantly outperforms both non-hierarchical agents and other state-of-the-art skill discovery techniques in challenging continuous control tasks.
Keyword: Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning, Reinforcement Learning, Skill Discovery, Deep Learning, Deep Reinforcement Learning

Quantifying the Cost of Reliable Photo Authentication via High-Performance Learned Lossy Representations
Author: Pawel Korus, Nasir Memon
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HyxG3p4twS
Code: https://github.com/pkorus/neural-imaging
Abstract: Detection of photo manipulation relies on subtle statistical traces, notoriously removed by aggressive lossy compression employed online. We demonstrate that end-to-end modeling of complex photo dissemination channels allows for codec optimization with explicit provenance objectives. We design a lightweight trainable lossy image codec, that delivers competitive rate-distortion performance, on par with best hand-engineered alternatives, but has lower computational footprint on modern GPU-enabled platforms. Our results show that significant improvements in manipulation detection accuracy are possible at fractional costs in bandwidth/storage. Our codec improved the accuracy from 37% to 86% even at very low bit-rates, well below the practicality of JPEG (QF 20).
Keyword: image forensics, photo manipulation detection, learned compression, lossy compression, image compression, entropy estimation

On the Variance of the Adaptive Learning Rate and Beyond
Author: Liyuan Liu, Haoming Jiang, Pengcheng He, Weizhu Chen, Xiaodong Liu, Jianfeng Gao, Jiawei Han
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rkgz2aEKDr
Code: https://github.com/LiyuanLucasLiu/RAdam
Abstract: The learning rate warmup heuristic achieves remarkable success in stabilizing training, accelerating convergence and improving generalization for adaptive stochastic optimization algorithms like RMSprop and Adam. Pursuing the theory behind warmup, we identify a problem of the adaptive learning rate – its variance is problematically large in the early stage, and presume warmup works as a variance reduction technique. We provide both empirical and theoretical evidence to verify our hypothesis. We further propose Rectified Adam (RAdam), a novel variant of Adam, by introducing a term to rectify the variance of the adaptive learning rate. Experimental results on image classification, language modeling, and neural machine translation verify our intuition and demonstrate the efficacy and robustness of RAdam.
Keyword: warmup, adam, adaptive learning rate, variance

Dynamical Distance Learning for Semi-Supervised and Unsupervised Skill Discovery
Author: Kristian Hartikainen, Xinyang Geng, Tuomas Haarnoja, Sergey Levine
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=H1lmhaVtvr
Code: None
Abstract: Reinforcement learning requires manual specification of a reward function to learn a task. While in principle this reward function only needs to specify the task goal, in practice reinforcement learning can be very time-consuming or even infeasible unless the reward function is shaped so as to provide a smooth gradient towards a successful outcome. This shaping is difficult to specify by hand, particularly when the task is learned from raw observations, such as images. In this paper, we study how we can automatically learn dynamical distances: a measure of the expected number of time steps to reach a given goal state from any other state. These dynamical distances can be used to provide well-shaped reward functions for reaching new goals, making it possible to learn complex tasks efficiently. We show that dynamical distances can be used in a semi-supervised regime, where unsupervised interaction with the environment is used to learn the dynamical distances, while a small amount of preference supervision is used to determine the task goal, without any manually engineered reward function or goal examples. We evaluate our method both on a real-world robot and in simulation. We show that our method can learn to turn a valve with a real-world 9-DoF hand, using raw image observations and just ten preference labels, without any other supervision. Videos of the learned skills can be found on the project website:
Keyword: reinforcement learning, semi-supervised learning, unsupervised learning, robotics, deep learning

A Theoretical Analysis of the Number of Shots in Few-Shot Learning
Author: Tianshi Cao, Marc T Law, Sanja Fidler
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HkgB2TNYPS
Code: None
Abstract: Few-shot classification is the task of predicting the category of an example from a set of few labeled examples. The number of labeled examples per category is called the number of shots (or shot number). Recent works tackle this task through meta-learning, where a meta-learner extracts information from observed tasks during meta-training to quickly adapt to new tasks during meta-testing. In this formulation, the number of shots exploited during meta-training has an impact on the recognition performance at meta-test time. Generally, the shot number used in meta-training should match the one used in meta-testing to obtain the best performance. We introduce a theoretical analysis of the impact of the shot number on Prototypical Networks, a state-of-the-art few-shot classification method. From our analysis, we propose a simple method that is robust to the choice of shot number used during meta-training, which is a crucial hyperparameter. The performance of our model trained for an arbitrary meta-training shot number shows great performance for different values of meta-testing shot numbers. We experimentally demonstrate our approach on different few-shot classification benchmarks.
Keyword: Few shot learning, Meta Learning, Performance Bounds

Unsupervised Model Selection for Variational Disentangled Representation Learning
Author: Sunny Duan, Loic Matthey, Andre Saraiva, Nick Watters, Chris Burgess, Alexander Lerchner, Irina Higgins
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SyxL2TNtvr
Code: None
Abstract: Disentangled representations have recently been shown to improve fairness, data efficiency and generalisation in simple supervised and reinforcement learning tasks. To extend the benefits of disentangled representations to more complex domains and practical applications, it is important to enable hyperparameter tuning and model selection of existing unsupervised approaches without requiring access to ground truth attribute labels, which are not available for most datasets. This paper addresses this problem by introducing a simple yet robust and reliable method for unsupervised disentangled model selection. We show that our approach performs comparably to the existing supervised alternatives across 5400 models from six state of the art unsupervised disentangled representation learning model classes. Furthermore, we show that the ranking produced by our approach correlates well with the final task performance on two different domains.
Keyword: unsupervised disentanglement metric, disentangling, representation learning

Feature Interaction Interpretability: A Case for Explaining Ad-Recommendation Systems via Neural Interaction Detection
Author: Michael Tsang, Dehua Cheng, Hanpeng Liu, Xue Feng, Eric Zhou, Yan Liu
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BkgnhTEtDS
Code: https://github.com/mtsang/interaction_interpretability
Abstract: Recommendation is a prevalent application of machine learning that affects many users; therefore, it is important for recommender models to be accurate and interpretable. In this work, we propose a method to both interpret and augment the predictions of black-box recommender systems. In particular, we propose to interpret feature interactions from a source recommender model and explicitly encode these interactions in a target recommender model, where both source and target models are black-boxes. By not assuming the structure of the recommender system, our approach can be used in general settings. In our experiments, we focus on a prominent use of machine learning recommendation: ad-click prediction. We found that our interaction interpretations are both informative and predictive, e.g., significantly outperforming existing recommender models. What’s more, the same approach to interpret interactions can provide new insights into domains even beyond recommendation, such as text and image classification.
Keyword: Feature Interaction, Interpretability, Black Box, AutoML

Understanding the Limitations of Variational Mutual Information Estimators
Author: Jiaming Song, Stefano Ermon
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=B1x62TNtDS
Code: https://github.com/ermongroup/smile-mi-estimator
Abstract: Variational approaches based on neural networks are showing promise for estimating mutual information (MI) between high dimensional variables. However, they can be difficult to use in practice due to poorly understood bias/variance tradeoffs. We theoretically show that, under some conditions, estimators such as MINE exhibit variance that could grow exponentially with the true amount of underlying MI. We also empirically demonstrate that existing estimators fail to satisfy basic self-consistency properties of MI, such as data processing and additivity under independence. Based on a unified perspective of variational approaches, we develop a new estimator that focuses on variance reduction. Empirical results on standard benchmark tasks demonstrate that our proposed estimator exhibits improved bias-variance trade-offs on standard benchmark tasks.
Keyword: None

GENESIS: Generative Scene Inference and Sampling with Object-Centric Latent Representations
Author: Martin Engelcke, Adam R. Kosiorek, Oiwi Parker Jones, Ingmar Posner
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BkxfaTVFwH
Code: https://github.com/applied-ai-lab/genesis
Abstract: Generative latent-variable models are emerging as promising tools in robotics and reinforcement learning. Yet, even though tasks in these domains typically involve distinct objects, most state-of-the-art generative models do not explicitly capture the compositional nature of visual scenes. Two recent exceptions, MONet and IODINE, decompose scenes into objects in an unsupervised fashion. Their underlying generative processes, however, do not account for component interactions. Hence, neither of them allows for principled sampling of novel scenes. Here we present GENESIS, the first object-centric generative model of 3D visual scenes capable of both decomposing and generating scenes by capturing relationships between scene components. GENESIS parameterises a spatial GMM over images which is decoded from a set of object-centric latent variables that are either inferred sequentially in an amortised fashion or sampled from an autoregressive prior. We train GENESIS on several publicly available datasets and evaluate its performance on scene generation, decomposition, and semi-supervised learning.
Keyword: Generative modelling, object-centric representations, scene generation, variational inference

Language GANs Falling Short
Author: Massimo Caccia, Lucas Caccia, William Fedus, Hugo Larochelle, Joelle Pineau, Laurent Charlin
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BJgza6VtPB
Code: https://github.com/pclucas14/GansFallingShort
Abstract: Traditional natural language generation (NLG) models are trained using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) which differs from the sample generation inference procedure. During training the ground truth tokens are passed to the model, however, during inference, the model instead reads its previously generated samples - a phenomenon coined exposure bias. Exposure bias was hypothesized to be a root cause of poor sample quality and thus many generative adversarial networks (GANs) were proposed as a remedy since they have identical training and inference. However, many of the ensuing GAN variants validated sample quality improvements but ignored loss of sample diversity. This work reiterates the fallacy of quality-only metrics and clearly demonstrate that the well-established technique of reducing softmax temperature can outperform GANs on a quality-only metric. Further, we establish a definitive quality-diversity evaluation procedure using temperature tuning over local and global sample metrics. Under this, we find that MLE models consistently outperform the proposed GAN variants over the whole quality-diversity space. Specifically, we find that 1) exposure bias appears to be less of an issue than the complications arising from non-differentiable, sequential GAN training; 2) MLE trained models provide a better quality/diversity trade-off compared to their GAN counterparts, all while being easier to train, easier to cross-validate, and less computationally expensive.
Keyword: NLP, GAN, MLE, adversarial, text generation, temperature

Stochastic Conditional Generative Networks with Basis Decomposition
Author: Ze Wang, Xiuyuan Cheng, Guillermo Sapiro, Qiang Qiu
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=S1lSapVtwS
Code: None
Abstract: While generative adversarial networks (GANs) have revolutionized machine learning, a number of open questions remain to fully understand them and exploit their power. One of these questions is how to efficiently achieve proper diversity and sampling of the multi-mode data space. To address this, we introduce BasisGAN, a stochastic conditional multi-mode image generator. By exploiting the observation that a convolutional filter can be well approximated as a linear combination of a small set of basis elements, we learn a plug-and-played basis generator to stochastically generate basis elements, with just a few hundred of parameters, to fully embed stochasticity into convolutional filters. By sampling basis elements instead of filters, we dramatically reduce the cost of modeling the parameter space with no sacrifice on either image diversity or fidelity. To illustrate this proposed plug-and-play framework, we construct variants of BasisGAN based on state-of-the-art conditional image generation networks, and train the networks by simply plugging in a basis generator, without additional auxiliary components, hyperparameters, or training objectives. The experimental success is complemented with theoretical results indicating how the perturbations introduced by the proposed sampling of basis elements can propagate to the appearance of generated images.
Keyword: None

Author: Steven K. Esser, Jeffrey L. McKinstry, Deepika Bablani, Rathinakumar Appuswamy, Dharmendra S. Modha
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rkgO66VKDS
Code: None
Abstract: Deep networks run with low precision operations at inference time offer power and space advantages over high precision alternatives, but need to overcome the challenge of maintaining high accuracy as precision decreases. Here, we present a method for training such networks, Learned Step Size Quantization, that achieves the highest accuracy to date on the ImageNet dataset when using models, from a variety of architectures, with weights and activations quantized to 2-, 3- or 4-bits of precision, and that can train 3-bit models that reach full precision baseline accuracy. Our approach builds upon existing methods for learning weights in quantized networks by improving how the quantizer itself is configured. Specifically, we introduce a novel means to estimate and scale the task loss gradient at each weight and activation layer’s quantizer step size, such that it can be learned in conjunction with other network parameters. This approach works using different levels of precision as needed for a given system and requires only a simple modification of existing training code.
Keyword: deep learning, low precision, classification, quantization

On the “steerability” of generative adversarial networks
Author: Ali Jahanian*, Lucy Chai*, Phillip Isola
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HylsTT4FvB
Code: None
Abstract: An open secret in contemporary machine learning is that many models work beautifully on standard benchmarks but fail to generalize outside the lab. This has been attributed to biased training data, which provide poor coverage over real world events. Generative models are no exception, but recent advances in generative adversarial networks (GANs) suggest otherwise – these models can now synthesize strikingly realistic and diverse images. Is generative modeling of photos a solved problem? We show that although current GANs can fit standard datasets very well, they still fall short of being comprehensive models of the visual manifold. In particular, we study their ability to fit simple transformations such as camera movements and color changes. We find that the models reflect the biases of the datasets on which they are trained (e.g., centered objects), but that they also exhibit some capacity for generalization: by “steering” in latent space, we can shift the distribution while still creating realistic images. We hypothesize that the degree of distributional shift is related to the breadth of the training data distribution. Thus, we conduct experiments to quantify the limits of GAN transformations and introduce techniques to mitigate the problem. Code is released on our project page:
Keyword: generative adversarial network, latent space interpolation, dataset bias, model generalization

Reinforced active learning for image segmentation
Author: Arantxa Casanova, Pedro O. Pinheiro, Negar Rostamzadeh, Christopher J. Pal
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SkgC6TNFvr
Code: None
Abstract: Learning-based approaches for semantic segmentation have two inherent challenges. First, acquiring pixel-wise labels is expensive and time-consuming. Second, realistic segmentation datasets are highly unbalanced: some categories are much more abundant than others, biasing the performance to the most represented ones. In this paper, we are interested in focusing human labelling effort on a small subset of a larger pool of data, minimizing this effort while maximizing performance of a segmentation model on a hold-out set. We present a new active learning strategy for semantic segmentation based on deep reinforcement learning (RL). An agent learns a policy to select a subset of small informative image regions – opposed to entire images – to be labeled, from a pool of unlabeled data. The region selection decision is made based on predictions and uncertainties of the segmentation model being trained. Our method proposes a new modification of the deep Q-network (DQN) formulation for active learning, adapting it to the large-scale nature of semantic segmentation problems. We test the proof of concept in CamVid and provide results in the large-scale dataset Cityscapes. On Cityscapes, our deep RL region-based DQN approach requires roughly 30% less additional labeled data than our most competitive baseline to reach the same performance. Moreover, we find that our method asks for more labels of under-represented categories compared to the baselines, improving their performance and helping to mitigate class imbalance.
Keyword: semantic segmentation, active learning, reinforcement learning

Sign Bits Are All You Need for Black-Box Attacks
Author: Abdullah Al-Dujaili, Una-May O’Reilly
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SygW0TEFwH
Code: https://github.com/ash-aldujaili/blackbox-adv-examples-signhunter
Abstract: We present a novel black-box adversarial attack algorithm with state-of-the-art model evasion rates for query efficiency under ℓ ∞ \ell_\infty and ℓ 2 \ell_2 2 metrics. It exploits a \textit{sign-based}, rather than magnitude-based, gradient estimation approach that shifts the gradient estimation from continuous to binary black-box optimization. It adaptively constructs queries to estimate the gradient, one query relying upon the previous, rather than re-estimating the gradient each step with random query construction. Its reliance on sign bits yields a smaller memory footprint and it requires neither hyperparameter tuning or dimensionality reduction. Further, its theoretical performance is guaranteed and it can characterize adversarial subspaces better than white-box gradient-aligned subspaces. On two public black-box attack challenges and a model robustly trained against transfer attacks, the algorithm’s evasion rates surpass all submitted attacks. For a suite of published models, the algorithm is 3.8 × 3.8\times 3.8× less failure-prone while spending 2.5 × 2.5\times 2.5× fewer queries versus the best combination of state of art algorithms. For example, it evades a standard MNIST model using just 12 12 12 queries on average. Similar performance is observed on a standard IMAGENET model with an average of 579 579 579 queries.
Keyword: Black-box adversarial attack models, Deep Nets, Adversarial Examples, Black-Box Optimization, Zeroth-Order Optimization

Deep Semi-Supervised Anomaly Detection
Author: Lukas Ruff, Robert A. Vandermeulen, Nico Görnitz, Alexander Binder, Emmanuel Müller, Klaus-Robert Müller, Marius Kloft
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HkgH0TEYwH
Code: https://github.com/lukasruff/Deep-SAD-PyTorch
Abstract: Deep approaches to anomaly detection have recently shown promising results over shallow methods on large and complex datasets. Typically anomaly detection is treated as an unsupervised learning problem. In practice however, one may have—in addition to a large set of unlabeled samples—access to a small pool of labeled samples, e.g. a subset verified by some domain expert as being normal or anomalous. Semi-supervised approaches to anomaly detection aim to utilize such labeled samples, but most proposed methods are limited to merely including labeled normal samples. Only a few methods take advantage of labeled anomalies, with existing deep approaches being domain-specific. In this work we present Deep SAD, an end-to-end deep methodology for general semi-supervised anomaly detection. We further introduce an information-theoretic framework for deep anomaly detection based on the idea that the entropy of the latent distribution for normal data should be lower than the entropy of the anomalous distribution, which can serve as a theoretical interpretation for our method. In extensive experiments on MNIST, Fashion-MNIST, and CIFAR-10, along with other anomaly detection benchmark datasets, we demonstrate that our method is on par or outperforms shallow, hybrid, and deep competitors, yielding appreciable performance improvements even when provided with only little labeled data.
Keyword: anomaly detection, deep learning, semi-supervised learning, unsupervised learning, outlier detection, one-class classification, deep anomaly detection, deep one-class classification

Budgeted Training: Rethinking Deep Neural Network Training Under Resource Constraints
Author: Mengtian Li, Ersin Yumer, Deva Ramanan
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HyxLRTVKPH
Code: None
Abstract: In most practical settings and theoretical analyses, one assumes that a model can be trained until convergence. However, the growing complexity of machine learning datasets and models may violate such assumptions. Indeed, current approaches for hyper-parameter tuning and neural architecture search tend to be limited by practical resource constraints. Therefore, we introduce a formal setting for studying training under the non-asymptotic, resource-constrained regime, i.e., budgeted training. We analyze the following problem: “given a dataset, algorithm, and fixed resource budget, what is the best achievable performance?” We focus on the number of optimization iterations as the representative resource. Under such a setting, we show that it is critical to adjust the learning rate schedule according to the given budget. Among budget-aware learning schedules, we find simple linear decay to be both robust and high-performing. We support our claim through extensive experiments with state-of-the-art models on ImageNet (image classification), Kinetics (video classification), MS COCO (object detection and instance segmentation), and Cityscapes (semantic segmentation). We also analyze our results and find that the key to a good schedule is budgeted convergence, a phenomenon whereby the gradient vanishes at the end of each allowed budget. We also revisit existing approaches for fast convergence and show that budget-aware learning schedules readily outperform such approaches under (the practical but under-explored) budgeted training setting.
Keyword: budgeted training, learning rate schedule, linear schedule, annealing, learning rate decay

Minimizing FLOPs to Learn Efficient Sparse Representations
Author: Biswajit Paria, Chih-Kuan Yeh, Ian E.H. Yen, Ning Xu, Pradeep Ravikumar, Barnabás Póczos
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SygpC6Ntvr
Code: https://github.com/biswajitsc/sparse-embed
Abstract: Deep representation learning has become one of the most widely adopted approaches for visual search, recommendation, and identification. Retrieval of such representations from a large database is however computationally challenging. Approximate methods based on learning compact representations, have been widely explored for this problem, such as locality sensitive hashing, product quantization, and PCA. In this work, in contrast to learning compact representations, we propose to learn high dimensional and sparse representations that have similar representational capacity as dense embeddings while being more efficient due to sparse matrix multiplication operations which can be much faster than dense multiplication. Following the key insight that the number of operations decreases quadratically with the sparsity of embeddings provided the non-zero entries are distributed uniformly across dimensions, we propose a novel approach to learn such distributed sparse embeddings via the use of a carefully constructed regularization function that directly minimizes a continuous relaxation of the number of floating-point operations (FLOPs) incurred during retrieval. Our experiments show that our approach is competitive to the other baselines and yields a similar or better speed-vs-accuracy tradeoff on practical datasets
Keyword: sparse embeddings, deep representations, metric learning, regularization

Reanalysis of Variance Reduced Temporal Difference Learning
Author: Tengyu Xu, Zhe Wang, Yi Zhou, Yingbin Liang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=S1ly10EKDS
Code: None
Abstract: Temporal difference (TD) learning is a popular algorithm for policy evaluation in reinforcement learning, but the vanilla TD can substantially suffer from the inherent optimization variance. A variance reduced TD (VRTD) algorithm was proposed by \cite{korda2015td}, which applies the variance reduction technique directly to the online TD learning with Markovian samples. In this work, we first point out the technical errors in the analysis of VRTD in \cite{korda2015td}, and then provide a mathematically solid analysis of the non-asymptotic convergence of VRTD and its variance reduction performance. We show that VRTD is guaranteed to converge to a neighborhood of the fixed-point solution of TD at a linear convergence rate. Furthermore, the variance error (for both i.i.d.\ and Markovian sampling) and the bias error (for Markovian sampling) of VRTD are significantly reduced by the batch size of variance reduction in comparison to those of vanilla TD. As a result, the overall computational complexity of VRTD to attain a given accurate solution outperforms that of TD under Markov sampling and outperforms that of TD under i.i.d.\ sampling for a sufficiently small conditional number.
Keyword: Reinforcement Learning, TD learning, Markovian sample, Variance Reduction

Imitation Learning via Off-Policy Distribution Matching
Author: Ilya Kostrikov, Ofir Nachum, Jonathan Tompson
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=Hyg-JC4FDr
Code: None
Abstract: When performing imitation learning from expert demonstrations, distribution matching is a popular approach, in which one alternates between estimating distribution ratios and then using these ratios as rewards in a standard reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm. Traditionally, estimation of the distribution ratio requires on-policy data, which has caused previous work to either be exorbitantly data- inefficient or alter the original objective in a manner that can drastically change its optimum. In this work, we show how the original distribution ratio estimation objective may be transformed in a principled manner to yield a completely off-policy objective. In addition to the data-efficiency that this provides, we are able to show that this objective also renders the use of a separate RL optimization unnecessary. Rather, an imitation policy may be learned directly from this objective without the use of explicit rewards. We call the resulting algorithm ValueDICE and evaluate it on a suite of popular imitation learning benchmarks, finding that it can achieve state-of-the-art sample efficiency and performance.
Keyword: reinforcement learning, deep learning, imitation learning, adversarial learning

Rapid Learning or Feature Reuse? Towards Understanding the Effectiveness of MAML
Author: Aniruddh Raghu, Maithra Raghu, Samy Bengio, Oriol Vinyals
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rkgMkCEtPB
Code: None
Abstract: An important research direction in machine learning has centered around developing meta-learning algorithms to tackle few-shot learning. An especially successful algorithm has been Model Agnostic Meta-Learning (MAML), a method that consists of two optimization loops, with the outer loop finding a meta-initialization, from which the inner loop can efficiently learn new tasks. Despite MAML’s popularity, a fundamental open question remains – is the effectiveness of MAML due to the meta-initialization being primed for rapid learning (large, efficient changes in the representations) or due to feature reuse, with the meta initialization already containing high quality features? We investigate this question, via ablation studies and analysis of the latent representations, finding that feature reuse is the dominant factor. This leads to the ANIL (Almost No Inner Loop) algorithm, a simplification of MAML where we remove the inner loop for all but the (task-specific) head of the underlying neural network. ANIL matches MAML’s performance on benchmark few-shot image classification and RL and offers computational improvements over MAML. We further study the precise contributions of the head and body of the network, showing that performance on the test tasks is entirely determined by the quality of the learned features, and we can remove even the head of the network (the NIL algorithm). We conclude with a discussion of the rapid learning vs feature reuse question for meta-learning algorithms more broadly.
Keyword: deep learning analysis, representation learning, meta-learning, few-shot learning

Augmenting Genetic Algorithms with Deep Neural Networks for Exploring the Chemical Space
Author: AkshatKumar Nigam, Pascal Friederich, Mario Krenn, Alan Aspuru-Guzik
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=H1lmyRNFvr
Code: https://github.com/aspuru-guzik-group/GA
Abstract: Challenges in natural sciences can often be phrased as optimization problems. Machine learning techniques have recently been applied to solve such problems. One example in chemistry is the design of tailor-made organic materials and molecules, which requires efficient methods to explore the chemical space. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) that is enhanced with a neural network (DNN) based discriminator model to improve the diversity of generated molecules and at the same time steer the GA. We show that our algorithm outperforms other generative models in optimization tasks. We furthermore present a way to increase interpretability of genetic algorithms, which helped us to derive design principles
Keyword: Generative model, Chemical Space, Inverse Molecular Design

Improved Sample Complexities for Deep Neural Networks and Robust Classification via an All-Layer Margin
Author: Colin Wei, Tengyu Ma
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJe_yR4Fwr
Code: None
Abstract: For linear classifiers, the relationship between (normalized) output margin and generalization is captured in a clear and simple bound – a large output margin implies good generalization. Unfortunately, for deep models, this relationship is less clear: existing analyses of the output margin give complicated bounds which sometimes depend exponentially on depth. In this work, we propose to instead analyze a new notion of margin, which we call the “all-layer margin.” Our analysis reveals that the all-layer margin has a clear and direct relationship with generalization for deep models. This enables the following concrete applications of the all-layer margin: 1) by analyzing the all-layer margin, we obtain tighter generalization bounds for neural nets which depend on Jacobian and hidden layer norms and remove the exponential dependency on depth 2) our neural net results easily translate to the adversarially robust setting, giving the first direct analysis of robust test error for deep networks, and 3) we present a theoretically inspired training algorithm for increasing the all-layer margin. Our algorithm improves both clean and adversarially robust test performance over strong baselines in practice.
Keyword: deep learning theory, generalization bounds, adversarially robust generalization, data-dependent generalization bounds

Identity Crisis: Memorization and Generalization Under Extreme Overparameterization
Author: Chiyuan Zhang, Samy Bengio, Moritz Hardt, Michael C. Mozer, Yoram Singer
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=B1l6y0VFPr
Code: None
Abstract: We study the interplay between memorization and generalization of
overparameterized networks in the extreme case of a single training example and an identity-mapping task. We examine fully-connected and convolutional networks (FCN and CNN), both linear and nonlinear, initialized randomly and then trained to minimize the reconstruction error. The trained networks stereotypically take one of two forms: the constant function (memorization) and the identity function (generalization).
We formally characterize generalization in single-layer FCNs and CNNs.
We show empirically that different architectures exhibit strikingly different inductive biases.
For example, CNNs of up to 10 layers are able to generalize
from a single example, whereas FCNs cannot learn the identity function reliably from 60k examples. Deeper CNNs often fail, but nonetheless do astonishing work to memorize the training output: because CNN biases are location invariant, the model must progressively grow an output pattern from the image boundaries via the coordination of many layers. Our work helps to quantify and visualize the sensitivity of inductive biases to architectural choices such as depth, kernel width, and number of channels.

Keyword: Generalization, Memorization, Understanding, Inductive Bias

ReMixMatch: Semi-Supervised Learning with Distribution Matching and Augmentation Anchoring
Author: David Berthelot, Nicholas Carlini, Ekin D. Cubuk, Alex Kurakin, Kihyuk Sohn, Han Zhang, Colin Raffel
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HklkeR4KPB
Code: https://github.com/google-research/remixmatch
Abstract: We improve the recently-proposed ``MixMatch semi-supervised learning algorithm by introducing two new techniques: distribution alignment and augmentation anchoring.
- Distribution alignment encourages the marginal distribution of predictions on unlabeled data to be close to the marginal distribution of ground-truth labels.
- Augmentation anchoring} feeds multiple strongly augmented versions of an input into the model and encourages each output to be close to the prediction for a weakly-augmented version of the same input.
To produce strong augmentations, we propose a variant of AutoAugment which learns the augmentation policy while the model is being trained.

  Our new algorithm, dubbed ReMixMatch, is significantly more data-efficient than prior work, requiring between 5 times and 16 times less data to reach the same accuracy. For example, on CIFAR-10 with 250 labeled examples we reach 93.73% accuracy (compared to MixMatch's accuracy of 93.58% with 4000 examples) and a median accuracy of 84.92% with just four labels per class.

Keyword: semi-supervised learning

Adaptive Structural Fingerprints for Graph Attention Networks
Author: Kai Zhang, Yaokang Zhu, Jun Wang, Jie Zhang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BJxWx0NYPr
Code: http://github.com/AvigdorZ
Abstract: Graph attention network (GAT) is a promising framework to perform convolution and massage passing on graphs. Yet, how to fully exploit rich structural information in the attention mechanism remains a challenge. In the current version, GAT calculates attention scores mainly using node features and among one-hop neighbors, while increasing the attention range to higher-order neighbors can negatively affect its performance, reflecting the over-smoothing risk of GAT (or graph neural networks in general), and the ineffectiveness in exploiting graph structural details. In this paper, we propose an "adaptive structural fingerprint" (ADSF) model to fully exploit graph topological details in graph attention network. The key idea is to contextualize each node with a weighted, learnable receptive field encoding rich and diverse local graph structures. By doing this, structural interactions between the nodes can be inferred accurately, thus significantly improving subsequent attention layer as well as the convergence of learning. Furthermore, our model provides a useful platform for different subspaces of node features and various scales of graph structures tocross-talk’’ with each other through the learning of multi-head attention, being particularly useful in handling complex real-world data. Empirical results demonstrate the power of our approach in exploiting rich structural information in GAT and in alleviating the intrinsic oversmoothing problem in graph neural networks.
Keyword: Graph attention networks, graph neural networks, node classification

CAQL: Continuous Action Q-Learning
Author: Moonkyung Ryu, Yinlam Chow, Ross Anderson, Christian Tjandraatmadja, Craig Boutilier
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BkxXe0Etwr
Code: None
Abstract: Reinforcement learning (RL) with value-based methods (e.g., Q-learning) has shown success in a variety of domains such as
games and recommender systems (RSs). When the action space is finite, these algorithms implicitly finds a policy by learning the optimal value function, which are often very efficient.
However, one major challenge of extending Q-learning to tackle continuous-action RL problems is that obtaining optimal Bellman backup requires solving a continuous action-maximization (max-Q) problem. While it is common to restrict the parameterization of the Q-function to be concave in actions to simplify the max-Q problem, such a restriction might lead to performance degradation. Alternatively, when the Q-function is parameterized with a generic feed-forward neural network (NN), the max-Q problem can be NP-hard. In this work, we propose the CAQL method which minimizes the Bellman residual using Q-learning with one of several plug-and-play action optimizers. In particular, leveraging the strides of optimization theories in deep NN, we show that max-Q problem can be solved optimally with mixed-integer programming (MIP)—when the Q-function has sufficient representation power, this MIP-based optimization induces better policies and is more robust than counterparts, e.g., CEM or GA, that approximate the max-Q solution. To speed up training of CAQL, we develop three techniques, namely (i) dynamic tolerance, (ii) dual filtering, and (iii) clustering.
To speed up inference of CAQL, we introduce the action function that concurrently learns the optimal policy.
To demonstrate the efficiency of CAQL we compare it with state-of-the-art RL algorithms on benchmark continuous control problems that have different degrees of action constraints and show that CAQL significantly outperforms policy-based methods in heavily constrained environments.
Keyword: Reinforcement learning (RL), DQN, Continuous control, Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP)

Learning Heuristics for Quantified Boolean Formulas through Reinforcement Learning
Author: Gil Lederman, Markus Rabe, Sanjit Seshia, Edward A. Lee
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BJluxREKDB
Code: None
Abstract: We demonstrate how to learn efficient heuristics for automated reasoning algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas through deep reinforcement learning. We focus on a backtracking search algorithm, which can already solve formulas of impressive size - up to hundreds of thousands of variables. The main challenge is to find a representation of these formulas that lends itself to making predictions in a scalable way. For a family of challenging problems, we learned a heuristic that solves significantly more formulas compared to the existing handwritten heuristics.
Keyword: Logic, QBF, Logical Reasoning, SAT, Graph, Reinforcement Learning, GNN

Pure and Spurious Critical Points: a Geometric Study of Linear Networks
Author: Matthew Trager, Kathlén Kohn, Joan Bruna
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rkgOlCVYvB
Code: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1eSU6mwgmowSAyQY3b1jXPzvbymNv338z/view?usp=sharing
Abstract: The critical locus of the loss function of a neural network is determined by the geometry of the functional space and by the parameterization of this space by the network’s weights. We introduce a natural distinction between pure critical points, which only depend on the functional space, and spurious critical points, which arise from the parameterization. We apply this perspective to revisit and extend the literature on the loss function of linear neural networks. For this type of network, the functional space is either the set of all linear maps from input to output space, or a determinantal variety, i.e., a set of linear maps with bounded rank. We use geometric properties of determinantal varieties to derive new results on the landscape of linear networks with different loss functions and different parameterizations. Our analysis clearly illustrates that the absence of “bad” local minima in the loss landscape of linear networks is due to two distinct phenomena that apply in different settings: it is true for arbitrary smooth convex losses in the case of architectures that can express all linear maps (“filling architectures”) but it holds only for the quadratic loss when the functional space is a determinantal variety (“non-filling architectures”). Without any assumption on the architecture, smooth convex losses may lead to landscapes with many bad minima.
Keyword: Loss landscape, linear networks, algebraic geometry

Neural Text Generation With Unlikelihood Training
Author: Sean Welleck, Ilia Kulikov, Stephen Roller, Emily Dinan, Kyunghyun Cho, Jason Weston
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJeYe0NtvH
Code: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1rTksP8hubiXcYzJ8RBl83R8Ent5EtLOj
Abstract: Neural text generation is a key tool in natural language applications, but it is well known there are major problems at its core. In particular, standard likelihood training and decoding leads to dull and repetitive outputs. While some post-hoc fixes have been proposed, in particular top-k and nucleus sampling, they do not address the fact that the token-level probabilities predicted by the model are poor. In this paper we show that the likelihood objective itself is at fault, resulting in a model that assigns too much probability to sequences containing repeats and frequent words, unlike those from the human training distribution. We propose a new objective, unlikelihood training, which forces unlikely generations to be assigned lower probability by the model. We show that both token and sequence level unlikelihood training give less repetitive, less dull text while maintaining perplexity, giving superior generations using standard greedy or beam search. According to human evaluations, our approach with standard beam search also outperforms the currently popular decoding methods of nucleus sampling or beam blocking, thus providing a strong alternative to existing techniques.
Keyword: language modeling, machine learning

Semi-Supervised Generative Modeling for Controllable Speech Synthesis
Author: Raza Habib, Soroosh Mariooryad, Matt Shannon, Eric Battenberg, RJ Skerry-Ryan, Daisy Stanton, David Kao, Tom Bagby
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rJeqeCEtvH
Code: None
Abstract: We present a novel generative model that combines state-of-the-art neural text- to-speech (TTS) with semi-supervised probabilistic latent variable models. By providing partial supervision to some of the latent variables, we are able to force them to take on consistent and interpretable purposes, which previously hasn’t been possible with purely unsupervised methods. We demonstrate that our model is able to reliably discover and control important but rarely labelled attributes of speech, such as affect and speaking rate, with as little as 1% (30 minutes) supervision. Even at such low supervision levels we do not observe a degradation of synthesis quality compared to a state-of-the-art baseline. We will release audio samples at
Keyword: TTS, Speech Synthesis, Semi-supervised Models, VAE, disentanglement

Dynamic Time Lag Regression: Predicting What & When
Author: Mandar Chandorkar, Cyril Furtlehner, Bala Poduval, Enrico Camporeale, Michele Sebag
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SkxybANtDB
Code: https://github.com/transcendent-ai-labs/PlasmaML
Abstract: This paper tackles a new regression problem, called Dynamic Time-Lag Regression (DTLR), where a cause signal drives an effect signal with an unknown time delay.
The motivating application, pertaining to space weather modelling, aims to predict the near-Earth solar wind speed based on estimates of the Sun’s coronal magnetic field.
DTLR differs from mainstream regression and from sequence-to-sequence learning in two respects: firstly, no ground truth (e.g., pairs of associated sub-sequences) is available; secondly, the cause signal contains much information irrelevant to the effect signal (the solar magnetic field governs the solar wind propagation in the heliosphere, of which the Earth’s magnetosphere is but a minuscule region).

  A Bayesian approach is presented to tackle the specifics of the DTLR problem, with theoretical justifications based on linear stability analysis. A proof of concept on synthetic problems is presented. Finally, the empirical results on the solar wind modelling task improve on the state of the art in solar wind forecasting.

Keyword: Dynamic Time-Lag Regression, Time Delay, Regression, Time Series

Scalable Model Compression by Entropy Penalized Reparameterization
Author: Deniz Oktay, Johannes Ballé, Saurabh Singh, Abhinav Shrivastava
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HkgxW0EYDS
Code: None
Abstract: We describe a simple and general neural network weight compression approach, in which the network parameters (weights and biases) are represented in a “latent” space, amounting to a reparameterization. This space is equipped with a learned probability model, which is used to impose an entropy penalty on the parameter representation during training, and to compress the representation using a simple arithmetic coder after training. Classification accuracy and model compressibility is maximized jointly, with the bitrate–accuracy trade-off specified by a hyperparameter. We evaluate the method on the MNIST, CIFAR-10 and ImageNet classification benchmarks using six distinct model architectures. Our results show that state-of-the-art model compression can be achieved in a scalable and general way without requiring complex procedures such as multi-stage training.
Keyword: deep learning, model compression, computer vision, information theory

AMRL: Aggregated Memory For Reinforcement Learning
Author: Jacob Beck, Kamil Ciosek, Sam Devlin, Sebastian Tschiatschek, Cheng Zhang, Katja Hofmann
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=Bkl7bREtDr
Code: None
Abstract: In many partially observable scenarios, Reinforcement Learning (RL) agents must rely on long-term memory in order to learn an optimal policy. We demonstrate that using techniques from NLP and supervised learning fails at RL tasks due to stochasticity from the environment and from exploration. Utilizing our insights on the limitations of traditional memory methods in RL, we propose AMRL, a class of models that can learn better policies with greater sample efficiency and are resilient to noisy inputs. Specifically, our models use a standard memory module to summarize short-term context, and then aggregate all prior states from the standard model without respect to order. We show that this provides advantages both in terms of gradient decay and signal-to-noise ratio over time. Evaluating in Minecraft and maze environments that test long-term memory, we find that our model improves average return by 19% over a baseline that has the same number of parameters and by 9% over a stronger baseline that has far more parameters.
Keyword: deep learning, reinforcement learning, rl, memory, noise, machine learning

Efficient Riemannian Optimization on the Stiefel Manifold via the Cayley Transform
Author: Jun Li, Fuxin Li, Sinisa Todorovic
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJxV-ANKDH
Code: None
Abstract: Strictly enforcing orthonormality constraints on parameter matrices has been shown advantageous in deep learning. This amounts to Riemannian optimization on the Stiefel manifold, which, however, is computationally expensive. To address this challenge, we present two main contributions: (1) A new efficient retraction map based on an iterative Cayley transform for optimization updates, and (2) An implicit vector transport mechanism based on the combination of a projection of the momentum and the Cayley transform on the Stiefel manifold. We specify two new optimization algorithms: Cayley SGD with momentum, and Cayley ADAM on the Stiefel manifold. Convergence of Cayley SGD is theoretically analyzed. Our experiments for CNN training demonstrate that both algorithms: (a) Use less running time per iteration relative to existing approaches that enforce orthonormality of CNN parameters; and (b) Achieve faster convergence rates than the baseline SGD and ADAM algorithms without compromising the performance of the CNN. Cayley SGD and Cayley ADAM are also shown to reduce the training time for optimizing the unitary transition matrices in RNNs.
Keyword: Orthonormality, Efficient Riemannian Optimization, the Stiefel manifold.

Unpaired Point Cloud Completion on Real Scans using Adversarial Training
Author: Xuelin Chen, Baoquan Chen, Niloy J. Mitra
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HkgrZ0EYwB
Code: https://github.com/xuelin-chen/pcl2pcl-gan-pub
Abstract: As 3D scanning solutions become increasingly popular, several deep learning setups have been developed for the task of scan completion, i.e., plausibly filling in regions that were missed in the raw scans. These methods, however, largely rely on supervision in the form of paired training data, i.e., partial scans with corresponding desired completed scans. While these methods have been successfully demonstrated on synthetic data, the approaches cannot be directly used on real scans in absence of suitable paired training data. We develop a first approach that works directly on input point clouds, does not require paired training data, and hence can directly be applied to real scans for scan completion. We evaluate the approach qualitatively on several real-world datasets (ScanNet, Matterport3D, KITTI), quantitatively on 3D-EPN shape completion benchmark dataset, and demonstrate realistic completions under varying levels of incompleteness.

Keyword: point cloud completion, generative adversarial network, real scans

Adjustable Real-time Style Transfer
Author: Mohammad Babaeizadeh, Golnaz Ghiasi
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJe_Z04Yvr
Code: https://goo.gl/PVWQ9K
Abstract: Artistic style transfer is the problem of synthesizing an image with content similar to a given image and style similar to another. Although recent feed-forward neural networks can generate stylized images in real-time, these models produce a single stylization given a pair of style/content images, and the user doesn’t have control over the synthesized output. Moreover, the style transfer depends on the hyper-parameters of the model with varying ``optimum" for different input images. Therefore, if the stylized output is not appealing to the user, she/he has to try multiple models or retrain one with different hyper-parameters to get a favorite stylization. In this paper, we address these issues by proposing a novel method which allows adjustment of crucial hyper-parameters, after the training and in real-time, through a set of manually adjustable parameters. These parameters enable the user to modify the synthesized outputs from the same pair of style/content images, in search of a favorite stylized image. Our quantitative and qualitative experiments indicate how adjusting these parameters is comparable to retraining the model with different hyper-parameters. We also demonstrate how these parameters can be randomized to generate results which are diverse but still very similar in style and content.
Keyword: Image Style Transfer, Deep Learning

Stochastic Weight Averaging in Parallel: Large-Batch Training That Generalizes Well
Author: Vipul Gupta, Santiago Akle Serrano, Dennis DeCoste
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rygFWAEFwS
Code: None
Abstract: We propose Stochastic Weight Averaging in Parallel (SWAP), an algorithm to accelerate DNN training. Our algorithm uses large mini-batches to compute an approximate solution quickly and then refines it by averaging the weights of multiple models computed independently and in parallel. The resulting models generalize equally well as those trained with small mini-batches but are produced in a substantially shorter time. We demonstrate the reduction in training time and the good generalization performance of the resulting models on the computer vision datasets CIFAR10, CIFAR100, and ImageNet.
Keyword: Large batch training, Distributed neural network training, Stochastic Weight Averaging

Short and Sparse Deconvolution — A Geometric Approach
Author: Yenson Lau, Qing Qu, Han-Wen Kuo, Pengcheng Zhou, Yuqian Zhang, John Wright
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=Byg5ZANtvH
Code: https://github.com/qingqu06/sparse_deconvolution
Abstract: Short-and-sparse deconvolution (SaSD) is the problem of extracting localized, recurring motifs in signals with spatial or temporal structure. Variants of this problem arise in applications such as image deblurring, microscopy, neural spike sorting, and more. The problem is challenging in both theory and practice, as natural optimization formulations are nonconvex. Moreover, practical deconvolution problems involve smooth motifs (kernels) whose spectra decay rapidly, resulting in poor conditioning and numerical challenges. This paper is motivated by recent theoretical advances \citep{zhang2017global,kuo2019geometry}, which characterize the optimization landscape of a particular nonconvex formulation of SaSD. This is used to derive a provable algorithm that exactly solves certain non-practical instances of the SaSD problem. We leverage the key ideas from this theory (sphere constraints, data-driven initialization) to develop a practical algorithm, which performs well on data arising from a range of application areas. We highlight key additional challenges posed by the ill-conditioning of real SaSD problems and suggest heuristics (acceleration, continuation, reweighting) to mitigate them. Experiments demonstrate the performance and generality of the proposed method.
Keyword: None

Selection via Proxy: Efficient Data Selection for Deep Learning
Author: Cody Coleman, Christopher Yeh, Stephen Mussmann, Baharan Mirzasoleiman, Peter Bailis, Percy Liang, Jure Leskovec, Matei Zaharia
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJg2b0VYDr
Code: https://github.com/stanford-futuredata/selection-via-proxy
Abstract: Data selection methods, such as active learning and core-set selection, are useful tools for machine learning on large datasets. However, they can be prohibitively expensive to apply in deep learning because they depend on feature representations that need to be learned. In this work, we show that we can greatly improve the computational efficiency by using a small proxy model to perform data selection (e.g., selecting data points to label for active learning). By removing hidden layers from the target model, using smaller architectures, and training for fewer epochs, we create proxies that are an order of magnitude faster to train. Although these small proxy models have higher error rates, we find that they empirically provide useful signals for data selection. We evaluate this “selection via proxy” (SVP) approach on several data selection tasks across five datasets: CIFAR10, CIFAR100, ImageNet, Amazon Review Polarity, and Amazon Review Full. For active learning, applying SVP can give an order of magnitude improvement in data selection runtime (i.e., the time it takes to repeatedly train and select points) without significantly increasing the final error (often within 0.1%). For core-set selection on CIFAR10, proxies that are over 10× faster to train than their larger, more accurate targets can remove up to 50% of the data without harming the final accuracy of the target, leading to a 1.6× end-to-end training time improvement.
Keyword: data selection, active-learning, core-set selection, deep learning, uncertainty sampling

Global Relational Models of Source Code
Author: Vincent J. Hellendoorn, Charles Sutton, Rishabh Singh, Petros Maniatis, David Bieber
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=B1lnbRNtwr
Code: None
Abstract: Models of code can learn distributed representations of a program’s syntax and semantics to predict many non-trivial properties of a program. Recent state-of-the-art models leverage highly structured representations of programs, such as trees, graphs and paths therein (e.g. data-flow relations), which are precise and abundantly available for code. This provides a strong inductive bias towards semantically meaningful relations, yielding more generalizable representations than classical sequence-based models. Unfortunately, these models primarily rely on graph-based message passing to represent relations in code, which makes them de facto local due to the high cost of message-passing steps, quite in contrast to modern, global sequence-based models, such as the Transformer. In this work, we bridge this divide between global and structured models by introducing two new hybrid model families that are both global and incorporate structural bias: Graph Sandwiches, which wrap traditional (gated) graph message-passing layers in sequential message-passing layers; and Graph Relational Embedding Attention Transformers (GREAT for short), which bias traditional Transformers with relational information from graph edge types. By studying a popular, non-trivial program repair task, variable-misuse identification, we explore the relative merits of traditional and hybrid model families for code representation. Starting with a graph-based model that already improves upon the prior state-of-the-art for this task by 20%, we show that our proposed hybrid models improve an additional 10-15%, while training both faster and using fewer parameters.
Keyword: Models of Source Code, Graph Neural Networks, Structured Learning

Detecting Extrapolation with Local Ensembles
Author: David Madras, James Atwood, Alexander D’Amour
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BJl6bANtwH
Code: https://github.com/dmadras/local-ensembles
Abstract: We present local ensembles, a method for detecting extrapolation at test time in a pre-trained model. We focus on underdetermination as a key component of extrapolation: we aim to detect when many possible predictions are consistent with the training data and model class. Our method uses local second-order information to approximate the variance of predictions across an ensemble of models from the same class. We compute this approximation by estimating the norm of the component of a test point’s gradient that aligns with the low-curvature directions of the Hessian, and provide a tractable method for estimating this quantity. Experimentally, we show that our method is capable of detecting when a pre-trained model is extrapolating on test data, with applications to out-of-distribution detection, detecting spurious correlates, and active learning.
Keyword: extrapolation, reliability, influence functions, laplace approximation, ensembles, Rashomon set

Learning to Link
Author: Maria-Florina Balcan, Travis Dick, Manuel Lang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=S1eRbANtDB
Code: None
Abstract: Clustering is an important part of many modern data analysis pipelines, including network analysis and data retrieval. There are many different clustering algorithms developed by various communities, and it is often not clear which algorithm will give the best performance on a specific clustering task. Similarly, we often have multiple ways to measure distances between data points, and the best clustering performance might require a non-trivial combination of those metrics. In this work, we study data-driven algorithm selection and metric learning for clustering problems, where the goal is to simultaneously learn the best algorithm and metric for a specific application. The family of clustering algorithms we consider is parameterized linkage based procedures that includes single and complete linkage. The family of distance functions we learn over are convex combinations of base distance functions. We design efficient learning algorithms which receive samples from an application-specific distribution over clustering instances and learn a near-optimal distance and clustering algorithm from these classes. We also carry out a comprehensive empirical evaluation of our techniques showing that they can lead to significantly improved clustering performance on real-world datasets.
Keyword: Data-driven Algorithm Configuration, Metric Learning, Linkage Clustering, Learning Algorithms

Adversarially robust transfer learning
Author: Ali Shafahi, Parsa Saadatpanah, Chen Zhu, Amin Ghiasi, Christoph Studer, David Jacobs, Tom Goldstein
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=ryebG04YvB
Code: None
Abstract: Transfer learning, in which a network is trained on one task and re-purposed on another, is often used to produce neural network classifiers when data is scarce or full-scale training is too costly. When the goal is to produce a model that is not only accurate but also adversarially robust, data scarcity and computational limitations become even more cumbersome.
We consider robust transfer learning, in which we transfer not only performance but also robustness from a source model to a target domain. We start by observing that robust networks contain robust feature extractors. By training classifiers on top of these feature extractors, we produce new models that inherit the robustness of their parent networks. We then consider the case of “fine tuning” a network by re-training end-to-end in the target domain. When using lifelong learning strategies, this process preserves the robustness of the source network while achieving high accuracy. By using such strategies, it is possible to produce accurate and robust models with little data, and without the cost of adversarial training. Additionally, we can improve the generalization of adversarially trained models, while maintaining their robustness.
Keyword: None

Overlearning Reveals Sensitive Attributes
Author: Congzheng Song, Vitaly Shmatikov
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJeNz04tDS
Code: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1hu0PhN3pWXe6LobxiPFeYBm8L-vQX2zJ/view?usp=sharing
Abstract: ``"Overlearning’’ means that a model trained for a seemingly simple
objective implicitly learns to recognize attributes and concepts that are
(1) not part of the learning objective, and (2) sensitive from a privacy
or bias perspective. For example, a binary gender classifier of facial
images also learns to recognize races, even races that are
not represented in the training data, and identities.

  We demonstrate overlearning in several vision and NLP models and analyze
  its harmful consequences.  First, inference-time representations of an
  overlearned model reveal sensitive attributes of the input, breaking
  privacy protections such as model partitioning.  Second, an overlearned
  model can be "`re-purposed'' for a different, privacy-violating task
  even in the absence of the original training data.
  We show that overlearning is intrinsic for some tasks and cannot be
  prevented by censoring unwanted attributes.  Finally, we investigate
  where, when, and why overlearning happens during model training.

Keyword: privacy, censoring representation, transfer learning

Bridging Mode Connectivity in Loss Landscapes and Adversarial Robustness
Author: Pu Zhao, Pin-Yu Chen, Payel Das, Karthikeyan Natesan Ramamurthy, Xue Lin
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJgwzCEKwH
Code: None
Abstract: Mode connectivity provides novel geometric insights on analyzing loss landscapes and enables building high-accuracy pathways between well-trained neural networks. In this work, we propose to employ mode connectivity in loss landscapes to study the adversarial robustness of deep neural networks, and provide novel methods for improving this robustness. Our experiments cover various types of adversarial attacks applied to different network architectures and datasets. When network models are tampered with backdoor or error-injection attacks, our results demonstrate that the path connection learned using limited amount of bonafide data can effectively mitigate adversarial effects while maintaining the original accuracy on clean data. Therefore, mode connectivity provides users with the power to repair backdoored or error-injected models. We also use mode connectivity to investigate the loss landscapes of regular and robust models against evasion attacks. Experiments show that there exists a barrier in adversarial robustness loss on the path connecting regular and adversarially-trained models. A high correlation is observed between the adversarial robustness loss and the largest eigenvalue of the input Hessian matrix, for which theoretical justifications are provided. Our results suggest that mode connectivity offers a holistic tool and practical means for evaluating and improving adversarial robustness.
Keyword: mode connectivity, adversarial robustness, backdoor attack, error-injection attack, evasion attacks, loss landscapes

Differentially Private Meta-Learning
Author: Jeffrey Li, Mikhail Khodak, Sebastian Caldas, Ameet Talwalkar
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rJgqMRVYvr
Code: None
Abstract: Parameter-transfer is a well-known and versatile approach for meta-learning, with applications including few-shot learning, federated learning, with personalization, and reinforcement learning. However, parameter-transfer algorithms often require sharing models that have been trained on the samples from specific tasks, thus leaving the task-owners susceptible to breaches of privacy. We conduct the first formal study of privacy in this setting and formalize the notion of task-global differential privacy as a practical relaxation of more commonly studied threat models. We then propose a new differentially private algorithm for gradient-based parameter transfer that not only satisfies this privacy requirement but also retains provable transfer learning guarantees in convex settings. Empirically, we apply our analysis to the problems of federated learning with personalization and few-shot classification, showing that allowing the relaxation to task-global privacy from the more commonly studied notion of local privacy leads to dramatically increased performance in recurrent neural language modeling and image classification.
Keyword: Differential Privacy, Meta-Learning, Federated Learning

One-Shot Pruning of Recurrent Neural Networks by Jacobian Spectrum Evaluation
Author: Shunshi Zhang, Bradly C. Stadie
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=r1e9GCNKvH
Code: None
Abstract: Recent advances in the sparse neural network literature have made it possible to prune many large feed forward and convolutional networks with only a small quantity of data. Yet, these same techniques often falter when applied to the problem of recovering sparse recurrent networks. These failures are quantitative: when pruned with recent techniques, RNNs typically obtain worse performance than they do under a simple random pruning scheme. The failures are also qualitative: the distribution of active weights in a pruned LSTM or GRU network tend to be concentrated in specific neurons and gates, and not well dispersed across the entire architecture. We seek to rectify both the quantitative and qualitative issues with recurrent network pruning by introducing a new recurrent pruning objective derived from the spectrum of the recurrent Jacobian. Our objective is data efficient (requiring only 64 data points to prune the network), easy to implement, and produces 95 % sparse GRUs that significantly improve on existing baselines. We evaluate on sequential MNIST, Billion Words, and Wikitext.
Keyword: Pruning, RNNs, Sparsity

Meta-Dataset: A Dataset of Datasets for Learning to Learn from Few Examples
Author: Eleni Triantafillou, Tyler Zhu, Vincent Dumoulin, Pascal Lamblin, Utku Evci, Kelvin Xu, Ross Goroshin, Carles Gelada, Kevin Swersky, Pierre-Antoine Manzagol, Hugo Larochelle
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rkgAGAVKPr
Code: https://storage.googleapis.com/meta-dataset-source-code/meta-dataset-iclr2020.tar.gz
Abstract: Few-shot classification refers to learning a classifier for new classes given only a few examples. While a plethora of models have emerged to tackle it, we find the procedure and datasets that are used to assess their progress lacking. To address this limitation, we propose Meta-Dataset: a new benchmark for training and evaluating models that is large-scale, consists of diverse datasets, and presents more realistic tasks. We experiment with popular baselines and meta-learners on Meta-Dataset, along with a competitive method that we propose. We analyze performance as a function of various characteristics of test tasks and examine the models’ ability to leverage diverse training sources for improving their generalization. We also propose a new set of baselines for quantifying the benefit of meta-learning in Meta-Dataset. Our extensive experimentation has uncovered important research challenges and we hope to inspire work in these directions.
Keyword: few-shot learning, meta-learning, few-shot classification

Are Transformers universal approximators of sequence-to-sequence functions?
Author: Chulhee Yun, Srinadh Bhojanapalli, Ankit Singh Rawat, Sashank Reddi, Sanjiv Kumar
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=ByxRM0Ntvr
Code: None
Abstract: Despite the widespread adoption of Transformer models for NLP tasks, the expressive power of these models is not well-understood. In this paper, we establish that Transformer models are universal approximators of continuous permutation equivariant sequence-to-sequence functions with compact support, which is quite surprising given the amount of shared parameters in these models. Furthermore, using positional encodings, we circumvent the restriction of permutation equivariance, and show that Transformer models can universally approximate arbitrary continuous sequence-to-sequence functions on a compact domain. Interestingly, our proof techniques clearly highlight the different roles of the self-attention and the feed-forward layers in Transformers. In particular, we prove that fixed width self-attention layers can compute contextual mappings of the input sequences, playing a key role in the universal approximation property of Transformers. Based on this insight from our analysis, we consider other architectures that can compute contextual mappings and empirically evaluate them.
Keyword: Transformer, universal approximation, contextual mapping, expressive power, permutation equivariance

Pre-training Tasks for Embedding-based Large-scale Retrieval
Author: Wei-Cheng Chang, Felix X. Yu, Yin-Wen Chang, Yiming Yang, Sanjiv Kumar
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rkg-mA4FDr
Code: None
Abstract: We consider the large-scale query-document retrieval problem: given a query (e.g., a question), return the set of relevant documents (e.g., paragraphs containing the answer) from a large document corpus. This problem is often solved in two steps. The retrieval phase first reduces the solution space, returning a subset of candidate documents. The scoring phase then re-ranks the documents. Critically, the retrieval algorithm not only desires high recall but also requires to be highly efficient, returning candidates in time sublinear to the number of documents. Unlike the scoring phase witnessing significant advances recently due to the BERT-style pre-training tasks on cross-attention models, the retrieval phase remains less well studied. Most previous works rely on classic Information Retrieval (IR) methods such as BM-25 (token matching + TF-IDF weights). These models only accept sparse handcrafted features and can not be optimized for different downstream tasks of interest. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive study on the embedding-based retrieval models. We show that the key ingredient of learning a strong embedding-based Transformer model is the set of pre-training tasks. With adequately designed paragraph-level pre-training tasks, the Transformer models can remarkably improve over the widely-used BM-25 as well as embedding models without Transformers. The paragraph-level pre-training tasks we studied are Inverse Cloze Task (ICT), Body First Selection (BFS), Wiki Link Prediction (WLP), and the combination of all three.
Keyword: natural language processing, large-scale retrieval, unsupervised representation learning, paragraph-level pre-training, two-tower Transformer models

Deep Imitative Models for Flexible Inference, Planning, and Control
Author: Nicholas Rhinehart, Rowan McAllister, Sergey Levine
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=Skl4mRNYDr
Code: None
Abstract: Imitation Learning (IL) is an appealing approach to learn desirable autonomous behavior. However, directing IL to achieve arbitrary goals is difficult. In contrast, planning-based algorithms use dynamics models and reward functions to achieve goals. Yet, reward functions that evoke desirable behavior are often difficult to specify. In this paper, we propose “Imitative Models” to combine the benefits of IL and goal-directed planning. Imitative Models are probabilistic predictive models of desirable behavior able to plan interpretable expert-like trajectories to achieve specified goals. We derive families of flexible goal objectives, including constrained goal regions, unconstrained goal sets, and energy-based goals. We show that our method can use these objectives to successfully direct behavior. Our method substantially outperforms six IL approaches and a planning-based approach in a dynamic simulated autonomous driving task, and is efficiently learned from expert demonstrations without online data collection. We also show our approach is robust to poorly-specified goals, such as goals on the wrong side of the road.
Keyword: imitation learning, planning, autonomous driving

CM3: Cooperative Multi-goal Multi-stage Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning
Author: Jiachen Yang, Alireza Nakhaei, David Isele, Kikuo Fujimura, Hongyuan Zha
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=S1lEX04tPr
Code: None
Abstract: A variety of cooperative multi-agent control problems require agents to achieve individual goals while contributing to collective success. This multi-goal multi-agent setting poses difficulties for recent algorithms, which primarily target settings with a single global reward, due to two new challenges: efficient exploration for learning both individual goal attainment and cooperation for others’ success, and credit-assignment for interactions between actions and goals of different agents. To address both challenges, we restructure the problem into a novel two-stage curriculum, in which single-agent goal attainment is learned prior to learning multi-agent cooperation, and we derive a new multi-goal multi-agent policy gradient with a credit function for localized credit assignment. We use a function augmentation scheme to bridge value and policy functions across the curriculum. The complete architecture, called CM3, learns significantly faster than direct adaptations of existing algorithms on three challenging multi-goal multi-agent problems: cooperative navigation in difficult formations, negotiating multi-vehicle lane changes in the SUMO traffic simulator, and strategic cooperation in a Checkers environment.
Keyword: multi-agent reinforcement learning

Robust And Interpretable Blind Image Denoising Via Bias-Free Convolutional Neural Networks
Author: Sreyas Mohan, Zahra Kadkhodaie, Eero P. Simoncelli, Carlos Fernandez-Granda
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJlSmC4FPS
Code: None
Abstract: We study the generalization properties of deep convolutional neural networks for image denoising in the presence of varying noise levels. We provide extensive empirical evidence that current state-of-the-art architectures systematically overfit to the noise levels in the training set, performing very poorly at new noise levels. We show that strong generalization can be achieved through a simple architectural modification: removing all additive constants. The resulting “bias-free” networks attain state-of-the-art performance over a broad range of noise levels, even when trained over a limited range. They are also locally linear, which enables direct analysis with linear-algebraic tools. We show that the denoising map can be visualized locally as a filter that adapts to both image structure and noise level. In addition, our analysis reveals that deep networks implicitly perform a projection onto an adaptively-selected low-dimensional subspace, with dimensionality inversely proportional to noise level, that captures features of natural images.
Keyword: denoising, overfitting, generalization, robustness, interpretability, analysis of neural networks

Towards Better Understanding of Adaptive Gradient Algorithms in Generative Adversarial Nets
Author: Mingrui Liu, Youssef Mroueh, Jerret Ross, Wei Zhang, Xiaodong Cui, Payel Das, Tianbao Yang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJxIm0VtwH
Code: None
Abstract: Adaptive gradient algorithms perform gradient-based updates using the history of gradients and are ubiquitous in training deep neural networks. While adaptive gradient methods theory is well understood for minimization problems, the underlying factors driving their empirical success in min-max problems such as GANs remain unclear. In this paper, we aim at bridging this gap from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. First, we analyze a variant of Optimistic Stochastic Gradient (OSG) proposed in~\citep{daskalakis2017training} for solving a class of non-convex non-concave min-max problem and establish O ( ϵ − 4 ) O(\epsilon^{-4}) O(ϵ4) complexity for finding ϵ \epsilon ϵ-first-order stationary point, in which the algorithm only requires invoking one stochastic first-order oracle while enjoying state-of-the-art iteration complexity achieved by stochastic extragradient method by~\citep{iusem2017extragradient}. Then we propose an adaptive variant of OSG named Optimistic Adagrad (OAdagrad) and reveal an \emph{improved} adaptive complexity O ~ ( ϵ − 2 1 − α ) \widetilde{O}\left(\epsilon^{-\frac{2}{1-\alpha}}\right) O (ϵ1α2)~\footnote{Here O ~ ( ⋅ ) \widetilde{O}(\cdot) O () compresses a logarithmic factor of ϵ \epsilon ϵ.}, where α \alpha α characterizes the growth rate of the cumulative stochastic gradient and 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 / 2 0\leq \alpha\leq 1/2 0α1/2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work for establishing adaptive complexity in non-convex non-concave min-max optimization. Empirically, our experiments show that indeed adaptive gradient algorithms outperform their non-adaptive counterparts in GAN training. Moreover, this observation can be explained by the slow growth rate of the cumulative stochastic gradient, as observed empirically.
Keyword: Generative Adversarial Nets, Adaptive Gradient Algorithms

DeepV2D: Video to Depth with Differentiable Structure from Motion
Author: Zachary Teed, Jia Deng
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJeO7RNKPr
Code: None
Abstract: We propose DeepV2D, an end-to-end deep learning architecture for predicting depth from video. DeepV2D combines the representation ability of neural networks with the geometric principles governing image formation. We compose a collection of classical geometric algorithms, which are converted into trainable modules and combined into an end-to-end differentiable architecture. DeepV2D interleaves two stages: motion estimation and depth estimation. During inference, motion and depth estimation are alternated and converge to accurate depth.
Keyword: Structure-from-Motion, Video to Depth, Dense Depth Estimation

Learning Space Partitions for Nearest Neighbor Search
Author: Yihe Dong, Piotr Indyk, Ilya Razenshteyn, Tal Wagner
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rkenmREFDr
Code: https://anonymous.4open.science/r/cdd789a8-818c-4675-98fd-39f8da656129/
Abstract: Space partitions of R d \mathbb{R}^d Rd underlie a vast and important
class of fast nearest neighbor search (NNS) algorithms. Inspired by recent theoretical work on NNS for general metric spaces (Andoni et al. 2018b,c), we develop a new framework for building space partitions reducing the problem to balanced graph partitioning followed by supervised classification.
We instantiate this general approach with the KaHIP graph partitioner (Sanders and Schulz 2013) and neural networks, respectively, to obtain a new partitioning procedure called Neural Locality-Sensitive Hashing (Neural LSH). On several standard benchmarks for NNS (Aumuller et al. 2017), our experiments show that the partitions obtained by Neural LSH consistently outperform partitions found by quantization-based and tree-based methods as well as classic, data-oblivious LSH.
Keyword: space partition, lsh, locality sensitive hashing, nearest neighbor search

Playing the lottery with rewards and multiple languages: lottery tickets in RL and NLP
Author: Haonan Yu, Sergey Edunov, Yuandong Tian, Ari S. Morcos
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=S1xnXRVFwH
Code: None
Abstract: The lottery ticket hypothesis proposes that over-parameterization of deep neural networks (DNNs) aids training by increasing the probability of a “lucky” sub-network initialization being present rather than by helping the optimization process (Frankle& Carbin, 2019). Intriguingly, this phenomenon suggests that initialization strategies for DNNs can be improved substantially, but the lottery ticket hypothesis has only previously been tested in the context of supervised learning for natural image tasks. Here, we evaluate whether “winning ticket” initializations exist in two different domains: natural language processing (NLP) and reinforcement learning (RL).For NLP, we examined both recurrent LSTM models and large-scale Transformer models (Vaswani et al., 2017). For RL, we analyzed a number of discrete-action space tasks, including both classic control and pixel control. Consistent with workin supervised image classification, we confirm that winning ticket initializations generally outperform parameter-matched random initializations, even at extreme pruning rates for both NLP and RL. Notably, we are able to find winning ticket initializations for Transformers which enable models one-third the size to achieve nearly equivalent performance. Together, these results suggest that the lottery ticket hypothesis is not restricted to supervised learning of natural images, but rather represents a broader phenomenon in DNNs.
Keyword: lottery tickets, nlp, transformer, rl, reinforcement learning

Sign-OPT: A Query-Efficient Hard-label Adversarial Attack
Author: Minhao Cheng, Simranjit Singh, Patrick H. Chen, Pin-Yu Chen, Sijia Liu, Cho-Jui Hsieh
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SklTQCNtvS
Code: https://github.com/cmhcbb/attackbox
Abstract: We study the most practical problem setup for evaluating adversarial robustness of a machine learning system with limited access: the hard-label black-box attack setting for generating adversarial examples, where limited model queries are allowed and only the decision is provided to a queried data input. Several algorithms have been proposed for this problem but they typically require huge amount (>20,000) of queries for attacking one example. Among them, one of the state-of-the-art approaches (Cheng et al., 2019) showed that hard-label attack can be modeled as an optimization problem where the objective function can be evaluated by binary search with additional model queries, thereby a zeroth order optimization algorithm can be applied. In this paper, we adopt the same optimization formulation but propose to directly estimate the sign of gradient at any direction instead of the gradient itself, which enjoys the benefit of single query.
Using this single query oracle for retrieving sign of directional derivative, we develop a novel query-efficient Sign-OPT approach for hard-label black-box attack. We provide a convergence analysis of the new algorithm and conduct experiments on several models on MNIST, CIFAR-10 and ImageNet.
We find that Sign-OPT attack consistently requires 5X to 10X fewer queries when compared to the current state-of-the-art approaches, and usually converges to an adversarial example with smaller perturbation.
Keyword: None

RaCT: Toward Amortized Ranking-Critical Training For Collaborative Filtering **
Author: Sam Lobel
, Chunyuan Li
, Jianfeng Gao, Lawrence Carin
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJxR7R4FvS
Code: https://github.com/samlobel/RaCT_CF
Abstract: We investigate new methods for training collaborative filtering models based on actor-critic reinforcement learning, to more directly maximize ranking-based objective functions. Specifically, we train a critic network to approximate ranking-based metrics, and then update the actor network to directly optimize against the learned metrics. In contrast to traditional learning-to-rank methods that require re-running the optimization procedure for new lists, our critic-based method amortizes the scoring process with a neural network, and can directly provide the (approximate) ranking scores for new lists.

  We demonstrate the actor-critic's ability to significantly improve the performance of a variety of prediction models, and achieve better or comparable performance to a variety of strong baselines on three large-scale datasets.

Keyword: Collaborative Filtering, Recommender Systems, Actor-Critic, Learned Metrics

Intrinsic Motivation for Encouraging Synergistic Behavior
Author: Rohan Chitnis, Shubham Tulsiani, Saurabh Gupta, Abhinav Gupta
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJleNCNtDH
Code: None
Abstract: We study the role of intrinsic motivation as an exploration bias for reinforcement learning in sparse-reward synergistic tasks, which are tasks where multiple agents must work together to achieve a goal they could not individually. Our key idea is that a good guiding principle for intrinsic motivation in synergistic tasks is to take actions which affect the world in ways that would not be achieved if the agents were acting on their own. Thus, we propose to incentivize agents to take (joint) actions whose effects cannot be predicted via a composition of the predicted effect for each individual agent. We study two instantiations of this idea, one based on the true states encountered, and another based on a dynamics model trained concurrently with the policy. While the former is simpler, the latter has the benefit of being analytically differentiable with respect to the action taken. We validate our approach in robotic bimanual manipulation and multi-agent locomotion tasks with sparse rewards; we find that our approach yields more efficient learning than both 1) training with only the sparse reward and 2) using the typical surprise-based formulation of intrinsic motivation, which does not bias toward synergistic behavior. Videos are available on the project webpage:
Keyword: reinforcement learning, intrinsic motivation, synergistic, robot manipulation

Chameleon: Adaptive Code Optimization for Expedited Deep Neural Network Compilation
Author: Byung Hoon Ahn, Prannoy Pilligundla, Amir Yazdanbakhsh, Hadi Esmaeilzadeh
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rygG4AVFvH
Code: None
Abstract: Achieving faster execution with shorter compilation time can foster further diversity and innovation in neural networks. However, the current paradigm of executing neural networks either relies on hand-optimized libraries, traditional compilation heuristics, or very recently genetic algorithms and other stochastic methods. These methods suffer from frequent costly hardware measurements rendering them not only too time consuming but also suboptimal. As such, we devise a solution that can learn to quickly adapt to a previously unseen design space for code optimization, both accelerating the search and improving the output performance. This solution dubbed Chameleon leverages reinforcement learning whose solution takes fewer steps to converge, and develops an adaptive sampling algorithm that not only focuses on the costly samples (real hardware measurements) on representative points but also uses a domain-knowledge inspired logic to improve the samples itself. Experimentation with real hardware shows that Chameleon provides 4.45x speed up in optimization time over AutoTVM, while also improving inference time of the modern deep networks by 5.6%.
Keyword: Compilers, Code Optimization, Neural Networks

Recurrent neural circuits for contour detection
Author: Drew Linsley*, Junkyung Kim*, Alekh Ashok, Thomas Serre
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=H1gB4RVKvB
Code: https://mega.nz/#F!DrA12KCT!4BC_rfjqN5pXBbCl9Ay1DA
Abstract: We introduce a deep recurrent neural network architecture that approximates visual cortical circuits (Mély et al., 2018). We show that this architecture, which we refer to as the 𝜸-net, learns to solve contour detection tasks with better sample efficiency than state-of-the-art feedforward networks, while also exhibiting a classic perceptual illusion, known as the orientation-tilt illusion. Correcting this illusion significantly reduces \gnetw contour detection accuracy by driving it to prefer low-level edges over high-level object boundary contours. Overall, our study suggests that the orientation-tilt illusion is a byproduct of neural circuits that help biological visual systems achieve robust and efficient contour detection, and that incorporating these circuits in artificial neural networks can improve computer vision.
Keyword: Contextual illusions, visual cortex, recurrent feedback, neural circuits

Locality and Compositionality in Zero-Shot Learning
Author: Tristan Sylvain, Linda Petrini, Devon Hjelm
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=Hye_V0NKwr
Code: None
Abstract: In this work we study locality and compositionality in the context of learning representations for Zero Shot Learning (ZSL).
In order to well-isolate the importance of these properties in learned representations, we impose the additional constraint that, differently from most recent work in ZSL, no pre-training on different datasets (e.g. ImageNet) is performed.
The results of our experiment show how locality, in terms of small parts of the input, and compositionality, i.e. how well can the learned representations be expressed as a function of a smaller vocabulary, are both deeply related to generalization and motivate the focus on more local-aware models in future research directions for representation learning.
Keyword: Zero-shot learning, Compositionality, Locality, Deep Learning

Understanding Knowledge Distillation in Non-autoregressive Machine Translation
Author: Chunting Zhou, Jiatao Gu, Graham Neubig
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BygFVAEKDH
Code: None
Abstract: Non-autoregressive machine translation (NAT) systems predict a sequence of output tokens in parallel, achieving substantial improvements in generation speed compared to autoregressive models. Existing NAT models usually rely on the technique of knowledge distillation, which creates the training data from a pretrained autoregressive model for better performance. Knowledge distillation is empirically useful, leading to large gains in accuracy for NAT models, but the reason for this success has, as of yet, been unclear. In this paper, we first design systematic experiments to investigate why knowledge distillation is crucial to NAT training. We find that knowledge distillation can reduce the complexity of data sets and help NAT to model the variations in the output data. Furthermore, a strong correlation is observed between the capacity of an NAT model and the optimal complexity of the distilled data for the best translation quality. Based on these findings, we further propose several approaches that can alter the complexity of data sets to improve the performance of NAT models. We achieve the state-of-the-art performance for the NAT-based models, and close the gap with the autoregressive baseline on WMT14 En-De benchmark.
Keyword: knowledge distillation, non-autoregressive neural machine translation

Thieves on Sesame Street! Model Extraction of BERT-based APIs
Author: Kalpesh Krishna, Gaurav Singh Tomar, Ankur P. Parikh, Nicolas Papernot, Mohit Iyyer
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=Byl5NREFDr
Code: https://github.com/google-research/language/tree/master/language/bert_extraction
Abstract: We study the problem of model extraction in natural language processing, in which an adversary with only query access to a victim model attempts to reconstruct a local copy of that model. Assuming that both the adversary and victim model fine-tune a large pretrained language model such as BERT (Devlin et al., 2019), we show that the adversary does not need any real training data to successfully mount the attack. In fact, the attacker need not even use grammatical or semantically meaningful queries: we show that random sequences of words coupled with task-specific heuristics form effective queries for model extraction on a diverse set of NLP tasks, including natural language inference and question answering. Our work thus highlights an exploit only made feasible by the shift towards transfer learning methods within the NLP community: for a query budget of a few hundred dollars, an attacker can extract a model that performs only slightly worse than the victim model. Finally, we study two defense strategies against model extraction—membership classification and API watermarking—which while successful against some adversaries can also be circumvented by more clever ones.
Keyword: model extraction, BERT, natural language processing, pretraining language models, model stealing, deep learning security

Fast is better than free: Revisiting adversarial training
Author: Eric Wong, Leslie Rice, J. Zico Kolter
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BJx040EFvH
Code: https://github.com/anonymous-sushi-armadillo
Abstract: Adversarial training, a method for learning robust deep networks, is typically assumed to be more expensive than traditional training due to the necessity of constructing adversarial examples via a first-order method like projected gradient decent (PGD). In this paper, we make the surprising discovery that it is possible to train empirically robust models using a much weaker and cheaper adversary, an approach that was previously believed to be ineffective, rendering the method no more costly than standard training in practice. Specifically, we show that adversarial training with the fast gradient sign method (FGSM), when combined with random initialization, is as effective as PGD-based training but has significantly lower cost. Furthermore we show that FGSM adversarial training can be further accelerated by using standard techniques for efficient training of deep networks, allowing us to learn a robust CIFAR10 classifier with 45% robust accuracy at epsilon=8/255 in 6 minutes, and a robust ImageNet classifier with 43% robust accuracy at epsilon=2/255 in 12 hours, in comparison to past work based on ``free’’ adversarial training which took 10 and 50 hours to reach the same respective thresholds.
Keyword: adversarial examples, adversarial training, fast gradient sign method

DBA: Distributed Backdoor Attacks against Federated Learning
Author: Chulin Xie, Keli Huang, Pin-Yu Chen, Bo Li
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rkgyS0VFvr
Code: None
Abstract: Backdoor attacks aim to manipulate a subset of training data by injecting adversarial triggers such that machine learning models trained on the tampered dataset will make arbitrarily (targeted) incorrect prediction on the testset with the same trigger embedded. While federated learning (FL) is capable of aggregating information provided by different parties for training a better model, its distributed learning methodology and inherently heterogeneous data distribution across parties may bring new vulnerabilities. In addition to recent centralized backdoor attacks on FL where each party embeds the same global trigger during training, we propose the distributed backdoor attack (DBA) — a novel threat assessment framework developed by fully exploiting the distributed nature of FL. DBA decomposes a global trigger pattern into separate local patterns and embed them into the training set of different adversarial parties respectively. Compared to standard centralized backdoors, we show that DBA is substantially more persistent and stealthy against FL on diverse datasets such as finance and image data. We conduct extensive experiments to show that the attack success rate of DBA is significantly higher than centralized backdoors under different settings. Moreover, we find that distributed attacks are indeed more insidious, as DBA can evade two state-of-the-art robust FL algorithms against centralized backdoors. We also provide explanations for the effectiveness of DBA via feature visual interpretation and feature importance ranking.
To further explore the properties of DBA, we test the attack performance by varying different trigger factors, including local trigger variations (size, gap, and location), scaling factor in FL, data distribution, and poison ratio and interval. Our proposed DBA and thorough evaluation results shed lights on characterizing the robustness of FL.
Keyword: distributed backdoor attack, federated learning

DeFINE: Deep Factorized Input Token Embeddings for Neural Sequence Modeling
Author: Sachin Mehta, Rik Koncel-Kedziorski, Mohammad Rastegari, Hannaneh Hajishirzi
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rJeXS04FPH
Code: None
Abstract: For sequence models with large vocabularies, a majority of network parameters lie in the input and output layers. In this work, we describe a new method, DeFINE, for learning deep token representations efficiently. Our architecture uses a hierarchical structure with novel skip-connections which allows for the use of low dimensional input and output layers, reducing total parameters and training time while delivering similar or better performance versus existing methods. DeFINE can be incorporated easily in new or existing sequence models. Compared to state-of-the-art methods including adaptive input representations, this technique results in a 6% to 20% drop in perplexity. On WikiText-103, DeFINE reduces the total parameters of Transformer-XL by half with minimal impact on performance. On the Penn Treebank, DeFINE improves AWD-LSTM by 4 points with a 17% reduction in parameters, achieving comparable performance to state-of-the-art methods with fewer parameters. For machine translation, DeFINE improves the efficiency of the Transformer model by about 1.4 times while delivering similar performance.
Keyword: sequence modeling, input representations, language modeling, word embedding

Sampling-Free Learning of Bayesian Quantized Neural Networks
Author: Jiahao Su, Milan Cvitkovic, Furong Huang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=rylVHR4FPB
Code: None
Abstract: Bayesian learning of model parameters in neural networks is important in scenarios where estimates with well-calibrated uncertainty are important. In this paper, we propose Bayesian quantized networks (BQNs), quantized neural networks (QNNs) for which we learn a posterior distribution over their discrete parameters. We provide a set of efficient algorithms for learning and prediction in BQNs without the need to sample from their parameters or activations, which not only allows for differentiable learning in quantized models but also reduces the variance in gradients estimation. We evaluate BQNs on MNIST, Fashion-MNIST and KMNIST classification datasets compared against bootstrap ensemble of QNNs (E-QNN). We demonstrate BQNs achieve both lower predictive errors and better-calibrated uncertainties than E-QNN (with less than 20% of the negative log-likelihood).
Keyword: Bayesian neural networks, Quantized neural networks

Learning to solve the credit assignment problem
Author: Benjamin James Lansdell, Prashanth Ravi Prakash, Konrad Paul Kording
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=ByeUBANtvB
Code: https://github.com/benlansdell/synthfeedback
Abstract: Backpropagation is driving today’s artificial neural networks (ANNs). However, despite extensive research, it remains unclear if the brain implements this algorithm. Among neuroscientists, reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms are often seen as a realistic alternative: neurons can randomly introduce change, and use unspecific feedback signals to observe their effect on the cost and thus approximate their gradient. However, the convergence rate of such learning scales poorly with the number of involved neurons. Here we propose a hybrid learning approach. Each neuron uses an RL-type strategy to learn how to approximate the gradients that backpropagation would provide. We provide proof that our approach converges to the true gradient for certain classes of networks. In both feedforward and convolutional networks, we empirically show that our approach learns to approximate the gradient, and can match the performance of gradient-based learning. Learning feedback weights provides a biologically plausible mechanism of achieving good performance, without the need for precise, pre-specified learning rules.
Keyword: biologically plausible deep learning, node perturbation, REINFORCE, synthetic gradients, feedback alignment

Four Things Everyone Should Know to Improve Batch Normalization
Author: Cecilia Summers, Michael J. Dinneen
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJx8HANFDH
Code: https://github.com/ceciliaresearch/four_things_batch_norm
Abstract: A key component of most neural network architectures is the use of normalization layers, such as Batch Normalization. Despite its common use and large utility in optimizing deep architectures, it has been challenging both to generically improve upon Batch Normalization and to understand the circumstances that lend themselves to other enhancements. In this paper, we identify four improvements to the generic form of Batch Normalization and the circumstances under which they work, yielding performance gains across all batch sizes while requiring no additional computation during training. These contributions include proposing a method for reasoning about the current example in inference normalization statistics, fixing a training vs. inference discrepancy; recognizing and validating the powerful regularization effect of Ghost Batch Normalization for small and medium batch sizes; examining the effect of weight decay regularization on the scaling and shifting parameters γ and β; and identifying a new normalization algorithm for very small batch sizes by combining the strengths of Batch and Group Normalization. We validate our results empirically on six datasets: CIFAR-100, SVHN, Caltech-256, Oxford Flowers-102, CUB-2011, and ImageNet.
Keyword: batch normalization

Pseudo-LiDAR++: Accurate Depth for 3D Object Detection in Autonomous Driving
Author: Yurong You, Yan Wang, Wei-Lun Chao, Divyansh Garg, Geoff Pleiss, Bharath Hariharan, Mark Campbell, Kilian Q. Weinberger
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BJedHRVtPB
Code: https://github.com/mileyan/Pseudo_Lidar_V2
Abstract: Detecting objects such as cars and pedestrians in 3D plays an indispensable role in autonomous driving. Existing approaches largely rely on expensive LiDAR sensors for accurate depth information. While recently pseudo-LiDAR has been introduced as a promising alternative, at a much lower cost based solely on stereo images, there is still a notable performance gap.
In this paper we provide substantial advances to the pseudo-LiDAR framework through improvements in stereo depth estimation. Concretely, we adapt the stereo network architecture and loss function to be more aligned with accurate depth estimation of faraway objects — currently the primary weakness of pseudo-LiDAR. Further, we explore the idea to leverage cheaper but extremely sparse LiDAR sensors, which alone provide insufficient information for 3D detection, to de-bias our depth estimation. We propose a depth-propagation algorithm, guided by the initial depth estimates, to diffuse these few exact measurements across the entire depth map. We show on the KITTI object detection benchmark that our combined approach yields substantial improvements in depth estimation and stereo-based 3D object detection — outperforming the previous state-of-the-art detection accuracy for faraway objects by 40%. Our code is available at
Keyword: pseudo-LiDAR, 3D-object detection, stereo depth estimation, autonomous driving

SlowMo: Improving Communication-Efficient Distributed SGD with Slow Momentum
Author: Jianyu Wang, Vinayak Tantia, Nicolas Ballas, Michael Rabbat
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SkxJ8REYPH
Code: None
Abstract: Distributed optimization is essential for training large models on large datasets. Multiple approaches have been proposed to reduce the communication overhead in distributed training, such as synchronizing only after performing multiple local SGD steps, and decentralized methods (e.g., using gossip algorithms) to decouple communications among workers. Although these methods run faster than AllReduce-based methods, which use blocking communication before every update, the resulting models may be less accurate after the same number of updates. Inspired by the BMUF method of Chen & Huo (2016), we propose a slow momentum (SlowMo) framework, where workers periodically synchronize and perform a momentum update, after multiple iterations of a base optimization algorithm. Experiments on image classification and machine translation tasks demonstrate that SlowMo consistently yields improvements in optimization and generalization performance relative to the base optimizer, even when the additional overhead is amortized over many updates so that the SlowMo runtime is on par with that of the base optimizer. We provide theoretical convergence guarantees showing that SlowMo converges to a stationary point of smooth non-convex losses. Since BMUF can be expressed through the SlowMo framework, our results also correspond to the first theoretical convergence guarantees for BMUF.
Keyword: distributed optimization, decentralized training methods, communication-efficient distributed training with momentum, large-scale parallel SGD

MetaPix: Few-Shot Video Retargeting
Author: Jessica Lee, Deva Ramanan, Rohit Girdhar
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJx1URNKwH
Code: None
Abstract: We address the task of unsupervised retargeting of human actions from one video to another. We consider the challenging setting where only a few frames of the target is available. The core of our approach is a conditional generative model that can transcode input skeletal poses (automatically extracted with an off-the-shelf pose estimator) to output target frames. However, it is challenging to build a universal transcoder because humans can appear wildly different due to clothing and background scene geometry. Instead, we learn to adapt – or personalize – a universal generator to the particular human and background in the target. To do so, we make use of meta-learning to discover effective strategies for on-the-fly personalization. One significant benefit of meta-learning is that the personalized transcoder naturally enforces temporal coherence across its generated frames; all frames contain consistent clothing and background geometry of the target. We experiment on in-the-wild internet videos and images and show our approach improves over widely-used baselines for the task.

Keyword: Meta-learning, Few-shot Learning, Generative Adversarial Networks, Video Retargeting

Learning to Learn by Zeroth-Order Oracle
Author: Yangjun Ruan, Yuanhao Xiong, Sashank Reddi, Sanjiv Kumar, Cho-Jui Hsieh
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=ryxz8CVYDH
Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/68ydaqiqbfomtnm/ZO-L2L.zip?dl=0
Abstract: In the learning to learn (L2L) framework, we cast the design of optimization algorithms as a machine learning problem and use deep neural networks to learn the update rules. In this paper, we extend the L2L framework to zeroth-order (ZO) optimization setting, where no explicit gradient information is available. Our learned optimizer, modeled as recurrent neural network (RNN), first approximates gradient by ZO gradient estimator and then produces parameter update utilizing the knowledge of previous iterations. To reduce high variance effect due to ZO gradient estimator, we further introduce another RNN to learn the Gaussian sampling rule and dynamically guide the query direction sampling. Our learned optimizer outperforms hand-designed algorithms in terms of convergence rate and final solution on both synthetic and practical ZO optimization tasks (in particular, the black-box adversarial attack task, which is one of the most widely used tasks of ZO optimization). We finally conduct extensive analytical experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed optimizer.
Keyword: learning to learn, zeroth-order optimization, black-box adversarial attack

DD-PPO: Learning Near-Perfect PointGoal Navigators from 2.5 Billion Frames
Author: Erik Wijmans, Abhishek Kadian, Ari Morcos, Stefan Lee, Irfan Essa, Devi Parikh, Manolis Savva, Dhruv Batra
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=H1gX8C4YPr
Code: https://github.com/facebookresearch/habitat-api
Abstract: We present Decentralized Distributed Proximal Policy Optimization (DD-PPO), a method for distributed reinforcement learning in resource-intensive simulated environments. DD-PPO is distributed (uses multiple machines), decentralized (lacks a centralized server), and synchronous (no computation is ever “stale”), making it conceptually simple and easy to implement. In our experiments on training virtual robots to navigate in Habitat-Sim, DD-PPO exhibits near-linear scaling – achieving a speedup of 107x on 128 GPUs over a serial implementation. We leverage this scaling to train an agent for 2.5 Billion steps of experience (the equivalent of 80 years of human experience) – over 6 months of GPU-time training in under 3 days of wall-clock time with 64 GPUs.

  This massive-scale training not only sets the state of art on Habitat Autonomous Navigation Challenge 2019, but essentially "solves" the task -- near-perfect autonomous navigation in an unseen environment without access to a map, directly from an RGB-D camera and a GPS+Compass sensor.  Fortuitously, error vs computation exhibits a power-law-like distribution; thus, 90% of peak performance is obtained relatively early (at 100 million steps) and relatively cheaply (under 1 day with 8 GPUs). Finally, we show that the scene understanding and navigation policies learned can be transferred to other navigation tasks -- the analog of "ImageNet pre-training + task-specific fine-tuning" for embodied AI. Our model outperforms ImageNet pre-trained CNNs on these transfer tasks and can serve as a universal resource (all models and code are publicly available). 

Keyword: autonomous navigation, habitat, embodied AI, pointgoal navigation, reinforcement learning

PAC Confidence Sets for Deep Neural Networks via Calibrated Prediction
Author: Sangdon Park, Osbert Bastani, Nikolai Matni, Insup Lee
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BJxVI04YvB
Code: https://github.com/sangdon/PAC-confidence-set
Abstract: We propose an algorithm combining calibrated prediction and generalization bounds from learning theory to construct confidence sets for deep neural networks with PAC guarantees—i.e., the confidence set for a given input contains the true label with high probability. We demonstrate how our approach can be used to construct PAC confidence sets on ResNet for ImageNet, a visual object tracking model, and a dynamics model for the half-cheetah reinforcement learning problem.
Keyword: PAC, confidence sets, classification, regression, reinforcement learning

Precision Gating: Improving Neural Network Efficiency with Dynamic Dual-Precision Activations
Author: Yichi Zhang, Ritchie Zhao, Weizhe Hua, Nayun Xu, G. Edward Suh, Zhiru Zhang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJgVU0EKwS
Code: https://github.com/PrecisionGating/Precision_Gating
Abstract: We propose precision gating (PG), an end-to-end trainable dynamic dual-precision quantization technique for deep neural networks. PG computes most features in a low precision and only a small proportion of important features in a higher precision to preserve accuracy. The proposed approach is applicable to a variety of DNN architectures and significantly reduces the computational cost of DNN execution with almost no accuracy loss. Our experiments indicate that PG achieves excellent results on CNNs, including statically compressed mobile-friendly networks such as ShuffleNet. Compared to the state-of-the-art prediction-based quantization schemes, PG achieves the same or higher accuracy with 2.4× less compute on ImageNet. PG furthermore applies to RNNs. Compared to 8-bit uniform quantization, PG obtains a 1.2% improvement in perplexity per word with 2.7× computational cost reduction on LSTM on the Penn Tree Bank dataset.
Keyword: deep learning, neural network, dynamic quantization, dual precision, efficient gating

Locally Constant Networks
Author: Guang-He Lee, Tommi S. Jaakkola
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=Bke8UR4FPB
Code: https://github.com/guanghelee/iclr20-lcn
Abstract: We show how neural models can be used to realize piece-wise constant functions such as decision trees. Our approach builds on ReLU networks that are piece-wise linear and hence their associated gradients with respect to the inputs are locally constant. We formally establish the equivalence between the classes of locally constant networks and decision trees. Moreover, we highlight several advantageous properties of locally constant networks, including how they realize decision trees with parameter sharing across branching / leaves. Indeed, only M M M neurons suffice to implicitly model an oblique decision tree with 2 M 2^M 2M leaf nodes. The neural representation also enables us to adopt many tools developed for deep networks (e.g., DropConnect (Wan et al., 2013)) while implicitly training decision trees. We demonstrate that our method outperforms alternative techniques for training oblique decision trees in the context of molecular property classification and regression tasks.
Keyword: None

Span Recovery for Deep Neural Networks with Applications to Input Obfuscation
Author: Rajesh Jayaram, David P. Woodruff, Qiuyi Zhang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=B1guLAVFDB
Code: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1-vPO5g52w8oON4neivTTmrL53Lnj4bdR
Abstract: The tremendous success of deep neural networks has motivated the need to better understand the fundamental properties of these networks, but many of the theoretical results proposed have only been for shallow networks. In this paper, we study an important primitive for understanding the meaningful input space of a deep network: span recovery. For k < n k<n k<n, let A ∈ R k × n \mathbf{A} \in \mathbb{R}^{k \times n} ARk×n be the innermost weight matrix of an arbitrary feed forward neural network M : R n → R M: \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R} M:RnR, so M ( x ) M(x) M(x) can be written as M ( x ) = σ ( A x ) M(x) = \sigma(\mathbf{A} x) M(x)=σ(Ax), for some network σ : R k → R \sigma: \mathbb{R}^k \to \mathbb{R} σ:RkR. The goal is then to recover the row span of A \mathbf{A} A given only oracle access to the value of M ( x ) M(x) M(x). We show that if M M M is a multi-layered network with ReLU activation functions, then partial recovery is possible: namely, we can provably recover k / 2 k/2 k/2 linearly independent vectors in the row span of A \mathbf{A} A using poly ( n ) (n) (n) non-adaptive queries to M ( x ) M(x) M(x). Furthermore, if M M M has differentiable activation functions, we demonstrate that \textit{full} span recovery is possible even when the output is first passed through a sign or 0 / 1 0/1 0/1 thresholding function; in this case our algorithm is adaptive. Empirically, we confirm that full span recovery is not always possible, but only for unrealistically thin layers. For reasonably wide networks, we obtain full span recovery on both random networks and networks trained on MNIST data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of span recovery as an attack by inducing neural networks to misclassify data obfuscated by controlled random noise as sensical inputs.

Keyword: Span recovery, low rank neural networks, adversarial attack

Improving Neural Language Generation with Spectrum Control
Author: Lingxiao Wang, Jing Huang, Kevin Huang, Ziniu Hu, Guangtao Wang, Quanquan Gu
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=ByxY8CNtvr
Code: None
Abstract: Recent Transformer-based models such as Transformer-XL and BERT have achieved huge success on various natural language processing tasks. However, contextualized embeddings at the output layer of these powerful models tend to degenerate and occupy an anisotropic cone in the vector space, which is called the representation degeneration problem. In this paper, we propose a novel spectrum control approach to address this degeneration problem. The core idea of our method is to directly guide the spectra training of the output embedding matrix with a slow-decaying singular value prior distribution through a reparameterization framework. We show that our proposed method encourages isotropy of the learned word representations while maintains the modeling power of these contextual neural models. We further provide a theoretical analysis and insight on the benefit of modeling singular value distribution. We demonstrate that our spectrum control method outperforms the state-of-the-art Transformer-XL modeling for language model, and various Transformer-based models for machine translation, on common benchmark datasets for these tasks.
Keyword: None

Learn to Explain Efficiently via Neural Logic Inductive Learning
Author: Yuan Yang, Le Song
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SJlh8CEYDB
Code: https://github.com/gblackout/NLIL
Abstract: The capability of making interpretable and self-explanatory decisions is essential for developing responsible machine learning systems. In this work, we study the learning to explain the problem in the scope of inductive logic programming (ILP). We propose Neural Logic Inductive Learning (NLIL), an efficient differentiable ILP framework that learns first-order logic rules that can explain the patterns in the data. In experiments, compared with the state-of-the-art models, we find NLIL is able to search for rules that are x10 times longer while remaining x3 times faster. We also show that NLIL can scale to large image datasets, i.e. Visual Genome, with 1M entities.
Keyword: inductive logic programming, interpretability, attention

Improved memory in recurrent neural networks with sequential non-normal dynamics
Author: Emin Orhan, Xaq Pitkow
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=ryx1wRNFvB
Code: https://github.com/eminorhan/nonnormal-init
Abstract: Training recurrent neural networks (RNNs) is a hard problem due to degeneracies in the optimization landscape, a problem also known as vanishing/exploding gradients. Short of designing new RNN architectures, previous methods for dealing with this problem usually boil down to orthogonalization of the recurrent dynamics, either at initialization or during the entire training period. The basic motivation behind these methods is that orthogonal transformations are isometries of the Euclidean space, hence they preserve (Euclidean) norms and effectively deal with vanishing/exploding gradients. However, this ignores the crucial effects of non-linearity and noise. In the presence of a non-linearity, orthogonal transformations no longer preserve norms, suggesting that alternative transformations might be better suited to non-linear networks. Moreover, in the presence of noise, norm preservation itself ceases to be the ideal objective. A more sensible objective is maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the propagated signal instead. Previous work has shown that in the linear case, recurrent networks that maximize the SNR display strongly non-normal, sequential dynamics and orthogonal networks are highly suboptimal by this measure. Motivated by this finding, here we investigate the potential of non-normal RNNs, i.e. RNNs with a non-normal recurrent connectivity matrix, in sequential processing tasks. Our experimental results show that non-normal RNNs outperform their orthogonal counterparts in a diverse range of benchmarks. We also find evidence for increased non-normality and hidden chain-like feedforward motifs in trained RNNs initialized with orthogonal recurrent connectivity matrices.
Keyword: recurrent neural networks, memory, non-normal dynamics

Neural Module Networks for Reasoning over Text
Author: Nitish Gupta, Kevin Lin, Dan Roth, Sameer Singh, Matt Gardner
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SygWvAVFPr
Code: https://nitishgupta.github.io/nmn-drop/
Abstract: Answering compositional questions that require multiple steps of reasoning against text is challenging, especially when they involve discrete, symbolic operations. Neural module networks (NMNs) learn to parse such questions as executable programs composed of learnable modules, performing well on synthetic visual QA domains. However, we find that it is challenging to learn these models for non-synthetic questions on open-domain text, where a model needs to deal with the diversity of natural language and perform a broader range of reasoning. We extend NMNs by: (a) introducing modules that reason over a paragraph of text, performing symbolic reasoning (such as arithmetic, sorting, counting) over numbers and dates in a probabilistic and differentiable manner; and (b) proposing an unsupervised auxiliary loss to help extract arguments associated with the events in text. Additionally, we show that a limited amount of heuristically-obtained question program and intermediate module output supervision provides sufficient inductive bias for accurate learning. Our proposed model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art models on a subset of the DROP dataset that poses a variety of reasoning challenges that are covered by our modules.
Keyword: question answering, compositionality, neural module networks, multi-step reasoning, reading comprehension

Higher-Order Function Networks for Learning Composable 3D Object Representations
Author: Eric Mitchell, Selim Engin, Volkan Isler, Daniel D Lee
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJgfDREKDB
Code: None
Abstract: We present a new approach to 3D object representation where a neural network encodes the geometry of an object directly into the weights and biases of a second ‘mapping’ network. This mapping network can be used to reconstruct an object by applying its encoded transformation to points randomly sampled from a simple geometric space, such as the unit sphere. We study the effectiveness of our method through various experiments on subsets of the ShapeNet dataset. We find that the proposed approach can reconstruct encoded objects with accuracy equal to or exceeding state-of-the-art methods with orders of magnitude fewer parameters. Our smallest mapping network has only about 7000 parameters and shows reconstruction quality on par with state-of-the-art object decoder architectures with millions of parameters. Further experiments on feature mixing through the composition of learned functions show that the encoding captures a meaningful subspace of objects.
Keyword: computer vision, 3d reconstruction, deep learning, representation learning

Variational Hetero-Encoder Randomized GANs for Joint Image-Text Modeling
Author: Hao Zhang, Bo Chen, Long Tian, Zhengjue Wang, Mingyuan Zhou
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=H1x5wRVtvS
Code: https://github.com/BoChenGroup/VHE-GAN
Abstract: For bidirectional joint image-text modeling, we develop variational hetero-encoder (VHE) randomized generative adversarial network (GAN), a versatile deep generative model that integrates a probabilistic text decoder, probabilistic image encoder, and GAN into a coherent end-to-end multi-modality learning framework. VHE randomized GAN (VHE-GAN) encodes an image to decode its associated text, and feeds the variational posterior as the source of randomness into the GAN image generator. We plug three off-the-shelf modules, including a deep topic model, a ladder-structured image encoder, and StackGAN++, into VHE-GAN, which already achieves competitive performance. This further motivates the development of VHE-raster-scan-GAN that generates photo-realistic images in not only a multi-scale low-to-high-resolution manner, but also a hierarchical-semantic coarse-to-fine fashion. By capturing and relating hierarchical semantic and visual concepts with end-to-end training, VHE-raster-scan-GAN achieves state-of-the-art performance in a wide variety of image-text multi-modality learning and generation tasks.
Keyword: Deep topic model, image generation, text generation, raster-scan-GAN, zero-shot learning

Towards Fast Adaptation of Neural Architectures with Meta Learning
Author: Dongze Lian, Yin Zheng, Yintao Xu, Yanxiong Lu, Leyu Lin, Peilin Zhao, Junzhou Huang, Shenghua Gao
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=r1eowANFvr
Code: None
Abstract: Recently, Neural Architecture Search (NAS) has been successfully applied to multiple artificial intelligence areas and shows better performance compared with hand-designed networks. However, the existing NAS methods only target a specific task. Most of them usually do well in searching an architecture for single task but are troublesome for multiple datasets or multiple tasks. Generally, the architecture for a new task is either searched from scratch, which is neither efficient nor flexible enough for practical application scenarios, or borrowed from the ones searched on other tasks, which might be not optimal. In order to tackle the transferability of NAS and conduct fast adaptation of neural architectures, we propose a novel Transferable Neural Architecture Search method based on meta-learning in this paper, which is termed as T-NAS. T-NAS learns a meta-architecture that is able to adapt to a new task quickly through a few gradient steps, which makes the transferred architecture suitable for the specific task. Extensive experiments show that T-NAS achieves state-of-the-art performance in few-shot learning and comparable performance in supervised learning but with 50x less searching cost, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method.
Keyword: Fast adaptation, Meta learning, NAS

Graph Constrained Reinforcement Learning for Natural Language Action Spaces
Author: Prithviraj Ammanabrolu, Matthew Hausknecht
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=B1x6w0EtwH
Code: https://github.com/rajammanabrolu/KG-A2C
Abstract: Interactive Fiction games are text-based simulations in which an agent interacts with the world purely through natural language. They are ideal environments for studying how to extend reinforcement learning agents to meet the challenges of natural language understanding, partial observability, and action generation in combinatorially-large text-based action spaces. We present KG-A2C, an agent that builds a dynamic knowledge graph while exploring and generates actions using a template-based action space. We contend that the dual uses of the knowledge graph to reason about game state and to constrain natural language generation are the keys to scalable exploration of combinatorially large natural language actions. Results across a wide variety of IF games show that KG-A2C outperforms current IF agents despite the exponential increase in action space size.
Keyword: natural language generation, deep reinforcement learning, knowledge graphs, interactive fiction

Prediction, Consistency, Curvature: Representation Learning for Locally-Linear Control
Author: Nir Levine, Yinlam Chow, Rui Shu, Ang Li, Mohammad Ghavamzadeh, Hung Bui
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BJxG_0EtDS
Code: None
Abstract: Many real-world sequential decision-making problems can be formulated as optimal control with high-dimensional observations and unknown dynamics. A promising approach is to embed the high-dimensional observations into a lower-dimensional latent representation space, estimate the latent dynamics model, then utilize this model for control in the latent space. An important open question is how to learn a representation that is amenable to existing control algorithms? In this paper, we focus on learning representations for locally-linear control algorithms, such as iterative LQR (iLQR). By formulating and analyzing the representation learning problem from an optimal control perspective, we establish three underlying principles that the learned representation should comprise: 1) accurate prediction in the observation space, 2) consistency between latent and observation space dynamics, and 3) low curvature in the latent space transitions. These principles naturally correspond to a loss function that consists of three terms: prediction, consistency, and curvature (PCC). Crucially, to make PCC tractable, we derive an amortized variational bound for the PCC loss function. Extensive experiments on benchmark domains demonstrate that the new variational-PCC learning algorithm benefits from significantly more stable and reproducible training, and leads to superior control performance. Further ablation studies give support to the importance of all three PCC components for learning a good latent space for control.
Keyword: Embed-to-Control, Representation Learning, Stochastic Optimal Control, VAE, iLQR

Augmenting Non-Collaborative Dialog Systems with Explicit Semantic and Strategic Dialog History
Author: Yiheng Zhou, Yulia Tsvetkov, Alan W Black, Zhou Yu
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=ryxQuANKPB
Code: None
Abstract: We study non-collaborative dialogs, where two agents have a conflict of interest but must strategically communicate to reach an agreement (e.g., negotiation). This setting poses new challenges for modeling dialog history because the dialog’s outcome relies not only on the semantic intent, but also on tactics that convey the intent. We propose to model both semantic and tactic history using finite state transducers (FSTs). Unlike RNN, FSTs can explicitly represent dialog history through all the states traversed, facilitating interpretability of dialog structure. We train FSTs on a set of strategies and tactics used in negotiation dialogs. The trained FSTs show plausible tactic structure and can be generalized to other non-collaborative domains (e.g., persuasion). We evaluate the FSTs by incorporating them in an automated negotiating system that attempts to sell products and a persuasion system that persuades people to donate to a charity. Experiments show that explicitly modeling both semantic and tactic history is an effective way to improve both dialog policy planning and generation performance.
Keyword: dialog systems, history tracking

BERTScore: Evaluating Text Generation with BERT
Author: Tianyi Zhang*, Varsha Kishore*, Felix Wu*, Kilian Q. Weinberger, Yoav Artzi
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SkeHuCVFDr
Code: https://github.com/Tiiiger/bert_score
Abstract: We propose BERTScore, an automatic evaluation metric for text generation. Analogously to common metrics, BERTScore computes a similarity score for each token in the candidate sentence with each token in the reference sentence. However, instead of exact matches, we compute token similarity using contextual embeddings. We evaluate using the outputs of 363 machine translation and image captioning systems. BERTScore correlates better with human judgments and provides stronger model selection performance than existing metrics. Finally, we use an adversarial paraphrase detection task and show that BERTScore is more robust to challenging examples compared to existing metrics.
Keyword: Metric, Evaluation, Contextual Embedding, Text Generation

Neural Execution of Graph Algorithms
Author: Petar Veličković, Rex Ying, Matilde Padovano, Raia Hadsell, Charles Blundell
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=SkgKO0EtvS
Code: None
Abstract: Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are a powerful representational tool for solving problems on graph-structured inputs. In almost all cases so far, however, they have been applied to directly recovering a final solution from raw inputs, without explicit guidance on how to structure their problem-solving. Here, instead, we focus on learning in the space of algorithms: we train several state-of-the-art GNN architectures to imitate individual steps of classical graph algorithms, parallel (breadth-first search, Bellman-Ford) as well as sequential (Prim’s algorithm). As graph algorithms usually rely on making discrete decisions within neighbourhoods, we hypothesise that maximisation-based message passing neural networks are best-suited for such objectives, and validate this claim empirically. We also demonstrate how learning in the space of algorithms can yield new opportunities for positive transfer between tasks—showing how learning a shortest-path algorithm can be substantially improved when simultaneously learning a reachability algorithm.
Keyword: Graph Neural Networks, Graph Algorithms, Learning to Execute, Program Synthesis, Message Passing Neural Networks, Deep Learning

On the Need for Topology-Aware Generative Models for Manifold-Based Defenses
Author: Uyeong Jang, Susmit Jha, Somesh Jha
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=r1lF_CEYwS
Code: None
Abstract: ML algorithms or models, especially deep neural networks (DNNs), have shown significant promise in several areas. However, recently researchers have demonstrated that ML algorithms, especially DNNs, are vulnerable to adversarial examples (slightly perturbed samples that cause mis-classification). Existence of adversarial examples has hindered deployment of ML algorithms in safety-critical sectors, such as security. Several defenses for adversarial examples exist in the literature. One of the important classes of defenses are manifold-based defenses, where a sample is “pulled back” into the data manifold before classifying. These defenses rely on the manifold assumption (data lie in a manifold of lower dimension than the input space). These defenses use a generative model to approximate the input distribution. This paper asks the following question: do the generative models used in manifold-based defenses need to be topology-aware? Our paper suggests the answer is yes. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence to support our claim.
Keyword: Manifold-based Defense, Robust Learning, Adversarial Attacks

FSNet: Compression of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks by Filter Summary
Author: Yingzhen Yang, Jiahui Yu, Nebojsa Jojic, Jun Huan, Thomas S. Huang
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=S1xtORNFwH
Code: None
Abstract: We present a novel method of compression of deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) by weight sharing through a new representation of convolutional filters. The proposed method reduces the number of parameters of each convolutional layer by learning a 1 1 1D vector termed Filter Summary (FS). The convolutional filters are located in FS as overlapping 1 1 1D segments, and nearby filters in FS share weights in their overlapping regions in a natural way. The resultant neural network based on such weight sharing scheme, termed Filter Summary CNNs or FSNet, has a FS in each convolution layer instead of a set of independent filters in the conventional convolution layer. FSNet has the same architecture as that of the baseline CNN to be compressed, and each convolution layer of FSNet has the same number of filters from FS as that of the basline CNN in the forward process. With compelling computational acceleration ratio, the parameter space of FSNet is much smaller than that of the baseline CNN. In addition, FSNet is quantization friendly. FSNet with weight quantization leads to even higher compression ratio without noticeable performance loss. We further propose Differentiable FSNet where the way filters share weights is learned in a differentiable and end-to-end manner. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of FSNet in compression of CNNs for computer vision tasks including image classification and object detection, and the effectiveness of DFSNet is evidenced by the task of Neural Architecture Search.
Keyword: Compression of Convolutional Neural Networks, Filter Summary CNNs, Weight Sharing

Capsules with Inverted Dot-Product Attention Routing
Author: Yao-Hung Hubert Tsai, Nitish Srivastava, Hanlin Goh, Ruslan Salakhutdinov
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=HJe6uANtwH
Code: https://github.com/apple/ml-capsules-inverted-attention-routing
Abstract: We introduce a new routing algorithm for capsule networks, in which a child capsule is routed to a parent based only on agreement between the parent’s state and the child’s vote.
The new mechanism 1) designs routing via inverted dot-product attention; 2) imposes Layer Normalization as normalization; and 3) replaces sequential iterative routing with concurrent iterative routing.
When compared to previously proposed routing algorithms, our method improves performance on benchmark datasets such as CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100, and it performs at-par with a powerful CNN (ResNet-18) with 4x fewer parameters.
On a different task of recognizing digits from overlayed digit images, the proposed capsule model performs favorably against CNNs given the same number of layers and neurons per layer. We believe that our work raises the possibility of applying capsule networks to complex real-world tasks.
Keyword: capsule networks, routing, attention

Composition-based Multi-Relational Graph Convolutional Networks
Author: Shikhar Vashishth, Soumya Sanyal, Vikram Nitin, Partha Talukdar
link: https://openreview.net/pdf?id=BylA_C4tPr
Code: https://github.com/malllabiisc/CompGCN
Abstract: Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) have recently been shown to be quite successful in modeling graph-structured data. However, the primary focus has been on handling simple undirected graphs. Multi-relational graphs are a more general and prevalent form of graphs where each edge has a label and direction associated with it. Most of the existing approaches to handle such graphs suffer from over-parameterization and are restricted to learning representations of nodes only. In this paper, we propose CompGCN, a novel Graph Convolutional framework which jointly embeds both nodes and relations in a relational graph. CompGCN leverages a variety of entity-relation composition operations from Knowledge Graph Embedding techniques and scales with the number of relations. It also generalizes several of the existing multi-relational GCN methods. We evaluate our proposed method on multiple tasks such as node classification, link prediction, and graph classification, and achieve demonstrably superior results. We make the source code of CompGCN available to foster reproducible research.
Keyword: Graph Convolutional Networks, Multi-relational Graphs, Knowledge Graph Embeddings, Link Prediction

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