cs231n作业:Assignment2-Convolutional Networks

def conv_forward_naive(x, w, b, conv_param):
    """
    A naive implementation of the forward pass for a convolutional layer.

    The input consists of N data points, each with C channels, height H and
    width W. We convolve each input with F different filters, where each filter
    spans all C channels and has height HH and width WW.

    Input:
    - x: Input data of shape (N, C, H, W)
    - w: Filter weights of shape (F, C, HH, WW)
    - b: Biases, of shape (F,)
    - conv_param: A dictionary with the following keys:
      - 'stride': The number of pixels between adjacent receptive fields in the
        horizontal and vertical directions.
      - 'pad': The number of pixels that will be used to zero-pad the input. 
        

    During padding, 'pad' zeros should be placed symmetrically (i.e equally on both sides)
    along the height and width axes of the input. Be careful not to modfiy the original
    input x directly.

    Returns a tuple of:
    - out: Output data, of shape (N, F, H', W') where H' and W' are given by
      H' = 1 + (H + 2 * pad - HH) / stride
      W' = 1 + (W + 2 * pad - WW) / stride
    - cache: (x, w, b, conv_param)
    """
    out = None
    ###########################################################################
    # TODO: Implement the convolutional forward pass.                         #
    # Hint: you can use the function np.pad for padding.                      #
    ###########################################################################
    XN, XC, XH, XW = x.shape
    WF, WC, WH, WW = w.shape
    F = WF
    stride, pad = conv_param['stride'], conv_param['pad']

    if pad>0:
        data = np.zeros((XN,XC,XH+2*pad,XW+2*pad))
        data[:,:,pad:pad+XH,pad:pad+XW] = x
    else:
        data = x
    XN, XC, XH, XW = data.shape
    SH, SW = 1 + (XH - WH) // stride, 1 + (XW - WW) // stride
    out = np.zeros((XN,F,SH,SW))
    for IH in range(0,SH):
        for IW in range(0,SW):
            for IF in range(0,F):
                for IN in range(0,XN):
                    out[IN,IF,IH,IW] = np.sum(data[IN,:,IH*stride:IH*stride+WH,IW*stride:IW*stride+WW]*w[IF,:,:,:])+b[IF]
    pass
    ###########################################################################
    #                             END OF YOUR CODE                            #
    ###########################################################################
    cache = (x, w, b, conv_param)
    # print(out)
    return out, cache


def conv_backward_naive(dout, cache):
    """
    A naive implementation of the backward pass for a convolutional layer.

    Inputs:
    - dout: Upstream derivatives.
    - cache: A tuple of (x, w, b, conv_param) as in conv_forward_naive

    Returns a tuple of:
    - dx: Gradient with respect to x
    - dw: Gradient with respect to w
    - db: Gradient with respect to b
    """
    dx, dw, db = None, None, None
    ###########################################################################
    # TODO: Implement the convolutional backward pass.                        #
    ###########################################################################
    x, w, b, conv_param = cache
    XN, XC, XH, XW = x.shape
    WF, WC, WH, WW = w.shape
    OH, OW = XH, XW
    pad, stride = conv_param['pad'], conv_param['stride']
    if pad>0:
        data = np.zeros((XN,XC,XH+2*pad,XW+2*pad))
        data[:,:,pad:pad+XH,pad:pad+XW] = x
        XN, XC, XH, XW = data.shape
        pass
    else:
        data = x
        pass
    SH, SW = 1+(XH-WH)//stride,1+(XW-WW)//stride
    dx = np.zeros(data.shape)
    for IN in range(0,XN):
        for IF in range(0,WF):
            for IH in range(0,SH):
                for IW in range(0,SW):
                    dx[IN,:,IH*stride:IH*stride+WH,IW*stride:IW*stride+WW] += \
                    w[IF,:,:,:]*dout[IN,IF,IH,IW]
    dx = dx[:,:,pad:pad+OH,pad:pad+OW]

    dw = np.zeros(w.shape)
    db = np.zeros(b.shape)
    for IF in range(0,WF):
        for IH in range(0,SH):
            for IW in range(0,SW):
                dw[IF,:,:,:] += \
                np.sum(data[:,:,IH*stride:IH*stride+WH,IW*stride:IW*stride+WW]*dout[:,IF,IH,IW].reshape((XN,1,1,1)) ,axis=0)
                db[IF] += np.sum(dout[:,IF,IH,IW],axis=0)

    pass
    ###########################################################################
    #                             END OF YOUR CODE                            #
    ###########################################################################
    return dx, dw, db


def max_pool_forward_naive(x, pool_param):
    """
    A naive implementation of the forward pass for a max-pooling layer.

    Inputs:
    - x: Input data, of shape (N, C, H, W)
    - pool_param: dictionary with the following keys:
      - 'pool_height': The height of each pooling region
      - 'pool_width': The width of each pooling region
      - 'stride': The distance between adjacent pooling regions

    No padding is necessary here. Output size is given by 

    Returns a tuple of:
    - out: Output data, of shape (N, C, H', W') where H' and W' are given by
      H' = 1 + (H - pool_height) / stride
      W' = 1 + (W - pool_width) / stride
    - cache: (x, pool_param)
    """
    XN, XC, XH, XW = x.shape
    WH, WW, stride = pool_param['pool_height'], pool_param['pool_width'], pool_param['stride']
    SH, SW = 1+(XH-WH)//stride, 1+(XW-WW)//stride

    out = None
    ###########################################################################
    # TODO: Implement the max-pooling forward pass                            #
    out = np.zeros((XN,XC,SH,SW))
    for IN in range(0,XN):
        for IC in range(0,XC):
            for IH in range(0,SH):
                for IW in range(0,SW):
                    out[IN,IC,IH,IW] = np.max(x[IN,IC,IH*stride:IH*stride+WH,IW*stride:IW*stride+WW])

    ###########################################################################
    pass
    ###########################################################################
    #                             END OF YOUR CODE                            #
    ###########################################################################
    cache = (x, pool_param)
    return out, cache


def max_pool_backward_naive(dout, cache):
    """
    A naive implementation of the backward pass for a max-pooling layer.

    Inputs:
    - dout: Upstream derivatives
    - cache: A tuple of (x, pool_param) as in the forward pass.

    Returns:
    - dx: Gradient with respect to x
    """
    dx = None
    ###########################################################################
    # TODO: Implement the max-pooling backward pass                           #
    ###########################################################################
    x, pool_param = cache
    XN, XC, XH, XW = x.shape
    WH, WW, stride = pool_param['pool_height'], pool_param['pool_width'], pool_param['stride']
    SH, SW = 1 + (XH - WH) // stride, 1 + (XW - WW) // stride
    dx = np.zeros(x.shape)

    for IN in range(0,XN):
        for IC in range(0,XC):
            for IH in range(0,SH):
                for IW in range(0,SW):
                    dx[IN,IC,IH*stride:IH*stride+WH,IW*stride:IW*stride+WW] += \
                        dout[IN,IC,IH,IW]*(x[IN,IC,IH*stride:IH*stride+WH,IW*stride:IW*stride+WW]==\
                                           x[IN,IC,IH*stride:IH*stride+WH,IW*stride:IW*stride+WW].max())

    pass
    ###########################################################################
    #                             END OF YOUR CODE                            #
    ###########################################################################
    return dx


def spatial_batchnorm_forward(x, gamma, beta, bn_param):
    """
    Computes the forward pass for spatial batch normalization.

    Inputs:
    - x: Input data of shape (N, C, H, W)
    - gamma: Scale parameter, of shape (C,)
    - beta: Shift parameter, of shape (C,)
    - bn_param: Dictionary with the following keys:
      - mode: 'train' or 'test'; required
      - eps: Constant for numeric stability
      - momentum: Constant for running mean / variance. momentum=0 means that
        old information is discarded completely at every time step, while
        momentum=1 means that new information is never incorporated. The
        default of momentum=0.9 should work well in most situations.
      - running_mean: Array of shape (D,) giving running mean of features
      - running_var Array of shape (D,) giving running variance of features

    Returns a tuple of:
    - out: Output data, of shape (N, C, H, W)
    - cache: Values needed for the backward pass
    """
    out, cache = None, None
    N, C, H, W = x.shape
    x_in = x.transpose(0,2,3,1).reshape(-1,C)
    out, cache = batchnorm_forward(x_in, gamma, beta, bn_param)
    out = out.reshape(x.shape).transpose(0,3,1,2)
    ###########################################################################
    # TODO: Implement the forward pass for spatial batch normalization.       #
    #                                                                         #
    # HINT: You can implement spatial batch normalization by calling the      #
    # vanilla version of batch normalization you implemented above.           #
    # Your implementation should be very short; ours is less than five lines. #
    ###########################################################################
    pass
    ###########################################################################
    #                             END OF YOUR CODE                            #
    ###########################################################################

    return out, cache


def spatial_batchnorm_backward(dout, cache):
    """
    Computes the backward pass for spatial batch normalization.

    Inputs:
    - dout: Upstream derivatives, of shape (N, C, H, W)
    - cache: Values from the forward pass

    Returns a tuple of:
    - dx: Gradient with respect to inputs, of shape (N, C, H, W)
    - dgamma: Gradient with respect to scale parameter, of shape (C,)
    - dbeta: Gradient with respect to shift parameter, of shape (C,)
    """
    dx, dgamma, dbeta = None, None, None

    ###########################################################################
    # TODO: Implement the backward pass for spatial batch normalization.      #
    #                                                                         #
    # HINT: You can implement spatial batch normalization by calling the      #
    # vanilla version of batch normalization you implemented above.           #
    # Your implementation should be very short; ours is less than five lines. #
    ###########################################################################
    N, C, H, W = dout.shape
    dup = dout.transpose(0,2,3,1).reshape(-1,C)
    dx, dgamma, dbeta = batchnorm_backward(dup, cache)
    dx = dx.reshape(dout.shape).transpose(0,3,1,2)

    pass
    ###########################################################################
    #                             END OF YOUR CODE                            #
    ###########################################################################

    return dx, dgamma, dbeta


def spatial_groupnorm_forward(x, gamma, beta, G, gn_param):
    """
    Computes the forward pass for spatial group normalization.
    In contrast to layer normalization, group normalization splits each entry 
    in the data into G contiguous pieces, which it then normalizes independently.
    Per feature shifting and scaling are then applied to the data, in a manner identical to that of batch normalization and layer normalization.

    Inputs:
    - x: Input data of shape (N, C, H, W)
    - gamma: Scale parameter, of shape (C,)
    - beta: Shift parameter, of shape (C,)
    - G: Integer number of groups to split into, should be a divisor of C
    - gn_param: Dictionary with the following keys:
      - eps: Constant for numeric stability

    Returns a tuple of:
    - out: Output data, of shape (N, C, H, W)
    - cache: Values needed for the backward pass
    """
    out, cache = None, None
    eps = gn_param.get('eps',1e-5)
    ###########################################################################
    # TODO: Implement the forward pass for spatial group normalization.       #
    # This will be extremely similar to the layer norm implementation.        #
    # In particular, think about how you could transform the matrix so that   #
    # the bulk of the code is similar to both train-time batch normalization  #
    # and layer normalization!                                                # 
    ###########################################################################
    N, C, H, W = x.shape
    x_in = x.reshape(N,G,C//G,H,W)
    x_in = x_in.reshape(N,G,-1)
    N, G, F = x_in.shape
    x_in = x_in.reshape(-1,F)
    x_in = x_in.T
    #print('0',x_in.shape)

    x = x_in
    sample_mean = np.mean(x, axis=0)
    sample_var = np.var(x, axis=0)
    x_out = (x - sample_mean) / np.sqrt(sample_var + eps)
    out = x_out

    # 反向传播中,求导需要的每个组件
    # 详情请见https://www.zhihu.com/question/47024992
    NX = x.shape[0]
    mu = (1.0 / float(NX)) * np.sum(x, axis=0)  # (D,) avg_x
    x_minus_mu = x - mu  # (N, D) x - avg_x
    x_minus_mu_square = (x_minus_mu) ** 2  # (N, D) (x - avg_x)^2
    var = ((1.0 / float(NX))) * np.sum(x_minus_mu_square, axis=0)  # (D,) (1/n)*(x - avg_x)^2 方差
    sqrt_var = 1.0 * np.sqrt(var + eps)  # (D,) ^(1/2) 标准差
    sqrt_var_invert = 1.0 / sqrt_var  # (D,) std 标准差的倒数
    x_norm = x_minus_mu / sqrt_var  # (N, D) 归一化



    #print('1',out.shape)
    out = out.T
    #print('2',out.shape)
    out = out.reshape(N, G, F)
    #print('3',out.shape)
    out = out.reshape(N, G, C//G, H, W)
    out_pre = out.reshape(N, C, H, W)
    out = out_pre*gamma+beta
    cache = (NX, mu, x_minus_mu, x_minus_mu_square, var, sqrt_var, sqrt_var_invert, x_norm, eps, gamma,G,F,out_pre)
    pass
    ###########################################################################
    #                             END OF YOUR CODE                            #
    ###########################################################################
    return out, cache


def spatial_groupnorm_backward(dout, cache):
    """
    Computes the backward pass for spatial group normalization.

    Inputs:
    - dout: Upstream derivatives, of shape (N, C, H, W)
    - cache: Values from the forward pass

    Returns a tuple of:
    - dx: Gradient with respect to inputs, of shape (N, C, H, W)
    - dgamma: Gradient with respect to scale parameter, of shape (C,)
    - dbeta: Gradient with respect to shift parameter, of shape (C,)
    """
    dx, dgamma, dbeta = None, None, None


    ###########################################################################
    # TODO: Implement the backward pass for spatial group normalization.      #
    # This will be extremely similar to the layer norm implementation.        #
    ###########################################################################

    NX, mu, x_minus_mu, x_minus_mu_square, var, sqrt_var, sqrt_var_invert, x_norm, eps, gamma,G,F,out_pre = cache
    # 求导,主要思想就是将复杂的公式分解为 单位个体 求解, 在中间过程调整维度

    N, C, H, W = dout.shape

    dgamma = np.sum(out_pre * dout, axis=(0,2,3),keepdims=True)  # (1, D) / (D, )
    dbeta = np.sum(dout, axis=(0,2,3),keepdims=True)  # (1, D) / (D, )


    o = dout * gamma
    o = o.reshape(N, G, C // G, H, W)
    o = o.reshape(N, G, -1)
    N, G, F = o.shape
    o = o.reshape(-1, F)
    o = o.T
    print(NX)
    dx = (1.0 / NX) * sqrt_var_invert * (
                NX * o - np.sum(o * x_norm, axis=0, keepdims=True) * x_norm - np.sum(o, axis=0, keepdims=True))

    dx = (dx.T)
    dx = dx.reshape(N,G,F)
    dx = dx.reshape(N,G,C//G,-1)
    dx = dx.reshape(N,G,C//G,H,W)
    dx = dx.reshape(N,C,H,W)


    pass
    ###########################################################################
    #                             END OF YOUR CODE                            #
    ###########################################################################
    return dx, dgamma, dbeta

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