Factory Method pattern 工厂方法模式

Factory Method pattern工厂方法模式

当client不知道要创建哪个具体类的实例,或者不想在client代码中指明要具体创建的实例时,用工厂方法。定义一个用于创建对象的接口,让其子类来决定实例化哪一个类,从而使一个类的实例化延迟到其子类。

代码示例:

有个抽象产品;

public interface Trace {
    // turn on and off debugging
    public void setDebug( boolean debug );
    // write out a debug message
    public void debug( String message );
    // write out an error message
    public void error( String message );

}

具体的产品类FileTrace:

public class FileTrace implements Trace {
    private PrintWriter pw;
    private boolean debug;
    public FileTrace() throws IOException {
        pw = new PrintWriter( new FileWriter( "t.log" ) );
    }
    public void setDebug( boolean debug ) {
        this.debug = debug;
    }
    public void debug( String message ) {
        if( debug ) {
                pw.println( "DEBUG: " + message );
                pw.flush();
            }    
    }
    public void error( String message ) {
        pw.println( "ERROR: " + message );
        pw.flush();
    }

}

具体的产品类SystemTrace:

public class SystemTrace implements Trace {
    private boolean debug;
    public void setDebug( boolean debug ) {
    this.debug = debug;
    }
    public void debug( String message ) {
    if( debug )
        System.out.println( "DEBUG: " + message );
    }
    public void error( String message ) {
        System.out.println( "ERROR: " + message );
    }

}

客户端使用:

Trace log = new SystemTrace();
log.debug( "entering log" );
Trace log2 = new FileTrace();

log.debug(“...”);


使用工厂模式:

先定义工厂接口:

interface TraceFactory {
    public Trace getTrace();//factory method
    public Trace getTrace(String type);//factory method
    void otherOperation(){};//还可以实现其他功能

}


实现工厂接口:


public class Factory1 implements TraceFactory {
    public Trace getTrace() {
    return new SystemTrace();
    }

}

根据类型决定创建哪个具体产品

public class Factory2 implements TraceFactory {
    public getTrace(String type) {
        if(type.equals(“file”)
            return new FileTrace();
        else if (type.equals(“system”)
            return new SystemTrace();

}

Client使用“工厂方法”来创建实例,得到实例的类型是抽象接口,而非具体类

Trace log1 = new Factory1().getTrace();
log1.setDebug(true);
log1.debug( "entering log" );
Trace log2 = new Factory2().getTrace("system");
log2.setDebug(false);

log2.debug("...");

如果用静态工厂方法,既可以在ADT内部实现,也可以构造单独的工厂类:

public class TraceFactory1 {
    public static Trace getTrace() {
        return new SystemTrace();
    }
}
public class TraceFactory2 {
    public static Trace getTrace(String type) {
    if(type.equals(“file”)
        return new FileTrace();
    else if (type.equals(“system”)
        return new SystemTrace();
    }
}

客户端:

Trace log1 = TraceFactory1.getTrace();
log1.setDebug(true);
log1.debug( "entering log" );
Trace log2 = TraceFactory2.getTrace(“system”);
log1.setDebug(true);
log2.debug(“...”)

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