数据结构与算法分类练习--贪心算法

贪心算法是解决最优化问题的一种方法,解决过程中总是做出当下(局部)最好的选择,因为具有最优子结构的特点,局部最优解可以得到全局最优解;

最优子结构

最优子结构反映了分解问题的方式,我们在解决问题的时候,都会尝试将问题分解成子问题,进而会产生局部解(总体解的子结构)。通常局部解不止一个,当局部解是局部最优解,并且该局部最优解是全局最优解的一部分时,我们称子问题的最优解为 最优子结构。

求解步骤

  • 将问题分解为一系列子问题,同时定义子问题的最优解结构; 
  • 应用贪心原则确定每个子问题的局部最优解,用子问题的局部最优解堆叠出全局最优解。

Assign Cookies

Example 1:

Input: [1,2,3], [1,1]

Output: 1

Explanation: You have 3 children and 2 cookies. The greed factors of 3 children are 1, 2, 3.

And even though you have 2 cookies, since their size is both 1, you could only make the child whose greed factor is 1 content.

You need to output 1.

首先对两个数组进行排序,我们先拿最小的cookie给胃口最小的小朋友。如果能满足当前小朋友,再拿下一个cookie去满足下一位小朋友;如果不能满足,那么我们就用下一块稍大一点的cookie去尝试满足当前的小朋友。

class Solution(object):
    def findContentChildren(self, g, s):
        """
        :type g: List[int]
        :type s: List[int]
        :rtype: int
        """
        g.sort()
        s.sort()
        
        i = 0
        for j in range(len(s)):
            if i == len(g):
                break
            if s[j] >= g[i]:
                i += 1
        return i

Remove K Digits

Given a non-negative integer num represented as a string, remove k digits from the number so that the new number is the smallest possible.

Input: num = "1432219", k = 3

Output: "1219"

遍历给定数字num的每一位,对于当前遍历到的数字d,进行如下while循环:如果还没删够,result不为空,且result的最后一位大于d,那么我们将result的最后一位删掉,k自减1。

class Solution(object):
    def removeKdigits(self, num, k):
        """
        :type num: str
        :type k: int
        :rtype: str
        """
        result = []
        for d in num:
            while k and result and result[-1] > d:
                result.pop()
                k -= 1
            result.append(d)
        # 删掉剩余的k位,如果删光则返回0
        return ''.join(result).lstrip('0')[:-k or None] or '0' 

Gas Station

There are N gas stations along a circular route, where the amount of gas at station i is gas[i].

You have a car with an unlimited gas tank and it costs cost[i] of gas to travel from station i to its next station (i+1). You begin the journey with an empty tank at one of the gas stations.

Return the starting gas station's index if you can travel around the circuit once, otherwise return -1.

从0开始出发,如果当前的gas值大于cost值,则前进到下一个站点,剩余的gas加上当前的gas再减去cost,看是否大于0,若大于0,则继续前进。若这个值小于0,则说明从起点到这个点中间的任何一个点都不能作为起点,则把起点设为下一个点,继续遍历。当遍历完整个环时,如果总油量大于总消耗则当前保存的起点即为所求。

class Solution(object):
    def canCompleteCircuit(self, gas, cost):
        """
        :type gas: List[int]
        :type cost: List[int]
        :rtype: int
        """
        start, cur_sum, total_sum = 0, 0 ,0
        for i in range(len(gas)):
            diff = gas[i] - cost[i]
            cur_sum += diff
            total_sum += diff
            if cur_sum < 0:
                start = i + 1
                cur_sum = 0
        if total_sum >= 0:
            return start
        else:
            return -1

Candy

There are N children standing in a line. Each child is assigned a rating value.

Each child must have at least one candy.

Children with a higher rating get more candies than their neighbors.

What is the minimum candies you must give?

ratings是由一系列递增,递减或等高子序列组成。等高子序列即平级,每人分一个即可;递增/递减子序列从局部最低点分隔成子域,那么每个子域中的最高点的发放个数应该从序列较长一侧开始计算。

class Solution(object):
    def candy(self, ratings):
        """
        :type ratings: List[int]
        :rtype: int
        """
        def count_candy(s1, s2):
            # inc,dec中较大的从1开始计算,自然可以保证较小的符合条件
            if s1 < s2:
                s1, s2 = s2, s1 
            count = 0
            count += ((1 + (s1 + 1)) * (s1 + 1)) / 2
            count += ((1 + s2) * s2) / 2
            return count
        
        if len(ratings) < 2:
            return len(ratings)
        inc, dec, count, extra = 0, 0, 0, 0
        for i in range(len(ratings) - 1):
            if ratings[i] <= ratings[i + 1]:
                if dec != 0 or ratings[i] == ratings[i + 1]:
                    count += count_candy(inc, dec)
                    inc, dec = 0, 0
                    if ratings[i] != ratings[i+1]:
                        inc = 1
                        # 转折点重复计算了一次
                        extra += 1
                else:
                    inc += 1
            else:
                dec += 1
        count += count_candy(inc, dec) - extra
        return count

 

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