Spring Boot构建RESTful API与单元测试实战

一 点睛

1 相关注解

  • @Controller:修饰class,用来创建处理http请求的对象

  • @RestController:Spring4之后加入的注解,原来在@Controller中返回json需要@ResponseBody来配合,如果直接用@RestController替代@Controller就不需要再配置@ResponseBody,默认返回json格式。

  • @RequestMapping:配置url映射

二 实战

1 RESTful API具体设计

2 新建pom依赖

<dependencies>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
    </dependency>

    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
        <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>

    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
    </dependency>

</dependencies>

3 新建领域类

package com.didispace.domain;


public class User {

    private Long id;
    private String name;
    private Integer age;

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(Long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public Integer getAge() {
        return age;
    }

    public void setAge(Integer age) {
        this.age = age;
    }
}

4 新建控制器HelloController

package com.didispace.web;

import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;


@RestController
public class HelloController {

    @RequestMapping("/hello")
    public String index() {
        return "Hello World";
    }

}

5 新建控制器UserController

package com.didispace.web;

import com.didispace.domain.User;
import java.util.*;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.*;

@RestController
@RequestMapping(value="/users")     // 通过这里配置使下面的映射都在/users下,可去除
public class UserController {

    static Map<Long, User> users = Collections.synchronizedMap(new HashMap<Long, User>());

    @RequestMapping(value="/", method=RequestMethod.GET)
    public List<User> getUserList() {
        // 处理"/users/"的GET请求,用来获取用户列表
        // 还可以通过@RequestParam从页面中传递参数来进行查询条件或者翻页信息的传递
        List<User> r = new ArrayList<User>(users.values());
        return r;
    }

    @RequestMapping(value="/", method=RequestMethod.POST)
    public String postUser(@ModelAttribute User user) {
        // 处理"/users/"的POST请求,用来创建User
        // 除了@ModelAttribute绑定参数之外,还可以通过@RequestParam从页面中传递参数
        users.put(user.getId(), user);
        return "success";
    }

    @RequestMapping(value="/{id}", method=RequestMethod.GET)
    public User getUser(@PathVariable Long id) {
        // 处理"/users/{id}"的GET请求,用来获取url中id值的User信息
        // url中的id可通过@PathVariable绑定到函数的参数中
        return users.get(id);
    }

    @RequestMapping(value="/{id}", method=RequestMethod.PUT)
    public String putUser(@PathVariable Long id, @ModelAttribute User user) {
        // 处理"/users/{id}"的PUT请求,用来更新User信息
        User u = users.get(id);
        u.setName(user.getName());
        u.setAge(user.getAge());
        users.put(id, u);
        return "success";
    }

    @RequestMapping(value="/{id}", method=RequestMethod.DELETE)
    public String deleteUser(@PathVariable Long id) {
        // 处理"/users/{id}"的DELETE请求,用来删除User
        users.remove(id);
        return "success";
    }

}

6 新建主类

package com.didispace;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;

@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);

    }

}

7 新建测试类

package com.didispace;
import com.didispace.domain.User;
import com.didispace.web.HelloController;
import com.didispace.web.UserController;
import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.boot.test.SpringApplicationConfiguration;
import org.springframework.http.MediaType;
import org.springframework.mock.web.MockServletContext;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner;
import org.springframework.test.context.web.WebAppConfiguration;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.RequestBuilder;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.setup.MockMvcBuilders;

import static org.hamcrest.Matchers.equalTo;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders.*;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.content;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.status;

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@SpringApplicationConfiguration(classes = MockServletContext.class)
@WebAppConfiguration
public class ApplicationTests {

    private MockMvc mvc;

    @Before
    public void setUp() throws Exception {
        mvc = MockMvcBuilders.standaloneSetup(
                new HelloController(),
                new UserController()).build();
    }

    @Test
    public void getHello() throws Exception {
        mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.get("/hello").accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON))
                .andExpect(status().isOk())
                .andExpect(content().string(equalTo("Hello World")));
    }

    @Test
    public void testUserController() throws Exception {
        //测试UserController
        RequestBuilder request = null;

        // 1、get查一下user列表,应该为空
        request = get("/users/");
        mvc.perform(request)
                .andExpect(status().isOk())
                .andExpect(content().string(equalTo("[]")));

        // 2、post提交一个user
        request = post("/users/")
                .param("id", "1")
                .param("name", "测试大师")
                .param("age", "20");
        mvc.perform(request)
//                .andDo(MockMvcResultHandlers.print())
                .andExpect(content().string(equalTo("success")));

        // 3、get获取user列表,应该有刚才插入的数据
        request = get("/users/");
        mvc.perform(request)
                .andExpect(status().isOk())
                .andExpect(content().string(equalTo("[{\"id\":1,\"name\":\"测试大师\",\"age\":20}]")));

        // 4、put修改id为1的user
        request = put("/users/1")
                .param("name", "测试终极大师")
                .param("age", "30");
        mvc.perform(request)
                .andExpect(content().string(equalTo("success")));

        // 5、get一个id为1的user
        request = get("/users/1");
        mvc.perform(request)
                .andExpect(content().string(equalTo("{\"id\":1,\"name\":\"测试终极大师\",\"age\":30}")));

        // 6、del删除id为1的user
        request = delete("/users/1");
        mvc.perform(request)
                .andExpect(content().string(equalTo("success")));

        // 7、get查一下user列表,应该为空
        request = get("/users/");
        mvc.perform(request)
                .andExpect(status().isOk())
                .andExpect(content().string(equalTo("[]")));

    }

}

三 参考

http://blog.didispace.com/springbootrestfulapi/

 

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