mysql order by rand() 效率优化方法

从一次查询中随机返回一条数据,一般使用mysql的order by rand() 方法来实现

例如: 从20万用户中随机抽取1个用户

mysql> select * from user order by rand() limit 1;
+-------+------------+----------------------------------+----------+--------------+-----------+
| id    | phone      | password                         | salt     | country_code | ip        |
+-------+------------+----------------------------------+----------+--------------+-----------+
| 15160 | 6549721306 | e4f302120c006880a247b652ad0e42f2 | 40343586 | 86           | 127.0.0.1 |
+-------+------------+----------------------------------+----------+--------------+-----------+
1 row in set (0.25 sec)

mysql> explain select * from user order by rand() limit 1;
+----+-------------+-------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+--------+---------------------------------+
| id | select_type | table | type | possible_keys | key  | key_len | ref  | rows   | Extra                           |
+----+-------------+-------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+--------+---------------------------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | user  | ALL  | NULL          | NULL | NULL    | NULL | 200303 | Using temporary; Using filesort |
+----+-------------+-------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+--------+---------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

根据分析结果,运行需要0.25秒,order by rand() 需要使用临时表(Using temporary),需要使用文件排序(Using filesort),效率低下。


改进方法

1.首先获取查询的总记录条数total
2.在总记录条数中随机偏移N条(N=0~total-1)
3.使用limit N,1 获取记录


代码如下:

<?php
// 获取总记录数
$sqlstr = 'select count(*) as recount from user';
$query = mysql_query($sqlstr) or die(mysql_error());
$stat = mysql_fetch_assoc($query);
$total = $stat['recount'];

// 随机偏移
$offset = mt_rand(0, $total-1);

// 偏移后查询
$sqlstr = 'select * from user limit '.$offset.',1';
$query = mysql_query($sqlstr) or die(mysql_error());
$result = mysql_fetch_assoc($query);

print_r($result);
?>

分析:

mysql> select * from user limit 23541,1;
+-------+------------+----------------------------------+----------+--------------+-----------+
| id    | phone      | password                         | salt     | country_code | ip        |
+-------+------------+----------------------------------+----------+--------------+-----------+
| 23542 | 3740507464 | c8bc1890de179538d8a49cc211859a46 | 93863419 | 86           | 127.0.0.1 |
+-------+------------+----------------------------------+----------+--------------+-----------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> explain select * from user limit 23541,1;
+----+-------------+-------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+--------+-------+
| id | select_type | table | type | possible_keys | key  | key_len | ref  | rows   | Extra |
+----+-------------+-------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+--------+-------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | user  | ALL  | NULL          | NULL | NULL    | NULL | 200303 | NULL  |
+----+-------------+-------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+--------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
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