as 和which 引导定语从句的异同

 

一、相同点:

两者引导非限制性定语从句时,可指代主句中的部分或整个句子的内容,在从句中做主语,宾语或表语,位于主句之后有时可互换。

The meeting was put off, as /whichwas exactly what we wanted.

He was a doctor, as/which I knewfrom his manner.

注:which 代表整个句子,还可用于in whichcase, at which point, on which occasion等。

I may have to work late, in which case I’ll telephoneyou. 

我可能得晚点下班,那样我会给你打电话的。

      The machine may be out of order,in which case it will be repaired at once.

      Ten years of hard work changed her greatly, for which reason he couldhardly recognize her at first sight.

 

二、不同点:

1.  在限制性定语从句中,当先行词被the same, such ,as,so修饰时,要用as代替who,whom,which 或者that引导定语从句。

Such men as heard him were deeplymoved. 
听过他说话的人,都会深受感动。(as在定语从句中作heard的主语)
I've never heard such stories as he tells. 
我从未听过像他讲的这样的故事。(as在定语从句中作tell的宾语)
He lifted so heavy a stone as no one else can lift.
他搬起别人都搬不起的大石头。(as在定语从句中lift的宾语)

 

注意:

①在thesame as结构中,as也可用that代替。但严格地说,thesame as强调相同,the same that注重同一。
  
She wore the same dress as heryounger sister wore.
   她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的衣裙。(as指的是与先行词相似的同类事物)
  She wore the same dress that she woreat Mary's wedding. 
   她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一条连衣裙。(that指的是与先行词同一事物)

       

②定语从句such/as…as…与结果状语从句such/as… that…的区别:as在所引导的定语从句中作主语,宾语;that在结果状语从句中不做成分

          He has such a good laptop as I want to buy.

          He has such a good laptop that I want to buy one.

        He lifted so heavy a stone as no one else can lift.
        He is so young a boy that he can’tgo to school.

 

2.which 引导的定语从句只能位于主句后,但as引导的从句可位于主句前、中、后。

As is known to all, China is a developing country.

 He isfrom the south, as we can see from his accent.

    John, as you know, is a famous writer.

Li Mingis late, as is often the case. 

He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’tbelieve.

 

 

3. as有“正如……,正像……”的意思,而which则没有。常用的句型有:

as is oftenthe case                   (这是常有的事)

as wasexpected                     (不出所料)

as oftenhappens                     (正如经常发生的那样)  

as has beensaid before                (如上所述)

as ismentioned above                 (正如上面所提到的)

as everybody/wecan see                 (正如大家/我们所看到的)

as is known to all=as we all know       (众所周知)

 

4. as 引导的定语从句只表示一个众所周知或意料之中的事,但 which 不受此限制。(即as引导的定语从句在意义上不是否定的。)

He marriedher, which was unexpected. 他和她结婚了,这是出乎意料的。(不可用as)

He failed inthe experiment, which was unexpected.

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