opencv系列学习(2)

二 opencv核心模块

6 使用XML和YAML文件的文件输入和输出

代码解释

#include <opencv2/core.hpp>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
using namespace cv;
using namespace std;
static void help(char** av)
{
    cout << endl
        << av[0] << " shows the usage of the OpenCV serialization functionality."         << endl
        << "usage: "                                                                      << endl
        <<  av[0] << " outputfile.yml.gz"                                                 << endl
        << "The output file may be either XML (xml) or YAML (yml/yaml). You can even compress it by "
        << "specifying this in its extension like xml.gz yaml.gz etc... "                  << endl
        << "With FileStorage you can serialize objects in OpenCV by using the << and >> operators" << endl
        << "For example: - create a class and have it serialized"                         << endl
        << "             - use it to read and write matrices."                            << endl;
}
class MyData
{
public:
    MyData() : A(0), X(0), id()
    {}
    explicit MyData(int) : A(97), X(CV_PI), id("mydata1234") // explicit to avoid implicit conversion
    {}
    void write(FileStorage& fs) const                        //Write serialization for this class
    {
        fs << "{" << "A" << A << "X" << X << "id" << id << "}";
    }
    void read(const FileNode& node)                          //Read serialization for this class
    {
        A = (int)node["A"];
        X = (double)node["X"];
        id = (string)node["id"];
    }
public:   // Data Members
    int A;
    double X;
    string id;
};
//These write and read functions must be defined for the serialization in FileStorage to work
static void write(FileStorage& fs, const std::string&, const MyData& x)
{
    x.write(fs);
}
static void read(const FileNode& node, MyData& x, const MyData& default_value = MyData()){
    if(node.empty())
        x = default_value;
    else
        x.read(node);
}
// This function will print our custom class to the console
static ostream& operator<<(ostream& out, const MyData& m)
{
    out << "{ id = " << m.id << ", ";
    out << "X = " << m.X << ", ";
    out << "A = " << m.A << "}";
    return out;
}
int main(int ac, char** av)
{
    if (ac != 2)
    {
        help(av);
        return 1;
    }
    string filename = av[1];
    { //write
        Mat R = Mat_<uchar>::eye(3, 3),
            T = Mat_<double>::zeros(3, 1);
        MyData m(1);
        FileStorage fs(filename, FileStorage::WRITE);
        // or:
        // FileStorage fs;
        // fs.open(filename, FileStorage::WRITE);
        fs << "iterationNr" << 100;
        fs << "strings" << "[";                              // text - string sequence
        fs << "image1.jpg" << "Awesomeness" << "../data/baboon.jpg";
        fs << "]";                                           // close sequence
        fs << "Mapping";                              // text - mapping
        fs << "{" << "One" << 1;
        fs <<        "Two" << 2 << "}";
        fs << "R" << R;                                      // cv::Mat
        fs << "T" << T;
        fs << "MyData" << m;                                // your own data structures
        fs.release();                                       // explicit close
        cout << "Write Done." << endl;
    }
    {//read
        cout << endl << "Reading: " << endl;
        FileStorage fs;
        fs.open(filename, FileStorage::READ);
        int itNr;
        //fs["iterationNr"] >> itNr;
        itNr = (int) fs["iterationNr"];
        cout << itNr;
        if (!fs.isOpened())
        {
            cerr << "Failed to open " << filename << endl;
            help(av);
            return 1;
        }
        FileNode n = fs["strings"];                         // Read string sequence - Get node
        if (n.type() != FileNode::SEQ)
        {
            cerr << "strings is not a sequence! FAIL" << endl;
            return 1;
        }
        FileNodeIterator it = n.begin(), it_end = n.end(); // Go through the node
        for (; it != it_end; ++it)
            cout << (string)*it << endl;
        n = fs["Mapping"];                                // Read mappings from a sequence
        cout << "Two  " << (int)(n["Two"]) << "; ";
        cout << "One  " << (int)(n["One"]) << endl << endl;
        MyData m;
        Mat R, T;
        fs["R"] >> R;                                      // Read cv::Mat
        fs["T"] >> T;
        fs["MyData"] >> m;                                 // Read your own structure_
        cout << endl
            << "R = " << R << endl;
        cout << "T = " << T << endl << endl;
        cout << "MyData = " << endl << m << endl << endl;
        //Show default behavior for non existing nodes
        cout << "Attempt to read NonExisting (should initialize the data structure with its default).";
        fs["NonExisting"] >> m;
        cout << endl << "NonExisting = " << endl << m << endl;
    }
    cout << endl
        << "Tip: Open up " << filename << " with a text editor to see the serialized data." << endl;
    return 0;
}

6.1 XML / YAML文件的打开和关闭

使用第二个参数的其中之一是一个常量,该常量指定您将可以对它们执行的操作类型:WRITE,READ或APPEND

 FileStorage fs(filename, FileStorage::WRITE);
        // or:
        // FileStorage fs;
        // fs.open(filename, FileStorage::WRITE);

当cv :: FileStorage对象被破坏时,该文件自动关闭。但是,您可以使用release函数显式调用此方法:

 fs.release();      // explicit close

6.2 文本和数字的输入和输出

在C ++中,数据结构使用STL库中的<< <<操作符。在Python中,改用cv :: FileStorage :: write()。要输出任何类型的数据结构,我们首先需要指定其名称。我们只需将其名称推送到C ++流中即可。在Python中,写函数的第一个参数是名称。对于基本类型,您可以在值后加上以下值:

fs << “ iterationNr” << 100;

读入是一个简单的寻址(通过[]运算符)和强制转换操作,或者是通过>>运算符进行读取。

int itNr;
        //fs["iterationNr"] >> itNr;
        itNr = (int) fs["iterationNr"];

6.3 OpenCV数据结构的输入/输出

Mat R = Mat_<uchar>::eye(3, 3),
            T = Mat_<double>::zeros(3, 1);
fs << "R" << R;       // cv::Mat
fs << "T" << T;
fs["R"] >> R;         // Read cv::Mat
fs["T"] >> T;

6.4 向量(数组)和关联图的输入/输出

我们也可以输出图谱和序列(数组,向量)。再次,我们首先打印变量的名称,然后我们必须指定输出是序列还是映射。
对于第一个元素之前的序列,打印“ [”字符,而在最后一个元素之后,打印“]”字符。使用Python时,“]”字符可以用序列名称或序列的最后一个元素来编写,具体取决于元素的数量:

        fs << "strings" << "[";                              // text - string sequence
        fs << "image1.jpg" << "Awesomeness" << "../data/baboon.jpg";
        fs << "]";                                           // close sequence
        fs << "Mapping";                              // text - mapping
        fs << "{" << "One" << 1;
        fs <<        "Two" << 2 << "}";

要阅读这些内容,我们使用cv :: FileNode和cv :: FileNodeIterator数据结构。cv :: FileStorage类(或Python中的getNode()函数)的[]运算符返回cv :: FileNode数据类型。如果节点是顺序的,我们可以使用cv :: FileNodeIterator遍历所有项目。在Python中,at()函数可用于寻址序列的元素,而size()函数可返回序列的长度

        FileNode n = fs["strings"];                         // Read string sequence - Get node
        if (n.type() != FileNode::SEQ)
        {
            cerr << "strings is not a sequence! FAIL" << endl;
            return 1;
        }
        FileNodeIterator it = n.begin(), it_end = n.end(); // Go through the node
        for (; it != it_end; ++it)
            cout << (string)*it << endl;

对于地图,您可以再次使用[]运算符(Python中的at()函数)来访问给定的项(也可以使用>>运算符)

        n = fs["Mapping"];                                // Read mappings from a sequence
        cout << "Two  " << (int)(n["Two"]) << "; ";
        cout << "One  " << (int)(n["One"]) << endl << endl;

6.5 读写您自己的数据结构

class MyData
{
public:
      MyData() : A(0), X(0), id() {}
public:   // Data Members
   int A;
   double X;
   string id;
};

在C ++中,可以通过在类的内部和外部添加读取和写入功能,通过OpenCV I / O XML / YAML接口(与OpenCV数据结构的情况一样)对此序列化。在Python中,您可以通过在类内部实现读写功能来接近此情况。对于内部

void write(FileStorage& fs) const                        //Write serialization for this class
    {
        fs << "{" << "A" << A << "X" << X << "id" << id << "}";
    }
    void read(const FileNode& node)                          //Read serialization for this class
    {
        A = (int)node["A"];
        X = (double)node["X"];
        id = (string)node["id"];
    }

在C ++中,您需要在类外添加以下函数定义:

static void write(FileStorage& fs, const std::string&, const MyData& x)
{
    x.write(fs);
}
static void read(const FileNode& node, MyData& x, const MyData& default_value = MyData()){
    if(node.empty())
        x = default_value;
    else
        x.read(node);
}

在这里您可以观察到,在读取部分中,我们定义了如果用户尝试读取不存在的节点会发生什么。在这种情况下,我们只返回默认的初始化值,但是更冗长的解决方案是例如返回对象ID的负一个值。

添加完这四个函数后,请使用>>运算符进行写入,并使用<< <<运算符进行读取(或为Python定义的输入/输出函数):

MyData m(1);
fs << "MyData" << m;                                // your own data structures
fs["MyData"] >> m;                                 // Read your own structure_

或尝试读取不存在的内容:

cout << "Attempt to read NonExisting (should initialize the data structure with its default).";
fs["NonExisting"] >> m;
cout << endl << "NonExisting = " << endl << m << endl;
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