用pygame实现alien_invasion(外星人入侵)游戏


这个小游戏是python教材上的一个实践,根据教材指引完成了这个代码,并进行了一些修改,可以作为pygame的一个实践。

代码

  1. 主程序
alien_invasion.py
import pygame;import os
from settings import Settings;from ship import Ship
from pygame.sprite import Group;from alien import Alien
from game_stats import GameStats;from button import Button
from scoreboard import Scoreboard
import game_functions as gf
def run_game():
    #初始化游戏并创建一个游戏对象
    pygame.init()   
    ai_settings=Settings()
    screen=pygame.display.set_mode((ai_settings.screen_width,ai_settings.screen_height)) 
    pygame.display.set_caption('alien invasion')

    play_button=Button(ai_settings,screen,"play")

    stats=GameStats(ai_settings)
    #创建飞船
    ship=Ship(ai_settings,screen)
    #子弹
    bullets=Group()
    #alien
    aliens=Group()
    gf.create_fleet(ai_settings,screen,ship,aliens)
    #scoreboard
    stats=GameStats(ai_settings)
    sb=Scoreboard(ai_settings,screen,stats)

    while True:
        gf.check_event(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,play_button,ship,aliens,bullets)
        ship.update()
        gf.update_bullets(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets)
        gf.update_aliens(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb ,ship,aliens,bullets)
        gf.update_screen(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets,play_button)
    
run_game()  
  1. 外星人
alien.py
import pygame
from pygame.sprite import Sprite
class Alien(Sprite):
    def __init__(self,ai_settings,screen):
        super().__init__()
        self.screen=screen
        self.ai_settings=ai_settings
        #
        self.image=pygame.image.load('F:\\1\\codelearn\\python_ex\\py\\alien_invasion\\images\\alien.bmp')
        self.rect=self.image.get_rect()
        #
        self.rect.x=self.rect.width
        self.rect.y=self.rect.height
        #
        self.x=float(self.rect.x)
    def check_edges(self):
        screen_rect=self.screen.get_rect()
        if self.rect.right>=screen_rect.right:
            return True
        elif self.rect.right<=0:
            return True
    def update(self):
        self.x+=(self.ai_settings.alien_speed_factor*self.ai_settings.fleet_direction)
        self.rect.x=self.x
    def blitme(self):
        self.screen.blit(self.image,self.rect)
        

  1. 子弹
bullet.py
import pygame;from pygame.sprite import Sprite
class Bullet(Sprite):
    def __init__(self,ai_settings,screen,ship):
        super().__init__()
        self.screen=screen
        #
        self.rect=pygame.Rect(0,0,ai_settings.bullet_width,ai_settings.bullet_height)
        self.rect.centerx=ship.rect.centerx
        self.rect.top=ship.rect.top
        #
        self.y=float(self.rect.y)
        
        self.color=ai_settings.bullet_color
        self.speed_factor=ai_settings.bullet_speed_factor
    def update(self):
        self.y-=self.speed_factor
        self.rect.y=self.y
    def draw_bullet(self):
        pygame.draw.rect(self.screen,self.color,self.rect)

  1. 按钮
button.py
import pygame;import pygame.font
class Button():
    def __init__(self,ai_settings,screen,msg):
        self.screen=screen
        self.screen_rect=screen.get_rect()
        #button
        self.width,self.height=200,50
        self.button_color=(20,30,40)
        self.text_color=(255,255,255)
        self.font=pygame.font.SysFont(None,48)
        #
        self.rect=pygame.Rect(0,0,self.width,self.height)
        self.rect.center=self.screen_rect.center
        #
        self.prep_msg(msg)
    def prep_msg(self,msg):
        self.msg_image=self.font.render(msg,True,self.text_color,self.button_color)
        self.msg_image_rect=self.msg_image.get_rect()
        self.msg_image_rect.center=self.rect.center
    def draw_button(self):
        self.screen.fill(self.button_color,self.rect)
        self.screen.blit(self.msg_image,self.msg_image_rect)
  1. 相关函数
game_functions.py
import sys;import pygame;from random import randint
from bullet import Bullet;from alien import Alien
from time import sleep;from button import Button
a=1
def check_keydown_event(event,ai_settings,screen,ship,bullets):
    if event.key==pygame.K_RIGHT:
        ship.moving_right=True
    elif event.key==pygame.K_LEFT:
        ship.moving_left=True
    elif event.key==pygame.K_SPACE:
        fire_bullet(ai_settings,screen,ship,bullets)
    elif event.key==pygame.K_q:
        sys.exit()
def check_keyup_event(event,ship):
    if event.key==pygame.K_RIGHT:
        ship.moving_right=False        
    elif event.key==pygame.K_LEFT:
        ship.moving_left=False
def check_event(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,play_button,ship,aliens,bullets):
    for event in pygame.event.get():
        if event.type==pygame.QUIT:
            pygame.quit()
            sys.exit()

        elif event.type==pygame.KEYDOWN:
            check_keydown_event(event,ai_settings,screen,ship,bullets)

        elif event.type==pygame.KEYUP:
            check_keyup_event(event,ship)
        
        elif event.type==pygame.MOUSEBUTTONDOWN:
            mouse_x,mouse_y=pygame.mouse.get_pos()
            check_play_button(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,play_button,ship,aliens,bullets,mouse_x,mouse_y)

def check_play_button(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,play_button,ship,aliens,bullets,mouse_x,mouse_y):
    button_clicked=play_button.rect.collidepoint(mouse_x,mouse_y)
    if button_clicked and not stats.game_active:
        ai_settings.initialize_dynamic_settings()
        #
        pygame.mouse.set_visible(True)
        #
        stats.reset_stats()
        stats.game_active=True
        #
        sb.pre_score()
        sb.pre_high_score()
        sb.pre_level()
        sb.pre_ships()
        #
        aliens.empty()
        bullets.empty()
        #
        create_fleet(ai_settings,screen,ship,aliens)
        ship.center_ship()    
def check_high_score(stats,sb):
    if  stats.score>stats.high_score:
        stats.high_score=stats.score
        sb.pre_high_score()

def update_screen(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets,play_button):
    screen.fill(ai_settings.bg_color)
    
    #子弹
    for bullet in bullets.sprites():
        bullet.draw_bullet()

    ship.blitme()
    aliens.draw(screen)
    sb.show_score()
    
    if not stats.game_active:
        play_button.draw_button()

    pygame.display.flip()
def update_bullets(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets):
    bullets.update()
    #delete bullet
    for bullet in bullets.copy():
        if bullet.rect.bottom<=0:
            bullets.remove(bullet)
    check_ab_collisions(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets)
def check_ab_collisions(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets):
    collisions=pygame.sprite.groupcollide(bullets,aliens,False,True)#first is if fade after collision
    if collisions:
        for aliens in collisions.values():
            stats.score+=ai_settings.alien_points*len(aliens)
            sb.pre_score()
        check_high_score(stats,sb)

    if len(aliens)==0:
        global a
        bullets.empty()
        ai_settings.increase_speed()
        #
        stats.level+=1
        sb.pre_level()
        #
        create_fleet(ai_settings,screen,ship,aliens)
        a+=1
        if a==4:
            print("************\nyou have won\n************")
            pygame.quit()
            sys.exit()
            
def check_fleet_edges(ai_settings,aliens):
    for alien in aliens.sprites():
        if alien.check_edges():
            change_fleet_direction(ai_settings,aliens)
            break
def change_fleet_direction(ai_settings,aliens):
    for alien in aliens.sprites():
        alien.rect.y+=ai_settings.fleet_drop_speed
    ai_settings.fleet_direction*=-1
def ship_hit(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets):
    if stats.ships_left>0:
        stats.ships_left-=1
        #
        sb.pre_ships()
        #
        aliens.empty();bullets.empty()
        #
        create_fleet(ai_settings,screen,ship,aliens)
        ship.center_ship()
        #stop
        sleep(0.5)
    else:
        stats.game_active=False
        pygame.mouse.set_visible(True)
def check_a_bottom(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets):
    screen_rect=screen.get_rect()
    for alien in aliens.sprites():
        if alien.rect.bottom>=screen_rect.bottom:
            ship_hit(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets)
            break
def update_aliens(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets):
    check_fleet_edges(ai_settings,aliens)
    aliens.update()
    if pygame.sprite.spritecollideany(ship,aliens):
        ship_hit(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets)
    check_a_bottom(ai_settings,screen,stats,sb,ship,aliens,bullets)
def fire_bullet(ai_settings,screen,ship,bullets):
    if len(bullets)<ai_settings.bullet_allowed:
        new_bullet=Bullet(ai_settings,screen,ship)
        bullets.add(new_bullet)
def get_num_aliens(ai_settings,alien_width):
    available_space=ai_settings.screen_width-2*alien_width
    number_alien=int(available_space/(2*alien_width))
    return number_alien
def create_alien(ai_settings,screen,aliens,alien_num,row_num):
    alien=Alien(ai_settings,screen)
    alien_width=alien.rect.width
    alien.x=alien_width+2*alien_width*alien_num
    alien.rect.x=alien.x
    alien.rect.y=alien.rect.height+2*alien.rect.height*row_num
    aliens.add(alien)
def create_fleet(ai_settings,screen,ship,aliens):
    alien=Alien(ai_settings,screen)
    number_alien=get_num_aliens(ai_settings,alien.rect.width)
    num_rows=get_num_rows(ai_settings,ship.rect.height,alien.rect.height)
    #
    for row_num in range(num_rows):
        for alien_num in range(randint(number_alien//2,number_alien)):
            create_alien(ai_settings,screen,aliens,alien_num,row_num)
def get_num_rows(ai_settings,ship_height,alien_height):
    available_space_y=(ai_settings.screen_height-(3*alien_height)-ship_height)
    num_rows=int(available_space_y/(2*alien_height))
    return num_rows

  1. 计分
game_stats.py
class GameStats():
    def __init__(self,ai_settings):
        self.ai_settings=ai_settings
        self.reset_stats()
        self.game_active=False
        self.high_score=0
    def reset_stats(self):
        self.ships_left=self.ai_settings.ships_limit-1
        self.score=0
        self.level=1

  1. 计分板
scoreboard.py
import pygame.font
from pygame.sprite import Group;from ship import Ship
class Scoreboard():
    def __init__(self,ai_settings,screen,stats):
        self.screen=screen
        self.screen_rect=screen.get_rect()
        self.ai_settings=ai_settings
        self.stats=stats

        self.text_color=(30,30,30)
        self.font=pygame.font.SysFont(None,48)

        self.pre_score()
        self.pre_high_score()
        self.pre_level()
        self.pre_ships()
    def pre_score(self):
        rounded_score=int(round(self.stats.score,-1))
        score_str="{:,}".format(rounded_score)
        self.score_image=self.font.render(score_str,True,self.text_color,self.ai_settings.bg_color)
        #
        self.score_rect=self.score_image.get_rect()
        self.score_rect.right=self.screen_rect.right-20
        self.screen_rect.top=20
    def pre_high_score(self):
        high_score=int(round(self.stats.high_score,-1))
        high_score_str="{:,}".format(high_score)
        self.high_score_image=self.font.render(high_score_str,True,self.text_color,self.ai_settings.bg_color)
        #
        self.high_score_rect=self.high_score_image.get_rect()
        self.high_score_rect.top=self.score_rect.top
        self.high_score_rect.centerx=self.screen_rect.centerx
    def pre_level(self):
        self.level_image=self.font.render(str(self.stats.level),True,self.text_color,self.ai_settings.bg_color)
        self.level_rect=self.level_image.get_rect()
        self.level_rect.right=self.score_rect.right
        self.level_rect.top=self.score_rect.bottom+10
    def pre_ships(self):
        self.ships=Group()
        for ship_number in range(self.stats.ships_left):
            ship=Ship(self.ai_settings,self.screen)
            ship.rect.x=10+ship_number*ship.rect.width
            ship.rect.y=10
            self.ships.add(ship)
    def show_score(self):
        self.screen.blit(self.score_image,self.score_rect)
        self.screen.blit(self.high_score_image,self.high_score_rect)
        self.screen.blit(self.level_image,self.level_rect)
        self.ships.draw(self.screen)
  1. 设置
setting.py
class Settings():
    def __init__(self):
        self.screen_width=1200
        self.screen_height=650
        self.bg_color=(230,230,230)
        
        self.ships_limit=3
        #bullet
        self.bullet_width=10
        self.bullet_height=15
        self.bullet_color=60,60,60
        self.bullet_allowed=5
        #alien
        self.fleet_drop_speed=10
        self.speedup_scale=1.5
        self.score_scale=1.5
        self.initialize_dynamic_settings()
    def initialize_dynamic_settings(self):
        self.ship_speed_factor=1.5
        self.bullet_speed_factor=1.8
        self.alien_speed_factor=1
        self.alien_points=10

        self.fleet_direction=1
    def increase_speed(self):
        self.ship_speed_factor*=self.speedup_scale
        self.bullet_speed_factor*=self.speedup_scale
        self.alien_speed_factor*=self.speedup_scale
        
        self.alien_points=int(self.score_scale*self.alien_points)
        


  1. 飞船
ship.py
import pygame;import os
from pygame.sprite import Sprite
class Ship(Sprite):
    def __init__(self,ai_settings,screen):
        super().__init__()
        self.screen=screen
        self.ai_settings=ai_settings
        
        self.image=pygame.image.load('F:\\1\\codelearn\\python_ex\\py\\alien_invasion\\images\\ship.bmp')
        self.rect=self.image.get_rect()
        self.screen_rect=screen.get_rect()
        
        self.rect.centerx=self.screen_rect.centerx
        self.rect.bottom=self.screen_rect.bottom
    
        self.center=float(self.rect.centerx)
        
        self.moving_right=False
        self.moving_left=False
    def center_ship(self):
        self.center=self.screen_rect.centerx
    def update(self):
        if self.moving_right and self.rect.right<self.screen_rect.right:
            self.center+=self.ai_settings.ship_speed_factor
        elif self.moving_left and self.rect.left>0:
            self.center-=self.ai_settings.ship_speed_factor
        #
        self.rect.centerx=self.center
    def blitme(self):
        self.screen.blit(self.image,self.rect)

运行结果

在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述

待改进

由于教材上只是具备了最基础的功能,我们可以尝试改进这个游戏,比如说界面优化,增加功能……可以在了解了代码原理后自行去加入自己的一些想法,pygame还有许多其他功能等待我们的探索。

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