基于yolov5的PCB缺陷检测,引入CVPR 2023 BiFormer:Vision Transformer with Bi-Level Routing Attention提升检测精度

目录

1.PCB数据集介绍

1.1 通过split_train_val.py得到trainval.txt、val.txt、test.txt

 1.2 通过voc_label.py得到适合yolov5训练需要的

2.基于Yolov5 的PCB缺陷识别

2.1配置 pcb.yaml

 2.2 修改yolov5s_pcb.yaml

2.3 超参数修改train.py

3.实验结果分析

3.1  CVPR 2023 BiFormer: 基于动态稀疏注意力构建高效金字塔网络架构


1.PCB数据集介绍

PCB是最具竞争力的产业之一,其产品的优良则关系到企业的发展。由于产品外观缺陷的种类非常广泛,所以较一般电子零部件的缺陷检测更加困难。PCB 板缺陷包括短路、多铜及少铜、断路、缺口、毛刺等。利用深度学习技术采用人工智能学习PCB图像,可以分析复杂的图像,大幅提升自动化视觉检测的图像判读能力和准确度,并可将缺陷进行分类。针对不同产品不同的缺陷标准,智能系统能够灵活应对。

PCB数据集共有六种缺陷,分别是"missing_hole","mouse_bite","open_circuit","short","spur","spurious_copper",缺陷属于小目标缺陷检测

下图为每个类别的数据量、标签,center xy, labels 标签的长和宽

1.1 通过split_train_val.py得到trainval.txt、val.txt、test.txt

# coding:utf-8
 
import os
import random
import argparse
 
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
#xml文件的地址,根据自己的数据进行修改 xml一般存放在Annotations下
parser.add_argument('--xml_path', default='Annotations', type=str, help='input xml label path')
#数据集的划分,地址选择自己数据下的ImageSets/Main
parser.add_argument('--txt_path', default='ImageSets/Main', type=str, help='output txt label path')
opt = parser.parse_args()
 
trainval_percent = 0.9
train_percent = 0.8
xmlfilepath = opt.xml_path
txtsavepath = opt.txt_path
total_xml = os.listdir(xmlfilepath)
if not os.path.exists(txtsavepath):
    os.makedirs(txtsavepath)
 
num = len(total_xml)
list_index = range(num)
tv = int(num * trainval_percent)
tr = int(tv * train_percent)
trainval = random.sample(list_index, tv)
train = random.sample(trainval, tr)
 
file_trainval = open(txtsavepath + '/trainval.txt', 'w')
file_test = open(txtsavepath + '/test.txt', 'w')
file_train = open(txtsavepath + '/train.txt', 'w')
file_val = open(txtsavepath + '/val.txt', 'w')
 
for i in list_index:
    name = total_xml[i][:-4] + '\n'
    if i in trainval:
        file_trainval.write(name)
        if i in train:
            file_train.write(name)
        else:
            file_val.write(name)
    else:
        file_test.write(name)
 
file_trainval.close()
file_train.close()
file_val.close()
file_test.close()

 1.2 通过voc_label.py得到适合yolov5训练需要的

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
import os
from os import getcwd

sets = ['train', 'val']
classes = ["missing_hole","mouse_bite","open_circuit","short","spur","spurious_copper"]   # 改成自己的类别
abs_path = os.getcwd()
print(abs_path)

def convert(size, box):
    dw = 1. / (size[0])
    dh = 1. / (size[1])
    x = (box[0] + box[1]) / 2.0 - 1
    y = (box[2] + box[3]) / 2.0 - 1
    w = box[1] - box[0]
    h = box[3] - box[2]
    x = x * dw
    w = w * dw
    y = y * dh
    h = h * dh
    return x, y, w, h

def convert_annotation(image_id):
    in_file = open('Annotations/%s.xml' % (image_id), encoding='UTF-8')
    out_file = open('labels/%s.txt' % (image_id), 'w')
    tree = ET.parse(in_file)
    root = tree.getroot()
    size = root.find('size')
    w = int(size.find('width').text)
    h = int(size.find('height').text)
    for obj in root.iter('object'):
        difficult = obj.find('difficult').text
        #difficult = obj.find('Difficult').text
        cls = obj.find('name').text
        if cls not in classes or int(difficult) == 1:
            continue
        cls_id = classes.index(cls)
        xmlbox = obj.find('bndbox')
        b = (float(xmlbox.find('xmin').text), float(xmlbox.find('xmax').text), float(xmlbox.find('ymin').text),
             float(xmlbox.find('ymax').text))
        b1, b2, b3, b4 = b
        # 标注越界修正
        if b2 > w:
            b2 = w
        if b4 > h:
            b4 = h
        b = (b1, b2, b3, b4)
        bb = convert((w, h), b)
        out_file.write(str(cls_id) + " " + " ".join([str(a) for a in bb]) + '\n')

wd = getcwd()
for image_set in sets:
    if not os.path.exists('labels/'):
        os.makedirs('labels/')
    image_ids = open('ImageSets/Main/%s.txt' % (image_set)).read().strip().split()
    list_file = open('%s.txt' % (image_set), 'w')
    for image_id in image_ids:
        list_file.write(abs_path + '/images/%s.jpg\n' % (image_id))
        convert_annotation(image_id)
    list_file.close()

2.基于Yolov5 的PCB缺陷识别

2.1配置 pcb.yaml

 2.2 修改yolov5s_pcb.yaml

# YOLOv5 🚀 by Ultralytics, GPL-3.0 license

# Parameters
nc: 6  # number of classes
depth_multiple: 0.33  # model depth multiple
width_multiple: 0.50  # layer channel multiple
anchors:
  - [10,13, 16,30, 33,23]  # P3/8
  - [30,61, 62,45, 59,119]  # P4/16
  - [116,90, 156,198, 373,326]  # P5/32

# YOLOv5 v6.0 backbone
backbone:
  # [from, number, module, args]
  [[-1, 1, Conv, [64, 6, 2, 2]],  # 0-P1/2
   [-1, 1, Conv, [128, 3, 2]],  # 1-P2/4
   [-1, 3, C3, [128]],
   [-1, 1, Conv, [256, 3, 2]],  # 3-P3/8
   [-1, 6, C3, [256]],
   [-1, 1, Conv, [512, 3, 2]],  # 5-P4/16
   [-1, 9, C3, [512]],
   [-1, 1, Conv, [1024, 3, 2]],  # 7-P5/32
   [-1, 3, C3, [1024]],
   [-1, 1, SPPF, [1024, 5]],  # 9
  ]

# YOLOv5 v6.0 head
head:
  [[-1, 1, Conv, [512, 1, 1]],
   [-1, 1, nn.Upsample, [None, 2, 'nearest']],
   [[-1, 6], 1, Concat, [1]],  # cat backbone P4
   [-1, 3, C3, [512, False]],  # 13

   [-1, 1, Conv, [256, 1, 1]],
   [-1, 1, nn.Upsample, [None, 2, 'nearest']],
   [[-1, 4], 1, Concat, [1]],  # cat backbone P3
   [-1, 3, C3, [256, False]],  # 17 (P3/8-small)

   [-1, 1, Conv, [256, 3, 2]],
   [[-1, 14], 1, Concat, [1]],  # cat head P4
   [-1, 3, C3, [512, False]],  # 20 (P4/16-medium)

   [-1, 1, Conv, [512, 3, 2]],
   [[-1, 10], 1, Concat, [1]],  # cat head P5
   [-1, 3, C3, [1024, False]],  # 23 (P5/32-large)

   [[17, 20, 23], 1, Detect, [nc, anchors]],  # Detect(P3, P4, P5)
  ]

2.3 超参数修改train.py

parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
    parser.add_argument('--weights', type=str, default=ROOT / 'weights/yolov5s.pt', help='initial weights path')
    parser.add_argument('--cfg', type=str, default='models/yolov5s_pcb.yaml', help='model.yaml path')
    parser.add_argument('--data', type=str, default=ROOT / 'data/pcb.yaml', help='dataset.yaml path')
    parser.add_argument('--hyp', type=str, default=ROOT / 'data/hyps/hyp.scratch-low.yaml', help='hyperparameters path')
    parser.add_argument('--epochs', type=int, default=100, help='total training epochs')
    parser.add_argument('--batch-size', type=int, default=16, help='total batch size for all GPUs, -1 for autobatch')
    parser.add_argument('--imgsz', '--img', '--img-size', type=int, default=640, help='train, val image size (pixels)')
    parser.add_argument('--rect', action='store_true', help='rectangular training')
    parser.add_argument('--resume', nargs='?', const=True, default=False, help='resume most recent training')
    parser.add_argument('--nosave', action='store_true', help='only save final checkpoint')
    parser.add_argument('--noval', action='store_true', help='only validate final epoch')
    parser.add_argument('--noautoanchor', action='store_true', help='disable AutoAnchor')
    parser.add_argument('--noplots', action='store_true', help='save no plot files')
    parser.add_argument('--evolve', type=int, nargs='?', const=300, help='evolve hyperparameters for x generations')
    parser.add_argument('--bucket', type=str, default='', help='gsutil bucket')
    parser.add_argument('--cache', type=str, nargs='?', const='ram', help='image --cache ram/disk')
    parser.add_argument('--image-weights', action='store_true', help='use weighted image selection for training')
    parser.add_argument('--device', default='2', help='cuda device, i.e. 0 or 0,1,2,3 or cpu')
    parser.add_argument('--multi-scale', action='store_true', help='vary img-size +/- 50%%')
    parser.add_argument('--single-cls', action='store_true', help='train multi-class data as single-class')
    parser.add_argument('--optimizer', type=str, choices=['SGD', 'Adam', 'AdamW'], default='SGD', help='optimizer')
    parser.add_argument('--sync-bn', action='store_true', help='use SyncBatchNorm, only available in DDP mode')
    parser.add_argument('--workers', type=int, default=0, help='max dataloader workers (per RANK in DDP mode)')
    parser.add_argument('--project', default=ROOT / 'runs/train_pcb', help='save to project/name')
    parser.add_argument('--name', default='exp', help='save to project/name')
    parser.add_argument('--exist-ok', action='store_true', help='existing project/name ok, do not increment')
    parser.add_argument('--quad', action='store_true', help='quad dataloader')
    parser.add_argument('--cos-lr', action='store_true', help='cosine LR scheduler')
    parser.add_argument('--label-smoothing', type=float, default=0.0, help='Label smoothing epsilon')
    parser.add_argument('--patience', type=int, default=100, help='EarlyStopping patience (epochs without improvement)')
    parser.add_argument('--freeze', nargs='+', type=int, default=[0], help='Freeze layers: backbone=10, first3=0 1 2')
    parser.add_argument('--save-period', type=int, default=-1, help='Save checkpoint every x epochs (disabled if < 1)')
    parser.add_argument('--seed', type=int, default=0, help='Global training seed')
    parser.add_argument('--local_rank', type=int, default=-1, help='Automatic DDP Multi-GPU argument, do not modify')

3.实验结果分析

原始map为0.921

3.1  CVPR 2023 BiFormer: 基于动态稀疏注意力构建高效金字塔网络架构

Yolov5/Yolov7 引入CVPR 2023 BiFormer: 基于动态稀疏注意力构建高效金字塔网络架构,对小目标涨点明显_AI&CV的博客-CSDN博客

 map从0.921提升至0.952

 图片预测结果:

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基于yolov5PCB缺陷检测是一种利用深度学习技术进行自动化视觉检测的方法。该方法引入CVPR 2023 BiFormerVision Transformer with Bi-Level Routing Attention,以提升检测精度PCB数据集中包含了六种常见的缺陷类型,分别是"missing_hole"、"mouse_bite"、"open_circuit"、"short"、"spur"和"spurious_copper"。这些缺陷属于小目标缺陷检测范畴。PCB缺陷检测在电子产业中非常重要,因为产品的外观缺陷直接关系到企业的发展。利用深度学习技术,可以对PCB图像进行分析,提高自动化视觉检测的准确度和图像判读能力,并对缺陷进行分类。智能系统可以根据不同产品的不同缺陷标准进行灵活应对。\[1\]\[2\]\[3\] #### 引用[.reference_title] - *1* [基于yolov5PCB缺陷检测](https://blog.csdn.net/u012505617/article/details/130844232)[target="_blank" data-report-click={"spm":"1018.2226.3001.9630","extra":{"utm_source":"vip_chatgpt_common_search_pc_result","utm_medium":"distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-cask-2~all~insert_cask~default-1-null.142^v91^insert_down28v1,239^v3^insert_chatgpt"}} ] [.reference_item] - *2* *3* [基于yolov5PCB缺陷检测引入CVPR 2023 BiFormerVision Transformer with Bi-Level Routing Attention...](https://blog.csdn.net/m0_63774211/article/details/129715988)[target="_blank" data-report-click={"spm":"1018.2226.3001.9630","extra":{"utm_source":"vip_chatgpt_common_search_pc_result","utm_medium":"distribute.pc_search_result.none-task-cask-2~all~insert_cask~default-1-null.142^v91^insert_down28v1,239^v3^insert_chatgpt"}} ] [.reference_item] [ .reference_list ]

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