《薄冰实用英语语法详解》独家连载之十二:现在分词

第一章、现在分词在句子中的成分

现在分词(The Present Participle)是一种限定动词。它由动词原形加词尾-ing构成。现在分词有双重性,它一方面有动词的性质,可以有状语和宾语,另一方面又有形容词的性质,可以用作定语。现在分词在各类考试中都是一项重要的测试内容。

1. 现在分词(短语)作表语

(1) 分词作表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词作表语,一种是过去分词作表语,究竟是用现在分词还是用过去分词作表语是学生们经常困惑的地方。一般来说,表示心理状态的动词如excite,interest等都是及物动词,汉语意思不是“激动”,“高兴”,而是“使激动”、“使高兴”,因而现在分词应该是“令人激动的”、“令人高兴的”,过去分词则是“感到激动的”和“感到高兴的”。所以,凡表示“令人……的”都是-ing形式,凡是表示“感到……”都用-ed形式。换句话说,若人对……感兴趣,就是somebody is interested in..., 若人/ 物本身有兴趣时,就是说sb/sth is interesting。这类词常见的有:

interesting 使人感到高兴 — interested感到高兴的
exciting令人激动的— excited感到激动的
delighting令人高兴的— delighted感到高兴的
disappointing令人失望的— disappointed感到失望的
encouraging 令人鼓舞的— encouraged感到鼓舞的
pleasing令人愉快的— pleased感到愉快的
puzzling令人费解的— puzzled感到费解的
satisfying令人满意的— satisfied感到满意的
surprising令人惊异的— surpsried感到惊异的
worring令人担心的—worrred感到担心的
如:

Traveling is interesting but tiring.
旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳
The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.
如果让学生学得太多,他们会感到糊涂的。
The argument is very convincing.
他的论点很令人信服。
They were very excited at the news.
听到这个消息,他们非常激动。

(2) 分词作表语时,相当于形容词,不可与构成进行时态和被动语态中的分词混淆起来。它们的形式是一样但可以从意义上予以区别。试比较:
The film is moving.
这电影很感人。(表语,说明主语的性质)
They are moving next Sunday .
他们下个周日搬家。(现在进行时,表示动作)
The bookstore is now closed.
书店现在已关门了。(表语,说明主语所处的状态)
The bookstore is usually closed at 7:30 p. m. .
书店通常在下午7:30关门。(被动语态,表示动作)

2. 现在分词(短语)作定语

(1) 单个的现在分词作定语时通常前置。如:
I’m reading an interesting novel.
我在读一本非常有趣的小说。
She is a charming child.
她是一个招人喜爱的孩子。
One of the delegates asked an embarrassing question.
其中有位代表提了一个令人难堪的问题。
This is a pressing question. 这是一个紧迫的问题。

(2) 现在分词短语作定语时通常后置,相当于一个定语从句。如:
Most of the young teachers working in the university are Ph.D. .
在这所大学工作的大多数年轻教师都是博士。(working=who working in this university)
Do you know the number of people coming to the party ?
你知道来参加晚会的人数吗?(coming=who will come)
The man speaking to us the other day has gone to Japan.
那天同我们讲话的那个人到日本去了。(speaking=who spoke)

3. 现在分词(短语)作状语

(1) 现在分词(短语)作时间状语
Walking along the street one day, sha saw a little girl running up to her.
(=when she was walking along the street one day .)
有一天当她正沿着大街向前走时,她看见一个小女孩朝她跑了过来。
While crossing the street, you must be careful.
当你横过马路时,一定要小心。
(=while you cross the street.)
现在分词(短语)强调与谓语动词的动作同时发生时,前面可带when,while,after,before,since 等从属连词。如:
When visiting a strange city,I like to have a guide-book with me.
游览陌生城市时,我喜欢随身带着导游手册。
While flying over the Channel,the pilot saw what he thought to be a meteorite.
飞过英吉利海峡时,驾驶员认为他看见了一颗陨星。

(2) Having no place to go to , the man wandered about in the street.
由于没有要去的地方,那个男人只好在街上徘徊。
Being ill, he didn’t go to school yesterday.
他由于病了,昨天就没有去上学。 ? (=because he was ill)
Living in the country,we had few social engagements.
(=Because we were living in the country)
我们住在乡村,交际的机会很少。
Seeing that it was raining,George put on his mackintosh.
鉴于下雨,乔治穿上了雨衣。(seeing that是一个原因的固定说法)

(3)现在分词(短语)作结果状语
Jane fell off the bike,cutting her leg.
简从自行车上摔下,划破了腿。
It rained heavily,causing severe flooding in that country.
大雨滂沱,造成了那个国家洪水泛滥。

(4) 现在分词(短语)作条件状语
Working hard, you will succeed.
努力工作,你就会成功。
Standing on the building ,you can see the whole city.
站在那座楼上,你会看到整个城市。

(5) 现在分词(短语)作让步状语
Such committees, being evenly balanced, almost never succeed in making unequivocal judgements.
这种委员会虽然代表性很均衡,但几乎从未做出十分明确的决断。
Although living miles away,he got around to visiting her.
尽管住在几英里以外,他还是去看她了。
While not being optimistic,I have not given up all hope.
虽然不乐观,但是我还没有放弃一切希望。

(6) 现在分词(短语)作方式状语
She came running back to tell usthe news
她跑着回来告诉我们这个消息。
Mary stood at the school gate wating for Betty.
玛丽站在校门口等贝蒂。
She looked out of the window,as though thinking.
她向窗外望去,似乎在思考。

(7) 现在分词(短语)作伴随状语
His wife came into the house carrying a bundle of clothes.
他妻子拿着一包衣服走进屋内。
Raymond entered college at the age of eighteen,graduating four years later at the head of his class.
雷蒙德18岁上大学,4年之后毕业时名列前茅。

(8) 现在分词(短语)在某些固定结构中作状语
① 现在分词(短语)在spend time / money / energy doing中作状语。如:
I wish you wouldn’t spend so much time watching television.
我希望你不要花这么多时间看电视。
He spends a lot of money entertaining his friends.
他花很多钱款待朋友。
The secretary spent his energy organizing the rally.
秘书为大会的组织工作用尽了力气。

② 现在分词(短语)在(be)busy doing中作状语。如:
The workers were busy unloading carts.
工人们忙着卸车。
He was busy packing.
他正忙着收拾行装。

③ 现在分词(短语)在have difficulty/trouble/a difficult time doing中作状语。如:
The boy had little difficulty learning mathematics.
那男孩学数学没有什么困难。
The two friends had a hard time getting here.
两位朋友到这里来一路辛苦。
At first she had a little trouble following the lectures.
起初她上课听讲有点困难。

④ 现在分词(短语)在keep doing中作状语。如:
Why do you keep saying that?
你为什么老说那件事?

⑤ 现在分词(短语)在go doing中作状语。如:
He often goes running.
他经常跑步。

4. 现在分词(短语)作宾语补足语

(1)现在分词(短语)在感官动词feel,hear,notice,observe,perceive,see,smell,watch,listen to,look at等之后作宾补。如:
I saw the naughty boy hitting the dog.
我看见那个顽皮孩子打狗。
One could hear her singing as she ran upstairs.
你可以听到她边唱歌边跑上楼。
We found him waiting to receive us.
我们发现他等着欢迎我们。
Many people observed the ship leaving the harbor.
许多人看到船驶离了港口。

(2) 现在分词(短语)在使役动词get,have 及bring(致使),keep(使),leave(使),send(使),set(使开始), start(使开始)等之后作宾补。如:
The doctor will soon have you walking about again.
医生将很快地使你能再走动。(have在此表示允诺)
I won’t have you shouting at me the way.
我不容许你这样对我喊叫。(have在此用于不允许)
The children kept the fire burning all the time.
孩子使火一直燃烧着。

(3) 现在分词(短语)在其他动词catch,detect,discover,find,want等之后作宾补。如:
The manager caught me smoking in the office again.
经理又抓住我在办公室抽烟了。
We don’t want you becoming too confident.
我不希望你变得太自信。
I found her reading in bed.
我发现她在床上看书。

 

 第二章、现在分词的结构和时态

 

1. 现在分词独立结构

现在分词可有其独立的逻辑主语。这种主语常常是名词或代词主语,置于现在分词之前,二者构成一种分词独立结构。现在分词独立结构常用作状语,置于句首或句末,偶尔也置于句中。分句独立结构多用在书面语中。

(1) 表时间。如:
The bell ringing, the children all stopped talking.
铃声一响,孩子们都不说话了。
The dark clouds having dispersed,the sun shone again.
乌云已散去,太阳又普照大地了。
The question being settled,we went home.
问题解决之后,我们就回家了。

(2) 表原因。如:
It being a holiday,I went fishing.
那天放假,我钓鱼去了。
The night being dark, she was afraid to go there.
天黑,她不敢去那儿。
The river having risen in the night,the crossing was impossible.
夜里河水上涨,渡河不可能了。

(3) 表条件。如:
Weather permiting, we’ll have an outing tomorrow.
要是天气许可的话,我们明天就去郊游。
Other things being equal,I would buy the black dress not the white one.
其他方面若都相同,我将买那件黑的衣服,不买那件白的。

(4) 表方式或伴随情况。如:
The teacher came in, his hand carring a book.
老师手中拿着书进来了。
Their room was on the third floor,its window overlooking the sportsground.
他们的房间在三层楼上,窗户俯视着操场。
He guiding her,they stumbled through the street.
他引着她,两个人蹒跚着穿过那条街。

(5) 现在分词独立结构有时可由介词with或without引导。如:
She came without anyone accompanying her.
她来了,没有任何人陪着她。

2. 现在分词的否定结构

现在分词的否定式由“not+现在分词”构成。如:
Not knowing where to go, she went to the police for help.
她不知道该往哪儿走,就去请警察帮助。(现在分词一般式的否定结构)
Not seeing John, I asked where he was.
我看不见约翰,于是问他在何处。(现在分词一般式的否定结构)
Not being seen by anyone, the thief escaped.
那个贼趁无人看见时逃跑了。(现在分词被动式的否定结构)
Not having done it right,I tried again.
我由于没有做对,所以又试了试。(现在分词完成式的否定结构)

3. 现在分词的一般式

(1) 现在分词的一般式通常表示其动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生。如:
She sat there reading a novel.
她坐在那里看小说。
A little child learning to walk often falls.
学走路的小孩常常跌跤。

(2) 现在分词的一般式所表示的动作有时在谓语动词的动作之前发生。如:
Going into the room,he shut the door.
走进房间,他就关上了门。

4. 现在分词的完成式

现在分词的完成式表示其动作在谓语动词的动作之前完成。
Having finished her homework, the little girl began to watch TV.
做完作业后,这个小女孩开始看电视。
Haning lived in Beijing for many years, Carter knew the city well.
因为在北京住了多年,卡特对这个城市很熟悉

5. 现在分词的被动式

现在分词的被动式表示其逻辑主语为现在分词动作的承受者。
(1) 现在分词的一般被动式。如:
The building being built is our library.
正在建的那栋楼是我们的图书馆。
The question being discussed is of great importance.
正在讨论的问题非常重要。

(2) 现在分词的完成被动式。如:
Having been warned by the teacher, the students didn’t make such mistakes.
老师警告他们之后,学生们不再犯这样的错误了。
Having been told many times , he still did not know how to do it.
(人家)已经告诉他多少次了,他还是不知道怎么做。

6. 垂悬现在分词

现在分词作状语时,其逻辑主语应该与句子的主语一致,但有时现在分词的主语与其所在句中的主语并不一致,这种现在分词即所谓的垂悬现在分词。垂悬现在分词容易使句意模糊,甚至造成歧义,因而通常被认为是不合规范或错误的用法。
Searching along the deck,it had taken him some time to find a doctor.
他沿着甲板找了好久才找到一名医生。(searching的逻辑主语是句中的him)
Walking or sleeping,this subject was always in my mind.
不论是走路或睡觉,我总是在想着这个问题。
(walking or sleeping的逻辑主语是句中的my)

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