ubuntu配置git工具

使用ubuntu,如果想从github上clone文件,需要做一些简单的配置,不然会出现如下错误:

> git clone git@github.com:lujiaying/MovieTaster-Open.git
Permission denied (publickey).
fatal: Could not read from remote repository.
Please make sure you have the correct access rights and the repository exists.

配置的过程记录如下:

一、安装工具

1、安装ssh:
这样ubuntu才能通过ssh和其他主机通信,命令如下:

sudo apt-get install ssh

2、安装git工具,命令如下:

 sudo apt-get update
 sudo apt-get install git

3、首先试一下ssh是否能够连接上github,命令如下:

ssh -T git@github.com

出现错误如下:

Permission denied (publickey).

出现警告,提示缺少公钥,无法访问。
接下来配置公钥:

二、配置公钥

1、进入~/.ssh,检查本地是否有SSH Key存在

> cd ~/.ssh
> ls

2、如果不存在id_rsa和id_rsa.pub两个文件,下面就要生成新的SSH key:
首先输入:

> ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "your_email@example.com"   
# your_email@example.com 是你在GitHub或者GitLab注册的邮箱

回车后终端会显示:

Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): 
# 提示你保存id_rsa 的路径是/root/.ssh/id_rsa,直接按回车
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
# 提示设置 passphrase,之后每次与 Git 通信都会要求输入 passphrase,可以设置一下,或者直接回车passphrase为空
Enter same passphrase again: 

成功后终端会提示:

Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
SHA256:AdfQ6hyFsuhgVdMiy+4OEh6vvAQGm14j0gVZmW7YWRY your_email@example.com
The key's randomart image is:

3、查看~/.ssh文件夹中是否生成id_rsa和id_rsa.pub,将生成的公钥id_rsa.pub打开,如下:

> cat id_rsa.pub
ssh-rsa AAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQChztgVQdkMJsy716t8nEclf0rhqxYPz6DrmKspD/6yf+O1eq/rkkhofyjcqyi52zNCbP39lfppGMQBkm2q19pc2478aekwBCyZrIcD/R6+6kfEUnQ829bDdS+DzZDaU61OHb3d8Yv2vs/spjI6rD94sp2J5xQ5w1GAOQGbNjDLU3HJA4viOfT4K84WSVhIgR/MXs2DOoJ75qa1UudYX7IQGgq1C/O2RL5rpcyelzHl7ptpZF2agVlV9R9IbI7AVHYzLcnxG+VGZmJk9ZiXpui2GIHe/kBryUo1/rsOLNbgBqRM0mqK8gfWBWrsx23vghrxfMV6B2+WMh your_email@example.com

4、将这个公钥复制添加到github中:
进入github官网,并登录:setting->SSH and GPG keys->new ssh key

将复制的key粘贴到指定的文本框中,之后单击Add SSH Key添加公钥

5、然后再试一下ssh是否能够连接上github

> ssh -T git@github.com
Hi MemoryForSky! You've successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not provide shell access.

返回如上消息,则表明链接成功,可以使用git命令操作了。

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