# PAT（甲级）2018年春季考试 经验分享和心路历程

PAT（甲级）2018年春季考试

A

Look-and-say Sequence

(20分)

Look-and-say sequence is a sequence of integers as the following:

D, D1, D111, D113, D11231, D112213111, ...

where D is in [0, 9] except 1. The (n+1)st number is a kind of description of the nth number. For example, the 2nd number means that there is one D in the 1st number, and hence it is D1; the 2nd number consists of one D (corresponding to D1) and one 1 (corresponding to 11), therefore the 3rd number is D111; or since the 4th number is D113, it consists of one D, two 1's, and one 3, so the next number must be D11231. This definition works for D = 1 as well. Now you are supposed to calculate the Nth number in a look-and-say sequence of a given digit D.

### Input Specification:

Each input file contains one test case, which gives D (in [0, 9]) and a positive integer N (≤ 40), separated by a space.

### Output Specification:

Print in a line the Nth number in a look-and-say sequence of D.

### Sample Input:

1 8

### Sample Output:

1123123111

GXX

// 1.cpp : 此文件包含 "main" 函数。程序执行将在此处开始并结束。
//

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
#ifndef ONLINE_JUDGE
FILE* S;
freopen_s(&S, "in.txt", "r", stdin);
#endif // !ONLINE_JUDGE
string d;int  n;
cin >> d >> n;
for (int k = 0; k < n-1; k++) {
string t;
for (int i = 0; i < d.size();) {
int count = 0;
int j;
for (j = i; j < d.size(); j++) {
if (d[i] == d[j]) {
count++;
}
else {

break;
}
}
t += d[i];
t += count + '0';
i = j;
}
d = t;
//cout << t<<endl;
}
cout << d << endl;
return 0;
}


a.cpp: In function ‘int main()’:
a.cpp:17:27: warning: comparison between signed and unsigned integer expressions [-Wsign-compare]
for (int i = 0; i < d.size();) {
~~^~~~~~~~~~
a.cpp:20:27: warning: comparison between signed and unsigned integer expressions [-Wsign-compare]
for (j = i; j < d.size(); j++) {
~~^~~~~~~~~~

0答案正确1213.00 ms444 KB
1答案正确25.00 ms316 KB
2答案正确27.00 ms444 KB
3答案正确111.00 ms328 KB
4答案正确323.00 ms708 KB

B

PAT Ranking of Institutions

(25分)

After each PAT, the PAT Center will announce the ranking of institutions based on their students' performances. Now you are asked to generate the ranklist.

### Input Specification:

Each input file contains one test case. For each case, the first line gives a positive integer N (≤10​5​​), which is the number of testees. Then N lines follow, each gives the information of a testee in the following format:

ID Score School

where ID is a string of 6 characters with the first one representing the test level: B stands for the basic level, A the advanced level and T the top level; Score is an integer in [0, 100]; and School is the institution code which is a string of no more than 6 English letters (case insensitive). Note: it is guaranteed that ID is unique for each testee.

### Output Specification:

For each case, first print in a line the total number of institutions. Then output the ranklist of institutions in nondecreasing order of their ranks in the following format:

Rank School TWS Ns

where Rank is the rank (start from 1) of the institution; School is the institution code (all in lower case); ; TWS is the total weighted score which is defined to be the integer part of ScoreB/1.5 + ScoreA + ScoreT*1.5, where ScoreX is the total score of the testees belong to this institution on level X; and Ns is the total number of testees who belong to this institution.

The institutions are ranked according to their TWS. If there is a tie, the institutions are supposed to have the same rank, and they shall be printed in ascending order of Ns. If there is still a tie, they shall be printed in alphabetical order of their codes.

### Sample Input:

10
A57908 85 Au
B57908 54 LanX
A37487 60 au
T28374 67 CMU
T32486 24 hypu
A66734 92 cmu
B76378 71 AU
A47780 45 lanx
A72809 100 pku
A03274 45 hypu

### Sample Output:

5
1 cmu 192 2
1 au 192 3
3 pku 100 1
4 hypu 81 2
4 lanx 81 2

GXX

// 2.cpp : 此文件包含 "main" 函数。程序执行将在此处开始并结束。
//

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

struct info {
string id;
double score;
int tws;
int num;
info() {
score = 0.0;
num = 0;
}
};

vector<info> an;
unordered_map<string, info> record;
//unordered_map < string, double > tws;
//unordered_map<string, int> ns;

string lower(string x) {
string t; char c;
for (int i = 0; i < x.size(); i++) {
t += tolower(x[i]);
}
return t;
}

bool cmp(info a, info b) {
if (a.tws != b.tws) {
return a.tws > b.tws;
}
else if (a.num != b.num) {
return a.num < b.num;
}
else if (a.id != b.id) {
return a.id < b.id;
}
}

int main()
{
#ifndef ONLINE_JUDGE
FILE* S;
freopen_s(&S, "in.txt", "r", stdin);
#endif // !ONLINE_JUDGE

int n;
cin >> n;
string id, school; int score;
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
double a=0;
cin >> id >> score >> school;
if (id == 'B') {
a = score / 1.5;
}
else if (id == 'A') {
a = score ;
}
else if (id == 'T') {
a = score*1.5;
}
string b = lower(school);
record[b].id = b;
record[b].score += a;
record[b].num++;
}
info* node = new info();
for (auto it = record.begin(); it != record.end(); it++) {
node->id = it->second.id;
node->num = it->second.num;
node->tws = (int)it->second.score;
an.push_back(*node);
}
cout << an.size()<<endl;
sort(an.begin(), an.end(), cmp);
int cur_rank = 1;
int cur_max = INT_MAX;
for (int i = 0; i < an.size(); i++) {
if (an[i].tws < cur_max) {
printf("%d %s %d %d\n", i + 1, an[i].id.data(), an[i].tws, an[i].num);
cur_max = an[i].tws;
cur_rank = i + 1;
}
else{//an[i].tws == cur_max
printf("%d %s %d %d\n", cur_rank, an[i].id.data(), an[i].tws, an[i].num);
}
}
return 0;
}


a.cpp: In function ‘std::__cxx11::string lower(std::__cxx11::string)’:
a.cpp:25:23: warning: comparison between signed and unsigned integer expressions [-Wsign-compare]
for (int i = 0; i < x.size(); i++) {
~~^~~~~~~~~~
a.cpp:24:20: warning: unused variable ‘c’ [-Wunused-variable]
string t; char c;
^
a.cpp: In function ‘int main()’:
a.cpp:81:23: warning: comparison between signed and unsigned integer expressions [-Wsign-compare]
for (int i = 0; i < an.size(); i++) {
~~^~~~~~~~~~~
a.cpp: In function ‘bool cmp(info, info)’:
a.cpp:41:1: warning: control reaches end of non-void function [-Wreturn-type]
}
^

0答案正确1512.00 ms464 KB
1答案正确215.00 ms408 KB
2答案正确120.00 ms312 KB
3答案正确28.00 ms332 KB
4答案正确2458.00 ms18552 KB
5答案正确3442.00 ms18868 KB

C

Maximal Clique

(25分)

clique is a subset of vertices of an undirected graph such that every two distinct vertices in the clique are adjacent. A maximal clique is a clique that cannot be extended by including one more adjacent vertex. (Quoted from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clique_(graph_theory))

Now it is your job to judge if a given subset of vertices can form a maximal clique.

### Input Specification:

Each input file contains one test case. For each case, the first line gives two positive integers Nv (≤ 200), the number of vertices in the graph, and Ne, the number of undirected edges. Then Ne lines follow, each gives a pair of vertices of an edge. The vertices are numbered from 1 to Nv.

After the graph, there is another positive integer M (≤ 100). Then M lines of query follow, each first gives a positive number K (≤ Nv), then followed by a sequence of K distinct vertices. All the numbers in a line are separated by a space.

### Output Specification:

For each of the M queries, print in a line Yes if the given subset of vertices can form a maximal clique; or if it is a clique but not a maximal clique, print Not Maximal; or if it is not a clique at all, print Not a Clique.

### Sample Input:

8 10
5 6
7 8
6 4
3 6
4 5
2 3
8 2
2 7
5 3
3 4
6
4 5 4 3 6
3 2 8 7
2 2 3
1 1
3 4 3 6
3 3 2 1

### Sample Output:

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Not Maximal
Not a Clique

GXX

// 3.cpp : 此文件包含 "main" 函数。程序执行将在此处开始并结束。
//

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

unordered_map<int, vector<int>> gn;

int main()
{
#ifndef ONLINE_JUDGE
FILE* s;
freopen_s(&s, "in.txt", "r", stdin);
#endif // !ONLINE_JUDGE

int nv, ne;
cin >> nv >> ne;
int a, b;
for (int i = 0; i < ne; i++) {
cin >>a >> b;
gn[a].push_back(b);
gn[b].push_back(a);
}
int m,k;
cin >> m;
for (int i = 0; i < m; i++) {
cin >> k;
vector<int> an(k);
for (int j = 0; j < k; j++) {
cin >> an[j];
}
bool clique = true;
for (int j = 0; j < k; j++) {
if (!clique)break;
vector<bool> adj(nv + 1, false);
for (int p = 0; p < gn[an[j]].size(); p++) {
adj[gn[an[j]][p]]=true;
}
for (int p = j + 1; p < k; p++) {
if (adj[an[p]] == false) {
clique = false;
break;
}
}
}
if (clique) {
bool Maximal = true;
vector<bool> add(nv + 1, false);
for (int j = 0; j < k; j++) {
add[an[j]] = true;
}
for (int q = 1; q <=nv; q++) {
if (add[q] == false) {//还未加入的点
if (!Maximal)break;
vector<bool> adj(nv + 1, false);
for (int p = 0; p < gn[q].size(); p++) {
adj[gn[q][p]] = true;
}
int count = 0;
for (int r = 0; r < an.size(); r++) {
if (adj[an[r]] == true) {
count++;
}
}
if (count == an.size()) {
Maximal = false;
}
}
}
if (Maximal) {
cout<< "Yes\n";
}
else {
cout << "Not Maximal\n";
}
}
else {
cout << "Not a Clique\n";
}
}
return 0;
}


a.cpp: In function ‘int main()’:
a.cpp:36:31: warning: comparison between signed and unsigned integer expressions [-Wsign-compare]
for (int p = 0; p < gn[an[j]].size(); p++) {
~~^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
a.cpp:56:39: warning: comparison between signed and unsigned integer expressions [-Wsign-compare]
for (int p = 0; p < gn[q].size(); p++) {
~~^~~~~~~~~~~~~~
a.cpp:60:39: warning: comparison between signed and unsigned integer expressions [-Wsign-compare]
for (int r = 0; r < an.size(); r++) {
~~^~~~~~~~~~~
a.cpp:65:31: warning: comparison between signed and unsigned integer expressions [-Wsign-compare]
if (count == an.size()) {
~~~~~~^~~~~~~~~~~~

0答案正确134.00 ms444 KB
1答案正确44.00 ms316 KB
2答案正确23.00 ms324 KB
3答案正确387.00 ms572 KB
4答案正确35.00 ms448 KB

D

Lowest Common Ancestor

(30分)

The lowest common ancestor (LCA) of two nodes U and V in a tree is the deepest node that has both U and V as descendants.

A binary search tree (BST) is recursively defined as a binary tree which has the following properties:

• The left subtree of a node contains only nodes with keys less than the node's key.
• The right subtree of a node contains only nodes with keys greater than or equal to the node's key.
• Both the left and right subtrees must also be binary search trees.

Given any two nodes in a BST, you are supposed to find their LCA.

### Input Specification:

Each input file contains one test case. For each case, the first line gives two positive integers: M (≤ 1,000), the number of pairs of nodes to be tested; and N (≤ 10,000), the number of keys in the BST, respectively. In the second line, N distinct integers are given as the preorder traversal sequence of the BST. Then M lines follow, each contains a pair of integer keys U and V. All the keys are in the range of int.

### Output Specification:

For each given pair of U and V, print in a line LCA of U and V is A. if the LCA is found and A is the key. But if A is one of U and V, print X is an ancestor of Y. where X is A and Y is the other node. If U or V is not found in the BST, print in a line ERROR: U is not found. or ERROR: V is not found. or ERROR: U and V are not found..

### Sample Input:

6 8
6 3 1 2 5 4 8 7
2 5
8 7
1 9
12 -3
0 8
99 99

### Sample Output:

LCA of 2 and 5 is 3.
8 is an ancestor of 7.
ERROR: 9 is not found.
ERROR: 12 and -3 are not found.
ERROR: 0 is not found.
ERROR: 99 and 99 are not found.

GXX

// 4.cpp : 此文件包含 "main" 函数。程序执行将在此处开始并结束。
//

#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

int m, n, t;
struct node
{
int val;
node* left;
node* right;
node() {
left = right = NULL;
}
};
vector<int> pre;
vector<int> in;
unordered_map<int, int> parent;
unordered_map<int, bool> visit;

void DFS(node* root) {
if (root->left != NULL) {
parent[root->left->val] = root->val;
DFS(root->left);
}
if (root->right != NULL) {
parent[root->right->val] = root->val;
DFS(root->right);
}

}

node* build(int start,int begin,int end) {
if (begin > end || start >= n) {
return NULL;
}
int i;
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
if (in[i] == pre[start]) {
break;
}
}
node* temp = new node();
temp->val = in[i];
temp->left = build(start + 1, start, i - 1);
temp->right = build(start + 1 + i, i + 1, end);
return temp;
}

void mark(int x,int root) {
while (x!=root)
{
visit[x] = true;
x = parent[x];
}
visit[root] = true;
}

int LCA(int u, int v,int root) {
mark(u, root);
while (visit[v] != true) {
v = parent[v];
}
return v;
}

int main()
{
#ifndef ONLINE_JUDGE
FILE* s;
freopen_s(&s, "in.txt", "r", stdin);
#endif // !ONLINE_JUDGE

cin >> m >> n;
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
cin >> t;
pre.push_back(t);
in.push_back(t);
}
sort(in.begin(), in.end());
node* root = build(0, 0, n - 1);//input
DFS(root);//parent
int x, y;
for (int i = 0; i < m; i++) {
cin >> x >> y;
auto itx = parent.find(x);
auto ity = parent.find(y);
if (itx == parent.end() || ity == parent.end()) {
if (itx != parent.end() && ity == parent.end()) {
printf("ERROR: %d is not found.\n", y);
}
else if (itx == parent.end() && ity != parent.end()) {
printf("ERROR: %d is not found.\n", x);
}
else {
printf("ERROR: %d and %d are not found.\n", x,y);
}
}
else {
int z = LCA(x, y, root->val);
if (z != x && z != y) {
printf("LCA of %d and %d is %d.\n", x,y,z);
}
else if (z == x && z != y) {
printf("%d is an ancestor of %d.\n", x, y);
}
else if (z != x && z == y) {
printf("%d is an ancestor of %d.\n", y, x);
}
}
}
return 0;
}



0答案正确155.00 ms456 KB
1答案错误04.00 ms340 KB
2答案错误04.00 ms324 KB
3答案正确48.00 ms584 KB
4答案错误034.00 ms1216 KB
5答案错误015.00 ms712 KB

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