# 机器学习之泰坦尼克号实战

### Data Preprocessing

import pandas


titanic["Age"] = titanic["Age"].fillna(titanic["Age"].median())


print (titanic["Sex"].unique())  #看有几个不一样
#换0 1
# Replace all the occurences of male with the number 0.
titanic.loc[titanic["Sex"] == "male", "Sex"] = 0
titanic.loc[titanic["Sex"] == "female", "Sex"] = 1



#字符型的有NaN值谁多用谁
#换0 1 2
print (titanic["Embarked"].unique())
titanic["Embarked"] = titanic["Embarked"].fillna('S')
titanic.loc[titanic["Embarked"] == "S", "Embarked"] = 0
titanic.loc[titanic["Embarked"] == "C", "Embarked"] = 1
titanic.loc[titanic["Embarked"] == "Q", "Embarked"] = 2


### 利用Linear Regression

# Import the linear regression class
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
# Sklearn also has a helper that makes it easy to do cross validation
from sklearn.model_selection import KFold

# The columns we'll use to predict the target
predictors = ["Pclass", "Sex", "Age", "SibSp", "Parch", "Fare", "Embarked"]

# Initialize our algorithm class
alg = LinearRegression()
# Generate cross validation folds for the titanic dataset.  It return the row indices corresponding to train and test.
# We set random_state to ensure we get the same splits every time we run this.

#n_folds变为n_splits
kf = KFold(titanic.shape[0], n_splits=3, random_state=1, shuffle=False)

predictions = []
for train, test in kf.split(titanic):
# The predictors we're using the train the algorithm.  Note how we only take the rows in the train folds.
train_predictors = (titanic[predictors].iloc[train,:])
# The target we're using to train the algorithm.
train_target = titanic["Survived"].iloc[train]
# Training the algorithm using the predictors and target.
alg.fit(train_predictors, train_target)
# We can now make predictions on the test fold
test_predictions = alg.predict(titanic[predictors].iloc[test,:])
predictions.append(test_predictions)


import numpy as np

# The predictions are in three separate numpy arrays.  Concatenate them into one.
# We concatenate them on axis 0, as they only have one axis.
predictions = np.concatenate(predictions, axis=0)

# Map predictions to outcomes (only possible outcomes are 1 and 0)
predictions[predictions > .5] = 1
predictions[predictions <=.5] = 0
######################
#这里不太确定，是用sum还是len
#accuracy = sum(predictions[predictions == titanic["Survived"]]) / len(predictions)
#accuracy = predictions[predictions == titanic["Survived"]].size / len(predictions)
accuracy = sum(predictions == titanic["Survived"]) / len(predictions)

print (accuracy)


0.7968574635241302

### 利用Logistics Regression

#from sklearn import cross_validation 旧库已经不行了，这里要注意
from sklearn import model_selection
from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression
# Initialize our algorithm
alg = LogisticRegression(random_state=1)
# Compute the accuracy score for all the cross validation folds.  (much simpler than what we did before!)
scores = model_selection.cross_val_score(alg, titanic[predictors], titanic["Survived"], cv=3)
# Take the mean of the scores (because we have one for each fold)
print(scores.mean())


0.7957351290684623

###### 在测试集试试

titanic_test = pandas.read_csv("test.csv")
titanic_test["Age"] = titanic_test["Age"].fillna(titanic["Age"].median())
titanic_test["Fare"] = titanic_test["Fare"].fillna(titanic_test["Fare"].median())
titanic_test.loc[titanic_test["Sex"] == "male", "Sex"] = 0
titanic_test.loc[titanic_test["Sex"] == "female", "Sex"] = 1
titanic_test["Embarked"] = titanic_test["Embarked"].fillna("S")

titanic_test.loc[titanic_test["Embarked"] == "S", "Embarked"] = 0
titanic_test.loc[titanic_test["Embarked"] == "C", "Embarked"] = 1
titanic_test.loc[titanic_test["Embarked"] == "Q", "Embarked"] = 2


### 利用Random Forest

from sklearn import model_selection
from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier

predictors = ["Pclass", "Sex", "Age", "SibSp", "Parch", "Fare", "Embarked"]

# Initialize our algorithm with the default paramters
# n_estimators is the number of trees we want to make
# min_samples_split is the minimum number of rows we need to make a split
# min_samples_leaf is the minimum number of samples we can have at the place where a tree branch ends (the bottom points of the tree)
#10：树的个数   2：当样本数是2的时候不切   1：叶子节点个数最少1个
alg = RandomForestClassifier(random_state=1, n_estimators=10, min_samples_split=2, min_samples_leaf=1)
# Compute the accuracy score for all the cross validation folds.  (much simpler than what we did before!)
kf = model_selection.KFold(titanic.shape[0], n_splits=3, random_state=1)
scores = model_selection.cross_val_score(alg, titanic[predictors], titanic["Survived"], cv=kf)

# Take the mean of the scores (because we have one for each fold)
print(scores.mean())


0.8069584736251403

alg = RandomForestClassifier(random_state=1, n_estimators=50, min_samples_split=4, min_samples_leaf=2)
# Compute the accuracy score for all the cross validation folds.  (much simpler than what we did before!)
kf = model_selection.KFold(titanic.shape[0], n_splits=3, random_state=1)
scores = model_selection.cross_val_score(alg, titanic[predictors], titanic["Survived"], cv=kf)

# Take the mean of the scores (because we have one for each fold)
print(scores.mean())


0.8260381593714927

#提取特征
# Generating a familysize column
titanic["FamilySize"] = titanic["SibSp"] + titanic["Parch"]

# The .apply method generates a new series
titanic["NameLength"] = titanic["Name"].apply(lambda x: len(x))


import re

# A function to get the title from a name.
def get_title(name):
# Use a regular expression to search for a title.  Titles always consist of capital and lowercase letters, and end with a period.
title_search = re.search(' ([A-Za-z]+)\.', name)
# If the title exists, extract and return it.
if title_search:
return title_search.group(1)
return ""

# Get all the titles and print how often each one occurs.
titles = titanic["Name"].apply(get_title)
print(pandas.value_counts(titles))

# Map each title to an integer.  Some titles are very rare, and are compressed into the same codes as other titles.
title_mapping = {"Mr": 1, "Miss": 2, "Mrs": 3, "Master": 4, "Dr": 5, "Rev": 6, "Major": 7, "Col": 7, "Mlle": 8, "Mme": 8, "Don": 9, "Lady": 10, "Countess": 10, "Jonkheer": 10, "Sir": 9, "Capt": 7, "Ms": 2}
for k,v in title_mapping.items():
titles[titles == k] = v

# Verify that we converted everything.
print(pandas.value_counts(titles))

# Add in the title column.
titanic["Title"] = titles


import numpy as np
from sklearn.feature_selection import SelectKBest, f_classif
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
predictors = ["Pclass", "Sex", "Age", "SibSp", "Parch", "Fare", "Embarked", "FamilySize", "Title", "NameLength"]

# Perform feature selection
selector = SelectKBest(f_classif, k=5)
selector.fit(titanic[predictors], titanic["Survived"])

# Get the raw p-values for each feature, and transform from p-values into scores
scores = -np.log10(selector.pvalues_)

# Plot the scores.  See how "Pclass", "Sex", "Title", and "Fare" are the best?
plt.bar(range(len(predictors)), scores)
plt.xticks(range(len(predictors)), predictors, rotation='vertical')
plt.show()

# Pick only the four best features.
predictors = ["Pclass", "Sex", "Fare", "Title"]

alg = RandomForestClassifier(random_state=1, n_estimators=50, min_samples_split=8, min_samples_leaf=4)


### 多个分类器一起上，最后求均值

from sklearn.ensemble import GradientBoostingClassifier
import numpy as np

# The algorithms we want to ensemble.
# We're using the more linear predictors for the logistic regression, and everything with the gradient boosting classifier.
algorithms = [
[GradientBoostingClassifier(random_state=1, n_estimators=25, max_depth=3), ["Pclass", "Sex", "Age", "Fare", "Embarked", "FamilySize", "Title",]],
[LogisticRegression(random_state=1), ["Pclass", "Sex", "Fare", "FamilySize", "Title", "Age", "Embarked"]]
]

# Initialize the cross validation folds
kf = KFold(titanic.shape[0], n_splits=3, random_state=1)

predictions = []
for train, test in kf.split(titanic):
train_target = titanic["Survived"].iloc[train]
full_test_predictions = []
# Make predictions for each algorithm on each fold
for alg, predictors in algorithms:
# Fit the algorithm on the training data.
alg.fit(titanic[predictors].iloc[train,:], train_target)
# Select and predict on the test fold.
# The .astype(float) is necessary to convert the dataframe to all floats and avoid an sklearn error.
test_predictions = alg.predict_proba(titanic[predictors].iloc[test,:].astype(float))[:,1]
full_test_predictions.append(test_predictions)
# Use a simple ensembling scheme -- just average the predictions to get the final classification.
test_predictions = (full_test_predictions[0] + full_test_predictions[1]) / 2
# Any value over .5 is assumed to be a 1 prediction, and below .5 is a 0 prediction.
test_predictions[test_predictions <= .5] = 0
test_predictions[test_predictions > .5] = 1
predictions.append(test_predictions)

# Put all the predictions together into one array.
predictions = np.concatenate(predictions, axis=0)

# Compute accuracy by comparing to the training data.
accuracy = sum(predictions[predictions == titanic["Survived"]]) / len(predictions)
print(accuracy)


09-20

05-26
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