使用 MQTTnet 实现 MQTT 通信示例

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一、什么是 MQTT ?

MQTT(Message Queuing Telemetry Transport,消息队列遥测传输)是 IBM 开发的一个即时通讯协议,有可能成为物联网的重要组成部分。MQTT 是基于二进制消息的发布/订阅编程模式的消息协议,如今已经成为 OASIS 规范,由于规范很简单,非常适合需要低功耗和网络带宽有限的 IoT 场景。
github上还发现了一个项目,可以直接看协议:MQTT协议中文版

二、MQTTnet

MQTTnet is a high performance .NET library for MQTT based communication. It provides a MQTT client and a MQTT server (broker). The implementation is based on the documentation from http://mqtt.org/.

MQTT 开源库还有 MqttDotNetnMQTTM2MQTT 等,不过这几个里面,目前star最多的还是MQTTnet(编辑时间2018.5.9)。

三、创建项目并导入类库

在解决方案在右键单击-选择“管理解决方案的 NuGet 程序包”-在“浏览”选项卡下面搜索 MQTTnet,为服务端项目和客户端项目都安装上 MQTTnet 库。示例中使用的是2.7.5.0版本,不同版本最低要求的.net版本或其它支持,在NuGet选中MQTTNet,右侧可以看到具体描述。

客户端简单Demo可以见官方文档:https://github.com/chkr1011/MQTTnet/wiki/Client
本文示例程序github:https://github.com/landbroken/MQTTLearning

评论有不知道怎么用示例程序的,简单解释一下。目录一开始建的有点问题,调试稍微麻烦一点,懒得改了。

  • 1、clone或download项目
  • 2、vs2015或以上版本打开MQTTLearning/MqttServerTest/MqttServerTest.sln
  • 3、服务器端示例在SeverTest项目里面
  • 4、客户端示例在ClientTest项目里面
    调试:
    方法1)是vs里两个项目设为同时启动;
    方法2)一端用生成的exe启动,一端在vs里用debug启动

一般可以直接打开的,万一vs有路径依赖问题:

  • 1、如果项目路径依赖有问题,删掉重新添加一遍SeverTest.csproj和ClientTest.csproj
  • 2、如果MQTTnet 库引用路径有问题,删掉从packages里面重新引用一遍,或者nuget里面添加一下

3.1 服务器

直接跑一下示例程序就知道了
下面简单解释一下主要部分。

3.1.1 初始化并启动服务器

首先,初始化并启动服务器

1、这里是异步启动,用的2.7.5版本的库

Task.Run(async () => { await StartMqttServer_2_7_5(); });

2、配置设置
WithDefaultEndpointPort是设置使用的端口,协议里默认是用1883,不过调试我改成8222了。
WithConnectionValidator是用于连接验证,验证client id,用户名,密码什么的。示例没用数据库,随便写死了两个值。
还有其他配置选项,比如加密协议,可以在官方文档里看看,示例就是先简单能用。

// Configure MQTT server.
                var optionsBuilder = new MqttServerOptionsBuilder()
                    .WithConnectionBacklog(100)
                    .WithDefaultEndpointPort(8222)
                    .WithConnectionValidator(ValidatingMqttClients())
                    ;

3、添加事件触发
ApplicationMessageReceived 是服务器接收到消息时触发的事件,可用来响应特定消息。
ClientConnected 是客户端连接成功时触发的事件。
ClientDisconnected 是客户端断开连接时触发的事件。

mqttServer = new MqttFactory().CreateMqttServer();
                mqttServer.ApplicationMessageReceived += MqttServer_ApplicationMessageReceived;
                mqttServer.ClientConnected += MqttServer_ClientConnected;
                mqttServer.ClientDisconnected += MqttServer_ClientDisconnected;

异步启动mqtt服务器,实际项目可能要加一个启动失败处理

Task.Run(async () => { await mqttServer.StartAsync(optionsBuilder.Build()); });

示例里面为了简单调试玩的,写了几个触发命令,在启动后,输入对于字符串即可触发。

字符串 效果
exit 关闭mqtt服务
hello: 发送topic为topic/hello的消息,payload为冒号后面的数据
control: 发送topic为topic/control的消息,payload为冒号后面的数据
subscribe: 订阅topic为冒号后面的消息

3.1.2 消息发送

mqtt的消息包含topic和payload两部分。topic就是消息主题(类型),用于另外一端判断这个消息是干什么用的。payload就是实际想要发送的数据。
WithTopic给一个topic。
WithPayload给一个msg。
WithAtMostOnceQoS设置QoS,至多1次。也可以设为别的。
PublishAsync异步发送出去。

string topic = "topic/hello";
var message = new MqttApplicationMessageBuilder()
                .WithTopic(topic)
                .WithPayload(msg)
                .WithAtMostOnceQoS()
                .WithRetainFlag()
                .Build();
await mqttServer.PublishAsync(message);

3.1.3 完整源码

using MQTTnet;
using MQTTnet.Diagnostics;
using MQTTnet.Protocol;
using MQTTnet.Server;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace MqttServerTest
{
    class Program
    {
        private static IMqttServer mqttServer = null;
        private static List<string> connectedClientId = new List<string>();

        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Task.Run(async () => { await StartMqttServer_2_7_5(); });

            // Write all trace messages to the console window.
            MqttNetGlobalLogger.LogMessagePublished += MqttNetTrace_TraceMessagePublished;

            //2.4.0版本
            //MqttNetTrace.TraceMessagePublished += MqttNetTrace_TraceMessagePublished;
            //new Thread(StartMqttServer).Start();
            while (true)
            {
                if (mqttServer==null)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("Please await mqttServer.StartAsync()");
                    Thread.Sleep(1000);
                    continue;
                }

                var inputString = Console.ReadLine().ToLower().Trim();

                if (inputString == "exit")
                {
                    Task.Run(async () => { await EndMqttServer_2_7_5(); });
                    Console.WriteLine("MQTT服务已停止!");
                    break;
                }
                else if (inputString == "clients")
                {
                    var connectedClients = mqttServer.GetConnectedClientsAsync();

                    Console.WriteLine($"客户端标识:");
                    //2.4.0
                    //foreach (var item in mqttServer.GetConnectedClients())
                    //{
                    //    Console.WriteLine($"客户端标识:{item.ClientId},协议版本:{item.ProtocolVersion}");
                    //}
                }
                else if (inputString.StartsWith("hello:"))
                {
                    string msg = inputString.Substring(6);
                    Topic_Hello(msg);
                }
                else if (inputString.StartsWith("control:"))
                {
                    string msg = inputString.Substring(8);
                    Topic_Host_Control(msg);
                }
                else if (inputString.StartsWith("subscribe:"))
                {
                    string msg = inputString.Substring(10);
                    Subscribe(msg);
                }
                else
                {
                    Console.WriteLine($"命令[{inputString}]无效!");
                }
                Thread.Sleep(100);
            }
        }

        private static void MqttServer_ClientConnected(object sender, MqttClientConnectedEventArgs e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine($"客户端[{e.Client.ClientId}]已连接,协议版本:{e.Client.ProtocolVersion}");
            connectedClientId.Add(e.Client.ClientId);
        }

        private static void MqttServer_ClientDisconnected(object sender, MqttClientDisconnectedEventArgs e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine($"客户端[{e.Client.ClientId}]已断开连接!");
            connectedClientId.Remove(e.Client.ClientId);
        }

        private static void MqttServer_ApplicationMessageReceived(object sender, MqttApplicationMessageReceivedEventArgs e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("### RECEIVED APPLICATION MESSAGE ###");
            Console.WriteLine($"客户端[{e.ClientId}]>>");
            Console.WriteLine($"+ Topic = {e.ApplicationMessage.Topic}");
            Console.WriteLine($"+ Payload = {Encoding.UTF8.GetString(e.ApplicationMessage.Payload)}");
            Console.WriteLine($"+ QoS = {e.ApplicationMessage.QualityOfServiceLevel}");
            Console.WriteLine($"+ Retain = {e.ApplicationMessage.Retain}");
            Console.WriteLine();
        }

        private static void MqttNetTrace_TraceMessagePublished(object sender, MqttNetLogMessagePublishedEventArgs e)
        {
            var trace = $">> [{e.TraceMessage.Timestamp:O}] [{e.TraceMessage.ThreadId}] [{e.TraceMessage.Source}] [{e.TraceMessage.Level}]: {e.TraceMessage.Message}";
            if (e.TraceMessage.Exception != null)
            {
                trace += Environment.NewLine + e.TraceMessage.Exception.ToString();
            }

            Console.WriteLine(trace);
        }

        #region 2.7.5

        private static async Task StartMqttServer_2_7_5()
        {
            if (mqttServer == null)
            {
                // Configure MQTT server.
                var optionsBuilder = new MqttServerOptionsBuilder()
                    .WithConnectionBacklog(100)
                    .WithDefaultEndpointPort(8222)
                    .WithConnectionValidator(ValidatingMqttClients())
                    ;

                // Start a MQTT server.
                mqttServer = new MqttFactory().CreateMqttServer();
                mqttServer.ApplicationMessageReceived += MqttServer_ApplicationMessageReceived;
                mqttServer.ClientConnected += MqttServer_ClientConnected;
                mqttServer.ClientDisconnected += MqttServer_ClientDisconnected;

                Task.Run(async () => { await mqttServer.StartAsync(optionsBuilder.Build()); });
                //mqttServer.StartAsync(optionsBuilder.Build());
                Console.WriteLine("MQTT服务启动成功!");
            }
        }

        private static async Task EndMqttServer_2_7_5()
        {
            if (mqttServer!=null)
            {
                await mqttServer.StopAsync();
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("mqttserver=null");
            }
        }

        private static Action<MqttConnectionValidatorContext> ValidatingMqttClients()
        {
            // Setup client validator.    
            var options =new MqttServerOptions();
            options.ConnectionValidator = c =>
            {
                Dictionary<string, string> c_u = new Dictionary<string, string>();
                c_u.Add("client001", "username001");
                c_u.Add("client002", "username002");
                Dictionary<string, string> u_psw = new Dictionary<string, string>();
                u_psw.Add("username001", "psw001");
                u_psw.Add("username002", "psw002");

                if (c_u.ContainsKey(c.ClientId) && c_u[c.ClientId] == c.Username)
                {
                    if (u_psw.ContainsKey(c.Username) && u_psw[c.Username] == c.Password)
                    {
                        c.ReturnCode = MqttConnectReturnCode.ConnectionAccepted;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        c.ReturnCode = MqttConnectReturnCode.ConnectionRefusedBadUsernameOrPassword;
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    c.ReturnCode = MqttConnectReturnCode.ConnectionRefusedIdentifierRejected;
                }
            };
            return options.ConnectionValidator;
        }
        
        private static void Usingcertificate(ref MqttServerOptions options)
        {
            var certificate = new X509Certificate(@"C:\certs\test\test.cer", "");
            options.TlsEndpointOptions.Certificate = certificate.Export(X509ContentType.Cert);
            var aes = new System.Security.Cryptography.AesManaged();

        }

        #endregion

        #region Topic

        private static async void Topic_Hello(string msg)
        {
            string topic = "topic/hello";

            //2.4.0版本的
            //var appMsg = new MqttApplicationMessage(topic, Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(inputString), MqttQualityOfServiceLevel.AtMostOnce, false);
            //mqttClient.PublishAsync(appMsg);

            var message = new MqttApplicationMessageBuilder()
                .WithTopic(topic)
                .WithPayload(msg)
                .WithAtMostOnceQoS()
                .WithRetainFlag()
                .Build();
            await mqttServer.PublishAsync(message);
        }

        private static async void Topic_Host_Control(string msg)
        {
            string topic = "topic/host/control";

            var message = new MqttApplicationMessageBuilder()
                .WithTopic(topic)
                .WithPayload(msg)
                .WithAtMostOnceQoS()
                .WithRetainFlag(false)
                .Build();
            await mqttServer.PublishAsync(message);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 替指定的clientID订阅指定的内容
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="topic"></param>
        private static void Subscribe(string topic)
        {
            List<TopicFilter> topicFilter = new List<TopicFilter>();
            topicFilter.Add(new TopicFilterBuilder()
                .WithTopic(topic)
                .WithAtMostOnceQoS()
                .Build());
            //给"client001"订阅了主题为topicFilter的payload
            mqttServer.SubscribeAsync("client001", topicFilter);
            Console.WriteLine($"Subscribe:[{"client001"}],Topic:{topic}");
        }

        #endregion
    }
}

3.2 客户端

未完待续

参考文献

1、《使用 MQTTnet 快速实现 MQTT 通信》:链接
这篇文章是vs2017+.net core+mqttnet2.4.0的,目前库已经更新了好几个版本,如果用最新版的不能直接运行文章里的程序。
2、MQTT官网
3、开源库地址:MQTTnet
4、开源库对应文档:https://github.com/chkr1011/MQTTnet/wiki/Client

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