ds 1302 应用笔记3816 Selecting a Backup Source for Real-Time Clocks

转载 2012年03月23日 15:53:28
May 26, 2006

Abstract: Most Maxim real-time clocks (RTCs) include a supply input for a backup power source. This alternate supply source allows the RTC to maintain the current time and date while the main power source is absent. This application note discusses the various types of alternate supplies that can be used, as well as some of the criteria that a designer should consider when selecting a backup source.

Introduction

Maxim's first real-time clocks (RTCs) were designed so that a backup source, such as a primary (nonrechargeable) lithium coin cell, could be used as the backup supply. Since then, Maxim has introduced additional RTCs with built-in trickle chargers. There are changes that affect system requirements since the first RTCs were introduced, including the shift to IR reflow in manufacturing and restrictions on transportation and disposal of lithium cells. The following paragraphs discuss battery backup techniques and the advantages and limitations of commonly used backup supply sources.

Backup Supply Operation

Early Maxim RTCs had a relatively simple voltage-comparator circuit to monitor VCC and switch between the VCC and VBAT supplies. The DS1307, for example, uses a comparator and a voltage divider to switch to VBAT when VCC drops below approximately 1.25 times the voltage on VBAT. Other RTCs, such as the DS1305/DS1306, switch when VCC drops below the VBAT input voltage. When using these devices, care must be taken to ensure that the voltage on VBAT never rises high enough to cause the device to inadvertently switch over to VBAT while VCC is at the normal operating voltage. An external charging circuit must limit the maximum charging voltage to prevent such an occurrence. Newer Maxim RTCs, which are designed to allow operation whether VCC is above or below the voltage on VBAT, use an internal bandgap voltage reference to determine when VCC is too low for normal operation.

The following table lists the common supply technologies used for backup power. The table lists key parameters that affect selection. The paragraphs following the table discuss each technology and their advantages and drawbacks.

Table 1. Common Backup Supply Sources and Key Selection Criteria
Technology Operating Temperature (°C) PC Board Attachment Self-Discharge Rate Disposal/Transportation Restrictions Charging Circuit/Cycles Backup Time
Primary Lithium -30 to +80 Wave solder¹ Low High N/A Long
Capacitor -40 to +85 SMT High Low Simple/unlimited Short
Rechargeable (NiCd/NiMh) 0 to +40² Hand solder³ Medium Medium Simple/≈500 Short
Reflowable ML -20 to +60 SMT Low High Voltage 12 - > 1000 Medium4

  1. Primary lithium cells may be wave soldered as long as the cell temperature does not exceed +85°C. Cells may be placed in a holder or hand soldered after reflow (tabbed cells).
  2. Ambient temperature during charging. The allowed ambient temperature during discharge may be higher.
  3. Batteries may be placed in a holder or hand soldered after reflow (tabbed batteries).
  4. Total backup time is dependent upon the depth of discharge between each charging cycle.

Lithium Primary (BR and CR) Cells

Primary lithium coin cells are commonly used for RTC and memory backup. Lithium cells have a high energy density, thus taking up a small amount of room on a PC board. Lithium cells cannot withstand IR reflow, so the cell must either be soldered on after reflow or inserted in a holder, thus increasing cost. Self-discharge near room temperature and below is typically less than 1% per year. At temperatures above about +60°C, self-discharge quickly increases. Recent regulations limit the transportation of lithium primary cells aboard passenger aircraft. Other regulations govern disposal of the cells at end of life, in some cases placing the burden on the manufacturer.

Lithium primary cells are usually sized to power the RTC for the expected life of the product. To calculate cell life based upon the current draw of the RTC, divide the cell capacity in ampere-hours by the timekeeping current draw of the RTC. For example, the timekeeping current of the DS1307 RTC (with the square-wave output off) is specified as 500nA maximum. A BR1225 lithium primary cell is rated at 48mAh. Therefore, (0.048 / 500e) - 9 = 96,000 hours, or 4,000 days (almost 11 years). For additional information regarding calculating cell life, please refer to application note 505,
Lithium Coin-Cell Batteries: Predicting an Application Lifetime.

The following is a list of links to some lithium coin-cell manufacturer web sites:
Panasonic®: OEM Batteries
SANYO®: Industrial Batteries

Capacitors

Large low-leakage capacitors, sometimes called supercaps, are sometimes used for backup. The advantages of a capacitor over primary lithium cells include the ability to IR reflow the capacitor and fewer regulations concerning shipment and disposal. However, capacitors require a charging circuit, and provide backup operation for a relatively short time. Capacity may decrease with use, especially at higher operating temperatures.
大型低漏电电容,有时也被称为超级电容器,有时用于备份。相对比简单的锂电池,电容器的优势,包括IR回流电容和更少的法规,有关运输和处置的能力。然而,电容需要充电电路,备份操作的时间相对比较短。在较高的工作温度与使用,容量可能减少。
 
For additional information about capacitors for backup and how to calculate the backup time for a given capacitor size, please refer to application note 3517, Estimating Super Capacitor Backup Time on Trickle-Charger Real-Time Clocks. To determine backup time, please refer to the online Super Capacitor Calculator (For Trickle Charger RTCs).

The following is a list of links to some capacitor manufacturer web sites:
Panasonic: Gold Capacitors
NEC TOKIN: Super Capacitors
Kanthal Globar: Capacitors
Cooper Electronic Technologies: Supercapacitors

NiMH and NiCd Batteries

Rechargeable nickel metal hydride (NiMH) or nickel cadmium (NiCd) batteries are incompatible with the float-charging technique used in this trickle charger. Consequently, care must be taken to avoid potentially dangerous side effects when utilizing either of these battery chemistries.

Caution: Do not enable the trickle charger if using NiMH or NiCD batteries.

Charging NiMH or NiCD cells requires both control of the charge current and monitoring of the battery's temperature to prevent overcharging/internal gas formation. These batteries could be safely charged (externally), using an appropriate circuit for that specific chemistry. Then the battery should be installed in the final application as if it were a primary (nonrechargeable) battery.

NiMH and NiCD batteries have a relatively high self-discharge rate: about 10% per month for NiCd and 20% per month for NiMH at room temperature. The typical operating charging temperature range is approximately 0°C to +40°C. NiMH and NiCd batteries must be hand soldered or placed in a battery holder after the PC board has gone through reflow. Overcharging can reduce the life of the battery. Disposing of the battery at its end of life may be regulated in some regions. NiMH and NiCd battery life is limited by the number of charge/discharge
cycles.

The following is a list of links to some rechargeable battery manufacturer web sites:
Panasonic: OEM Batteries
SANYO: Industrial Batteries

Lithium Secondary (ML) Cells

ML cells require a regulated-voltage-charging source. The maximum voltage must be closely regulated or permanent damage will occur, while too low a voltage results in incomplete charging. ML cells are subject to the same transportation and disposal regulations as lithium primary cells. The DS12R885/DS12R887 RTCs include a charger with the required voltage and current limits on-chip. The DS12R887 RTC integrates the ML cell in a BGA package.

One issue with secondary cells is the number of charge/discharge cycles that they can withstand during the normal service life. For ML cells, the number of charging cycles is directly related to the depth of discharge as detailed in the
Manganese Lithium Rechargeable Cell Lifetime Calculator, an on-line tool for determining ML cell lifetime.

The following is a list of links to some rechargeable lithium ML coin cell manufacturer web sites:
Panasonic: OEM Batteries
SANYO: Industrial Batteries

Conclusion

No single RTC backup power source is perfect for every application. The designer must use such criteria as expected system lifetime, governmental regulations, and manufacturing requirements to select a backup supply that is best suited for the application. Using such criteria, the system designer can select a suitable RTC backup supply technology.

Panasonic is a registered trademark and registered service mark of Panasonic Corporation.

SANYO is a registered trademark of SANYO Electric Co., Ltd.

DS1302

上面是ds1302的引脚功能图 DS1302 是美国DALLAS公司推出的一种高性能、低功耗、带RAM的实时时钟电路,它可以对年、月、日、周、时、分、秒进行计时,具有闰年补偿功能,工作电压为2.0V...
  • qq_34528825
  • qq_34528825
  • 2016年09月22日 22:06
  • 1109

STC单片机 DS1302

简介: DS1302 是美国DALLAS公司推出的一种高性能、低功耗、带RAM的实时时钟电路,它可以对年、月、日、周日、时、分、秒进行计时,具有闰年补偿功能,工作电压为2.5V~5.5V。采用三线接...
  • yyttiao
  • yyttiao
  • 2012年04月07日 22:17
  • 2457

应用笔记3816 ds 1302 估算涓流充电实时时钟的超级电容备份时间

原文地址::http://china.maxim-ic.com/app-notes/index.mvp/id/3517 估算涓流充电实时时钟的超级电容备份时间 Jun 28, 2005...
  • jinn3
  • jinn3
  • 2012年03月23日 16:06
  • 609

论文笔记《A CNN Regression Approach for Real-Time 2D/3D Registration 》

本文发表于TMI-2016-May,提出用CNN回归医学图像的变换参数,报告了2D X光-3D CT医学图像的高精度、大捕捉范围、强实时性的配准方法。 几乎是同一时间,MIAR会议也发表了US-CT的...
  • huangyjhust
  • huangyjhust
  • 2016年11月23日 13:26
  • 548

POJ 1166:The Clocks

The Clocks Time Limit: 1000MS   Memory Limit: 65536K Total Submissions: 15357   Accepted: 6230...
  • u010885899
  • u010885899
  • 2015年11月11日 15:01
  • 990

myeclipse基础使用

1. 选择不同的工作空间     如果进错了工作空间,则通过File--switch workspace可以选择原本想进的工作空间   2. 修改myeclipse快捷键      例如,代码自动补齐...
  • machinecat0898
  • machinecat0898
  • 2012年08月10日 15:47
  • 4002

Note: Time clocks and the ordering of events in a distributed system

分布式系统的时钟同步是一个非常困难的问题,this paper致力于分布式系统的逻辑始终同步问题。 文中有个结论值得注意: In a distributed system, it is impor...
  • guoyanjoy
  • guoyanjoy
  • 2014年04月07日 23:09
  • 586

rvm is not a function的解决方法

今天在使用rvm 1.9.3 --default设置默认的ruby的命令时出现 RVM is not a function, selecting rubies with 'rvm use ...'...
  • dazhi_100
  • dazhi_100
  • 2014年08月26日 12:03
  • 2437

ds 1302 和 89c51 程序

在网上看了很久,发现初学者最有兴趣的就是DS1302时钟电路,也很自然,它是个做出来就让你觉得最实用的电路了,但实际上制做上并不简单,首先你要让你的显示部分(不管是数码管还是LCD)调试通过。然后把D...
  • jinn3
  • jinn3
  • 2012年03月02日 14:24
  • 1838

行人检测论文笔记:Robust Real-Time Face Detection

知识点 傅里叶变换的一个推论: 一个时域下的复杂信号函数可以分解成多个简单信号函数的和,然后对各个子信号函数做傅里叶变换并再次求和,就求出了原信号的傅里叶变换。 卷积定理(Convolution Th...
  • JacobKong
  • JacobKong
  • 2017年02月18日 21:04
  • 769
内容举报
返回顶部
收藏助手
不良信息举报
您举报文章:ds 1302 应用笔记3816 Selecting a Backup Source for Real-Time Clocks
举报原因:
原因补充:

(最多只允许输入30个字)