组件重用需要专人负责

转载 2001年09月10日 19:35:00

不知道诸位所在的公司如何,至少在我现在的公司,代码的重用性是很差的。同一个模块在多个项目组之间重复开发,甚至同一个模块在同一个项目的不同版本之间也是不同的人重复开发......我们把大量的时间放在了做重复性的工作上面,所以就谈不上什么创新了,因为根本没有时间了。

真诚的希望,哪一天我们的工作就像建筑一座大厦,只需要做设计,买来相应的材料就可以组装起来了。无法想象,如果每一个砖头都要亲自打造,何时能够完工。

作为一个普通的开发者,也许我无法改变现实。但是,如果你是一位主管,也许你就可以考虑考虑了。

Component Reuse Requires a Manager

Paul Harmon Archive
Visit the Paul Harmon archive for the complete collection of all past Bottom Line columns.

Most companies are blundering into component development without a clear plan. That makes sense, when you consider that senior managers don't usually focus on technologies. They focus on results. Today, most companies are focused on the Internet and on developing e-commerce and eBusiness applications. To facilitate the development the new B2C or B2B applications, companies decide to adopt Java, buy EJB application servers, or rely on MTS and COM+. Depending on the tools and servers they buy, they may acquire some components for reuse. If they do, however, those components are already implemented as COM or EJB components.

Making quick decisions and moving fast may solve some of the short-run demands that senior executives are placing on IT, but it won't prepare IT for long-run success.

The first step to planning for IT success is to recognize that the move to e-commerce and the Web is in fact a software technology transition. Of course it is also a business process transition and of course senior executives are more focused on implementing new eBusiness processes, but that doesn't change the way the CIO and senior IT managers should look at the transition. When you start using object-oriented languages like Visual Basic, C++, and Java, you are moving toward object-oriented development. When you start developing COM+ and EJB components and acquire an MTS or EJB application server, you are committing your company to component-based development. Once you face this fact, then the question that follows is: Are you going to do it right, or are you going to try to blunder your way through a major technology transition?

"Are you going to do it right, or are you going to try to blunder your way through a major technology transition?"

Assuming you decide you'd rather do it right and master component-based development, you need to begin by creating a new job position. You need a Manager of Component Development, and he or she needs to report to the CIO or to the manager in charge of software development. Put another way, your Manager of Component Development needs clout and he or she needs to be located high enough to have a comprehensive overview of what the organization is doing.

The Manager of Component Development should not be responsible for developing component-based applications. Your whole IT group will eventually be developing component-based applications. The Manager of Component Development should be responsible for two things. First, he or she should be responsible for planning the transition. Second, he or she should end up managing the group within IT that is responsible for reusable component resources.

In effect, once an organization commits to transitioning to component-based development, it should begin to move toward an organizational structure that divides those who create and maintain reusable components and those who assemble components into applications. Moreover, until you have this kind of organization, and some component resources to reuse, you can't practice effective component-based development. Without it, you create a development team to create a new e-commerce application from scratch. The team decides on a language and an application server and then creates a design and starts creating components. They may buy some components from the server vendor or an outside resource, but usually they are under such time pressure that they don't have time to figure out how to acquire components for reuse. Besides, not being trained or disciplined to reuse components, most find it easier to create new components than to work through the significant learning curve that the transition to reuse necessarily requires.

"It's rarely a matter of simply taking a component that was developed for one application and using it in another application."

The only way an organization can get ahead of this game is to appoint a Manager of Component Development and assign that person to manage the transition. The new manager will need to choose his or her targets carefully. First there will be staff training and an evaluation of just what component resources exist. Usually it's a matter of identifying some components from outside sources and other components that will need to be developed internally. Typically, someone will propose that component x (Personnel Record Update, Part Order, Account, or some such) is frequently used and ought to be standardized for reuse. It's rarely a matter of simply taking a component that was developed for one application and using it in another application. Instead, at this point our Manager of Component Development will begin to acquire a team of component developers who will specialize in creating, testing, and maintaining components for reuse.

The component development team will need special skills and they need to be isolated from the contingencies that make it hard for people working on specific projects to take a long range perspective. The component development team is charged with building a library of reusable components. They will buy some and develop others, often starting with existing components but typically modifying them quite a bit. There are lots of issues these developers will face. Do you design components in the abstract (UML specifications) and then implement them in specific languages as COM+ or EJB components, or focus on implementations right from the start? How do you test components? Who is responsible for approving changes in the components and how do you control versions? Figuring out how to develop and manage component resources will take time.

"Team managers will need to be educated to require and reward reuse rather than the rapid development of code."

Then, once the manager and the team feel that they are on top of that, they, or others, will need to train the actual application developers in the reuse of existing resources. This will also take time. Team managers will need to be educated to require and reward reuse rather than the rapid development of code. Individuals will need to be available to help developers design applications to take advantage of reuse. Its never the case that all of the components needed for an application can be reused. It would be impossibly inefficient to aim for such a thing. The key is recognizing what elements of an application can be handled by reusable components and what will require one time development.

I don't want to try to lay out the entire transition here. The key, however, is a Manager of Component Development, and a group that is focused on acquiring, creating, and maintaining reusable components. When I critique an organizations and find a dozen component development projects underway, each trying to figure out how to handle the various problems they face without any high-level help, I know the organization hasn't figured out what its doing yet. It has blundered into a major software transition without realizing it or planning for it. One or two teams, by shear hard work and individual brilliance may produce a great e-commerce application. But the company isn't ready to systematically duplicate that effort when it seeks to create another eBusiness application. Nor will it be ready to modify that and other applications as new technologies and eBusiness processes emerge in the years ahead.

On the other hand, when I visit organizations and see such individuals in place, I know the company has thought about what it is doing and has a transition plan. With a little luck, the organization with the manager is going to get better and better at systematically creating component-based applications. And, at the same time, I expect they will start reducing the time and cost of application development while simultaneously increasing the quality of the applications. They have a plan to take advantage of what the component transition really offers.

<!-- end text --><!-- Discussion Bar --><!-- Discussion Bar -->

C++ 大规模程序设计 之 组件

概述 组件是物理设计中的最小单位。 它主要的想法是把一定数量的内聚功能组织在一个物理的单元中,以达到轻松部署,轻松复用的目的。 物理组件可能会包含一个或多个逻辑组件,也有可能会跨越多个类。但这些...
  • wangzhiyu1980
  • wangzhiyu1980
  • 2015年07月01日 08:07
  • 600

邮件安全风险高发,公安部、工信部、国家保密局联发预警

邮件领域一直是网络攻击的重灾区,由邮件攻击而导致的重大泄露事故更是不胜枚举,随着邮件应用的广泛推进,邮件攻击对于各大政企单位的影响可能是牵一发而动全身的。 邮件传输代理服务器软件提供商Exim在...
  • cc18629609212
  • cc18629609212
  • 2017年11月30日 09:41
  • 86

Java并发编程之——CyclicBarrier的使用

首先看一下官方关于CyclicBarrier的简介: /** * A synchronization aid that allows a set of threads to all wait for...
  • liuyi1207164339
  • liuyi1207164339
  • 2016年06月09日 16:33
  • 1372

浅谈Cell的重用机制

首先我们需要搞明白为什么要使用重用机制,它的原理是什么. 无论是UITableView还是UICollectionView,都有许多需要显示的cell (item), 但是屏幕的大小是有限的...
  • u010850094
  • u010850094
  • 2016年09月29日 13:14
  • 1128

Apache Commons:功能齐全的通用Java组件

Apache Commons是一个Apache项目,提供了功能齐全的通用Java组件。 Apache Commons项目由由下面三部分组成: 正常运转的项目:一组可重用的Java组件。沙箱项目...
  • ainibc
  • ainibc
  • 2016年10月19日 17:54
  • 738

Yarn的JVM重用功能——uber

在文章开头,我想先做几点说明: 1、本文的内容来自我对Yarn的相应功能的理解和实践。而我对该部分功能的理解主要来自对Hadoop的开发者之前相应言论的分析,并且我也将我的分析发给了Hadoop co...
  • samhacker
  • samhacker
  • 2013年11月12日 22:54
  • 7738

自定义控件之创建可以复用的组合控件(三)

今天我们打算学习下另外一种自定义控件,就是创建可重复使用的组合控件,那么问题来了: - **什么是可重复使用?** 就是在应用中,可以在多个地方共同使用一套代码。这样不仅能减少我们的工作量,而且还能保...
  • guiman
  • guiman
  • 2016年04月19日 18:17
  • 4711

UITableView的禁用重用机制

UITableView的重用机制 iphone重用机制是苹果为了实现大量数据显示而采用的一种节省内存的机制,比如在UITableView和ScrollView 等地方。为什么要“可重用”...
  • u011118092
  • u011118092
  • 2016年07月07日 11:36
  • 637

iOS开发中,去除UITableViewCell重用机制的几种方法

UITableView继承自UIScrollview,是苹果为我们封装好的一个基于scroll的控件。上面主要是一个个的UITableViewCell,可以让UITableViewCell响应一些点击...
  • xiaojinIT
  • xiaojinIT
  • 2016年11月18日 18:00
  • 2388

关于“端口重用引发的惨案”的思考

读了“端口重用引发的惨案”()
  • taozhi20084525
  • taozhi20084525
  • 2014年04月09日 16:50
  • 1507
内容举报
返回顶部
收藏助手
不良信息举报
您举报文章:组件重用需要专人负责
举报原因:
原因补充:

(最多只允许输入30个字)