unity官方资源包CarAIControl理解

    接上一篇,这篇讲AI控制。

using System;
using UnityEngine;
using UnityEngine.AI;
using Random = UnityEngine.Random;

namespace UnityStandardAssets.Vehicles.Car
{
    //添加关联脚本
    [RequireComponent(typeof (CarController))]
    public class CarAIControl : MonoBehaviour
    {
        //枚举刹车条件
        public enum BrakeCondition
        {
            NeverBrake,                 // the car simply accelerates at full throttle all the time.汽车一直以最高速度行驶
            //车会根据在朝着目标方向的即将发生的变化刹车,在转向时减速,在基于路线的AI
            TargetDirectionDifference,  // the car will brake according to the upcoming change in direction of the target. Useful for route-based AI, slowing for corners. 
            
            //车会在接近目标时刹车,不管目标的方向,对如果你想前往一个静止的目标,当到达那里时休息
            TargetDistance,             // the car will brake as it approaches its target, regardless of the target's direction. Useful if you want the car to
                                        // head for a stationary target and come to rest when it arrives there.
        }
        //该脚本以与用户控件脚本相同的方式为控制器提供输入,正因如此,它实际是“驾驶”汽车,没有特殊的物理和动画技巧,使得汽车的行为正常。
        // This script provides input to the car controller in the same way that the user control script does.
        // As such, it is really 'driving' the car, with no special physics or animation tricks to make the car behave properly.

        //“漫游”是用来给汽车一个更人性化,更少的机器人感觉。它们在向目标方向行驶时,速度和方向都有轻微的抖动。
        // "wandering" is used to give the cars a more human, less robotic feel. They can waver slightly
        // in speed and direction while driving towards their target.

        //[Range(0,1)]使得变量范围为0~1;
        //最谨慎的时候使用最大速度的百分比

        //[SerializeField] private BoxCollider Check;
        [SerializeField] [Range(0, 1)] private float m_CautiousSpeedFactor = 0.05f;               // percentage of max speed to use when being maximally cautious    
        //接近转弯的角度去当作保证最大的谨慎去处理
        [SerializeField] [Range(0, 180)] private float m_CautiousMaxAngle = 50f;                  // angle of approaching corner to treat as warranting maximum caution
        //最大安全距离
        [SerializeField] private float m_CautiousMaxDistance = 100f;                              // distance at which distance-based cautiousness begins
        //AI应该考虑它的角速度(例如旋转时放开加速度)谨慎使用
        [SerializeField] private float m_CautiousAngularVelocityFactor = 30f;   // how cautious the AI should be when considering its own current angular velocity (i.e. easing off acceleration if spinning!)
        //AI如何使用转向输入转向期望的方向。
        [SerializeField] private float m_SteerSensitivity = 0.05f;                                // how sensitively the AI uses steering input to turn to the desired direction
        //AI如何使用加速器达到当前所需的速度
        [SerializeField] private float m_AccelSensitivity = 0.04f;                                // How sensitively the AI uses the accelerator to reach the current desired speed
        //AI如何使用制动器达到当前所需的速度
        [SerializeField] private float m_BrakeSensitivity = 1f;                                   // How sensitively the AI uses the brake to reach the current desired speed
        //汽车将朝着目标的方向移动多远?
        [SerializeField] private float m_LateralWanderDistance = 3f;                              // how far the car will wander laterally towards its target
        //汽车侧移速度有多快
        [SerializeField] private float m_LateralWanderSpeed = 0.1f;                               // how fast the lateral wandering will fluctuate
        //汽车加速有多少位移
        [SerializeField] [Range(0, 1)] private float m_AccelWanderAmount = 0.1f;                  // how much the cars acceleration will wander
        //汽车加速移动会有多少波动
        [SerializeField] private float m_AccelWanderSpeed = 0.1f;                                 // how fast the cars acceleration wandering will fluctuate
        //AI在加速制动时应该考虑什么
        [SerializeField] private BrakeCondition m_BrakeCondition = BrakeCondition.TargetDistance; // what should the AI consider when accelerating/braking?
        //汽车是否正在积极的驱动或者停止
        [SerializeField] private bool m_Driving;                                                  // whether the AI is currently actively driving or stopped.
        //目标地点
        [SerializeField] private Transform m_Target;                                              // 'target' the target object to aim for.
        //会在接近目标的时候停止行驶?
        [SerializeField] private bool m_StopWhenTargetReached;                                    // should we stop driving when we reach the target?
        //接近目标考虑我们'到达',并停止驾驶。
        [SerializeField] private float m_ReachTargetThreshold = 2;                                // proximity to target to consider we 'reached' it, and stop driving.

        //一个随机值的汽车基地徘徊(使AI汽车不都徘徊在同一模式)
        private float m_RandomPerlin;             // A random value for the car to base its wander on (so that AI cars don't all wander in the same pattern)
        ///参考我们正在控制的实际汽车控制器
        private CarController m_CarController;    // Reference to actual car controller we are controlling
        ///直到我们避开最近与之相撞的汽车为止。
        private float m_AvoidOtherCarTime;        // time until which to avoid the car we recently collided with
        ///由于与另一辆车相撞而减速的速度有多少?
        private float m_AvoidOtherCarSlowdown;    // how much to slow down due to colliding with another car, whilst avoiding
        ///方向(- 1或1),以抵消路径,以避免其他车辆,同时避免
        private float m_AvoidPathOffset;          // direction (-1 or 1) in which to offset path to avoid other car, whilst avoiding
        private Rigidbody m_Rigidbody;

       // private NavMeshAgent cube;
        private void Awake()
        {
            // get the car controller reference
            m_CarController = GetComponent<CarController>();

            // give the random perlin a random value
            m_RandomPerlin = Random.value*100;

            m_Rigidbody = GetComponent<Rigidbody>();
        }
     
       // public Transform target;
        // Use this for initialization  
        //void Start()
        //{
        //    cube = gameObject.GetComponent<NavMeshAgent>();

        //}

        //// Update is called once per frame  
        //void Update()
        //{
        //    cube.SetDestination(m_Target.position);
        //}



        private void FixedUpdate()
        {


            //foreach (Transform m_target in m_Target)
            //    {

            //}
            //如果没有目标或者没有行驶,不move,否则朝着目标行驶
            if (m_Target == null || !m_Driving)
            {
                // Car should not be moving,
                // use handbrake to stop
                m_CarController.Move(0, 0, -1f, 1f);
            }
            else
            {
                Vector3 fwd = transform.forward;
                //如果实际速度大于最大速度的1/10
                if (m_Rigidbody.velocity.magnitude > m_CarController.MaxSpeed * 0.1f)
                {
                    fwd = m_Rigidbody.velocity;
                }

                float desiredSpeed = m_CarController.MaxSpeed;

                //现在该是决定我们是否应该放慢速度的时候了…
                // now it's time to decide if we should be slowing down...
                switch (m_BrakeCondition)//刹车条件
                {
                    case BrakeCondition.TargetDirectionDifference:
                        {
                            //
                            // the car will brake according to the upcoming change in direction of the target. Useful for route-based AI, slowing for corners.
                            //检查我们的目标的角度相对于当前方向的汽车
                            // check out the angle of our target compared to the current direction of the car
                            float approachingCornerAngle = Vector3.Angle(m_Target.forward, fwd);

                            //也可以考虑我们当前的旋转量,相乘,然后以相同的方式比较作为即将到来的转向角度。
                            // also consider the current amount we're turning, multiplied up and then compared in the same way as an upcoming corner angle
                            float spinningAngle = m_Rigidbody.angularVelocity.magnitude * m_CautiousAngularVelocityFactor;

                            //如果它与我们当前的角度不同,我们需要谨慎(也就是说减速)一定量。
                            // if it's different to our current angle, we need to be cautious (i.e. slow down) a certain amount
                            float cautiousnessRequired = Mathf.InverseLerp(0, m_CautiousMaxAngle,
                                                                           Mathf.Max(spinningAngle,
                                                                                     approachingCornerAngle));
                            desiredSpeed = Mathf.Lerp(m_CarController.MaxSpeed, m_CarController.MaxSpeed * m_CautiousSpeedFactor,
                                                      cautiousnessRequired);
                            break;
                        }

                    //目标距离
                    case BrakeCondition.TargetDistance:
                        {
                            // the car will brake as it approaches its target, regardless of the target's direction. Useful if you want the car to
                            // head for a stationary target and come to rest when it arrives there.

                            //计算汽车与目标间的距离
                            // check out the distance to target
                            Vector3 delta = m_Target.position - transform.position;
                            //反插值,计算两个值之间的Lerp参数。也就是value在from和to之间的比例值。
                            float distanceCautiousFactor = Mathf.InverseLerp(m_CautiousMaxDistance, 0, delta.magnitude);
                            //也考虑我们转向时的当前数目,相乘,然后。。
                            // also consider the current amount we're turning, multiplied up and then compared in the same way as an upcoming corner angle
                            float spinningAngle = m_Rigidbody.angularVelocity.magnitude * m_CautiousAngularVelocityFactor;

                            // if it's different to our current angle, we need to be cautious (i.e. slow down) a certain amount
                            float cautiousnessRequired = Mathf.Max(
                                Mathf.InverseLerp(0, m_CautiousMaxAngle, spinningAngle), distanceCautiousFactor);
                            //期望速度
                            desiredSpeed = Mathf.Lerp(m_CarController.MaxSpeed, m_CarController.MaxSpeed * m_CautiousSpeedFactor,
                                                      cautiousnessRequired);
                            break;
                        }

                    case BrakeCondition.NeverBrake:

                        break;
                }

                // 与其他车辆相撞引起的避让动作:
                // Evasive action due to collision with other cars:

                // our target position starts off as the 'real' target position
                Vector3 offsetTargetPos = m_Target.position;

                //如果采取避让动作去阻止卡在另一个车
                // if are we currently taking evasive action to prevent being stuck against another car:
                if (Time.time < m_AvoidOtherCarTime)
                {
                    //减速有必要的话(如果碰撞发生时我们在另一辆车后面)
                    // slow down if necessary (if we were behind the other car when collision occured)
                    desiredSpeed *= m_AvoidOtherCarSlowdown;
                    //和转向的路径的目标是远离其他车侧
                    // and veer towards the side of our path-to-target that is away from the other car
                    offsetTargetPos += m_Target.right * m_AvoidPathOffset;
                }
                else
                {
                    //无需采取回避行动,我们可以随意漫游到目标的路径,这可以帮助防止AI看起来过于均匀和机器在他们的驾驶。
                    // no need for evasive action, we can just wander across the path-to-target in a random way,
                    // which can help prevent AI from seeming too uniform and robotic in their driving
                    offsetTargetPos += m_Target.right *
                                       (Mathf.PerlinNoise(Time.time * m_LateralWanderSpeed, m_RandomPerlin) * 2 - 1) *
                                       m_LateralWanderDistance;
                }

                //使用不同的灵敏度取决于加速或制动:
                // use different sensitivity depending on whether accelerating or braking:
                float accelBrakeSensitivity = (desiredSpeed < m_CarController.CurrentSpeed)
                                                  ? m_BrakeSensitivity
                                                  : m_AccelSensitivity;

                //决定实际量的加速/制动输入以达到所需的速度。
                // decide the actual amount of accel/brake input to achieve desired speed.
                float accel = Mathf.Clamp((desiredSpeed - m_CarController.CurrentSpeed) * accelBrakeSensitivity, -1, 1);

                // add acceleration 'wander', which also prevents AI from seeming too uniform and robotic in their driving
                // i.e. increasing the accel wander amount can introduce jostling and bumps between AI cars in a race
                accel *= (1 - m_AccelWanderAmount) +
                         (Mathf.PerlinNoise(Time.time * m_AccelWanderSpeed, m_RandomPerlin) * m_AccelWanderAmount);

                // calculate the local-relative position of the target, to steer towards
                Vector3 localTarget = transform.InverseTransformPoint(offsetTargetPos);

                // work out the local angle towards the target
                float targetAngle = Mathf.Atan2(localTarget.x, localTarget.z) * Mathf.Rad2Deg;

                // get the amount of steering needed to aim the car towards the target
                float steer = Mathf.Clamp(targetAngle * m_SteerSensitivity, -1, 1) * Mathf.Sign(m_CarController.CurrentSpeed);

                // feed input to the car controller.
                m_CarController.Move(steer, accel, accel, 0f);

                // if appropriate, stop driving when we're close enough to the target.
                if (m_StopWhenTargetReached && localTarget.magnitude < m_ReachTargetThreshold)
                {
                    m_Driving = false;
                }
            }
        }



        //一个碰撞器或刚体触动另一个刚体或碰撞器,在每帧都会调用OnCollisionStay,直到它们之间离开不接触。
        private void OnCollisionStay(Collision col)
        {
            //检测碰撞与其他车辆,以便我们可以采取规避行动。
            // detect collision against other cars, so that we can take evasive action
            if (col.rigidbody != null)
            {
                var otherAI = col.rigidbody.GetComponent<CarAIControl>();
                if (otherAI != null)
                {

                    // we'll take evasive action for 1 second
                    m_AvoidOtherCarTime = Time.time + 1;

                    // but who's in front?...
                    if (Vector3.Angle(transform.forward, otherAI.transform.position - transform.position) < 90)
                    {
                        // the other ai is in front, so it is only good manners that we ought to brake...
                        m_AvoidOtherCarSlowdown = 0.5f;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // we're in front! ain't slowing down for anybody...
                        m_AvoidOtherCarSlowdown = 1;
                    }

                    // 这两种汽车都应该采取避让行动,沿车道中心偏移,远离另一辆车。
                    // both cars should take evasive action by driving along an offset from the path centre,
                    // away from the other car
                    var otherCarLocalDelta = transform.InverseTransformPoint(otherAI.transform.position);
                    float otherCarAngle = Mathf.Atan2(otherCarLocalDelta.x, otherCarLocalDelta.z);
                    m_AvoidPathOffset = m_LateralWanderDistance * -Mathf.Sign(otherCarAngle);
                }
            }
        }


        public void SetTarget(Transform target)
        {
            m_Target = target;
            m_Driving = true;
        }
    }
}

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