SSD 中的数据增强


一、简介

  • 数据增强对于提高各种尺度(尤其是小目标)的检测精度尤其重要(主要通过 RandomExpand、RandomCrop 以及 Resize 实现),根据 SSD 论文,数据增强使得检测的 mAP 提升了 8.8%,所以很有必要详细了解下作者做了哪些数据增强。
  • Note: Ground truth box is rescaled accordingly(bw/width*300, bh/height*300)

在这里插入图片描述
在这里插入图片描述


二、数据增强整体流程

SSD 中的数据增强顺序如下(其中第 2 和 3 步以 0.5 的概率实施)

  • 数据类型和坐标转换
    • ConvertFromInts(np.float32)
    • ToAbsoluteCoords(bbox coordinates *width and *height accordingly),为下面的几何变换做准备
  • 像素内容变换(Photometric Distortions)
    • 随机改变图像亮度(Random Brightness)
    • 随机改变对比度、色度、饱和度(Random Contrast, Hue, Saturation)
    • 随机改变颜色通道(RandomLightingNoise)
  • 空间几何变换(Geometric Distortions)
    • 随机扩展(RandomExpand)
    • 随机裁剪(RandomCrop)
    • 随机镜像(RandomMirror)
  • 坐标转换、缩放及减均值
    • ToPercentCoords(bbox coordinates /width and /height accordingly),因为几何变换后图像尺寸改变了
    • Resize(300*300)
    • SubtractMeans(104, 117, 123)
  • caffe 代码实现如下

在这里插入图片描述


三、像素内容变换(Photometric Distortions)

1、Random Brightness

  • 通过随机增加或减小图像中每个像素的值(-32, 32)来改变图像的亮度,代码实现如下:
    class RandomBrightness(object):
        def __init__(self, delta=32):
            assert delta >= 0.0
            assert delta <= 255.0
            self.delta = delta
    
        def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
            # 只能取 0 或 1,所以是 0.5 的概率
            if random.randint(2):
                delta = random.uniform(-self.delta, self.delta,image.shape)  # 针对每个像素进行改变
                image += delta
            return image, boxes, labels
    
  • 效果图如下(保存图片时会自动截断)
    在这里插入图片描述

2、Random Contrast, Hue, Saturation

  • Random Contrast
    • 通过对图像中每个像素的值乘以一个系数(0.5, 1.5)来改变对比度(在 BGR 颜色空间做)
    • 感觉这样是增大或者减小最亮点和最暗点的差值而不是比值
  • Random Hue, Saturation
    • 首先,将图像从 BGR 颜色空间转到 HSV 颜色空间
    • 其次,对增加或减小图像的 H 通道值(-18, 18)来改变色度
    • 然后,通过对图像的 S 通道乘以一个系数(0.5, 1.5)来改变饱和度
    • 最后,将图像从 HSV 颜色空间转到 BGR 颜色空间
  • Note: 可以先调整对比度,在调整色度和饱和度;也可以先调整色度和饱和度再调整对比度,代码实现如下:
    class PhotometricDistort(object):
        def __init__(self):
            self.pd = [
                RandomContrast(),
                ConvertColor(transform='HSV'),
                RandomSaturation(),
                RandomHue(),
                ConvertColor(current='HSV', transform='BGR'),
                RandomContrast()
            ]
            self.rand_brightness = RandomBrightness()
            self.rand_light_noise = RandomLightingNoise()
    
        def __call__(self, image, boxes, labels):
            im = image.copy()
            im, boxes, labels = self.rand_brightness(im, boxes, labels)
            if random.randint(2):
                distort = Compose(self.pd[:-1])
            else:
                distort = Compose(self.pd[1:])
            im, boxes, labels = distort(im, boxes, labels)
            return self.rand_light_noise(im, boxes, labels)  # random color channel swap
    
  • 效果图如下(保存图片时会自动截断)
    在这里插入图片描述

3、RandomLightingNoise

  • 通过随机指定 channel 维度的顺序来改变图像的颜色通道,代码实现如下:
    # random color channel swap
    class RandomLightingNoise(object):  
        def __init__(self):
            self.perms = ((0, 1, 2), (0, 2, 1),
                          (1, 0, 2), (1, 2, 0),
                          (2, 0, 1), (2, 1, 0))
    
        def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
            if random.randint(2):
                swap = self.perms[random.randint(len(self.perms))]
                image = image[:, :, swap]
            return image, boxes, labels
    
  • 效果图如下
    在这里插入图片描述

四、空间几何变换(Geometric Distortions)

1、RandomExpand

  • 通过 随机扩展(1~4)并缩放后(zoom in) ,大尺度 object 可以变成小尺度 object(主要增加小尺度 object 的多样性 ,Resize 后变小 ),从而提升小尺度 object 的检测效果
    在这里插入图片描述
    在这里插入图片描述

2、RandomCrop

  • 通过 随机裁剪并缩放后(zoom out) ,可以增加不同尺度的 object(主要增加大尺度 object 的多样性,Resize 后变大),从而提升网络对目标尺度的鲁棒性
  • 通过裁剪 patch 和任意 object bbox 的交并比大于0.1 or 0.3 or 0.5 or 0.7 or 0.9 且 object bbox 的中点在 patch 中,可提高部分被遮挡物体的检测性能
  • 随机裁剪的分类、限制条件及坐标调整
    • 裁剪分类:
      • 原图(对应上文第二节 prototxt 中的第 1 个 batch_sampler
      • 裁剪的 patch 和任意 object bbox 的交并比大于0.1 or 0.3 or 0.5 or 0.7 or 0.9且 object bbox 的中点在 patch 中(对应上文第二节 prototxt 中的第 2 个 batch_sampler + emit_constraint
      • 随机裁剪一个 patch 且 object bbox 的中点在 patch 中(对应上文第二节 prototxt 中的第 3 个 batch_sampler
    • 限制条件:
      • object bbox 的中点在 patch 中 (对应上文第二节 prototxt 中 transform_param中的 emit_constraint
      • patch 的宽和高的大小至少为原图的 0.3 倍,宽高比在 0.5~2之间(对应上文第二节 prototxt 中 batch_sampler中的 scale 和 aspect_ratio
    • 坐标调整:
      • 首先,裁剪后的 gt boxes 和 gt labels 通过 mask 取出
      • 然后,裁剪后的 gt boxes 的坐标要和裁剪 patch 的左上和右下坐标进行逐元素比一下(防止越界),gt boxes 的 左上坐标取两者中的较大者,gt boxes 的 右下坐标取两者中的较小者
      • 最后,还要 减去 patch 的左上坐标 得到裁剪后 patch 的 gt boxes 坐标
        在这里插入图片描述在这里插入图片描述

3、RandomMirror

  • 随机进行水平镜像操作,增加样本角度的多样性,水平镜像后 y 坐标不变,x 变为 w-x:
    • 原图右(2)上坐标对应变为镜像图左(0)上坐标
    • 原图左(0)下坐标对应变为镜像图坐标右(2)下坐标
    • boxes[:, 0::2] = width - boxes[:, 2::-2] # 水平镜像只有 x 改变,步长为 -2
      在这里插入图片描述

五、pytorch 代码实现

import torch
from torchvision import transforms
import cv2
import numpy as np
import types
from numpy import random


def intersect(box_a, box_b):
    max_xy = np.minimum(box_a[:, 2:], box_b[2:])
    min_xy = np.maximum(box_a[:, :2], box_b[:2])
    inter = np.clip((max_xy - min_xy), a_min=0, a_max=np.inf)
    return inter[:, 0] * inter[:, 1]


def jaccard_numpy(box_a, box_b):
    """Compute the jaccard overlap of two sets of boxes.  The jaccard overlap
    is simply the intersection over union of two boxes.
    E.g.:
        A ∩ B / A ∪ B = A ∩ B / (area(A) + area(B) - A ∩ B)
    Args:
        box_a: Multiple bounding boxes, Shape: [num_boxes,4]
        box_b: Single bounding box, Shape: [4]
    Return:
        jaccard overlap: Shape: [box_a.shape[0], box_a.shape[1]]
    """
    inter = intersect(box_a, box_b)
    area_a = ((box_a[:, 2] - box_a[:, 0]) *
              (box_a[:, 3] - box_a[:, 1]))  # [A,B]
    area_b = ((box_b[2] - box_b[0]) *
              (box_b[3] - box_b[1]))  # [A,B]
    union = area_a + area_b - inter
    return inter / union  # [A,B]


class Compose(object):
    """Composes several augmentations together.
    Args:
        transforms (List[Transform]): list of transforms to compose.
    Example:
        >>> augmentations.Compose([
        >>>     transforms.CenterCrop(10),
        >>>     transforms.ToTensor(),
        >>> ])
    """

    def __init__(self, transforms):
        self.transforms = transforms

    def __call__(self, img, boxes=None, labels=None):
        for t in self.transforms:
            img, boxes, labels = t(img, boxes, labels)
        return img, boxes, labels


class Lambda(object):
    """Applies a lambda as a transform."""

    def __init__(self, lambd):
        assert isinstance(lambd, types.LambdaType)
        self.lambd = lambd

    def __call__(self, img, boxes=None, labels=None):
        return self.lambd(img, boxes, labels)


class ConvertFromInts(object):
    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        return image.astype(np.float32), boxes, labels


class SubtractMeans(object):
    def __init__(self, mean):
        self.mean = np.array(mean, dtype=np.float32)

    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        image = image.astype(np.float32)
        image -= self.mean
        return image.astype(np.float32), boxes, labels


class ToAbsoluteCoords(object):
    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        height, width, channels = image.shape
        boxes[:, 0] *= width
        boxes[:, 2] *= width
        boxes[:, 1] *= height
        boxes[:, 3] *= height

        return image, boxes, labels


class ToPercentCoords(object):
    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        height, width, channels = image.shape
        boxes[:, 0] /= width
        boxes[:, 2] /= width
        boxes[:, 1] /= height
        boxes[:, 3] /= height

        return image, boxes, labels


class Resize(object):
    def __init__(self, size=300):
        self.size = size

    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        image = cv2.resize(image, (self.size,
                                   self.size))
        return image, boxes, labels


class RandomSaturation(object):
    def __init__(self, lower=0.5, upper=1.5):
        self.lower = lower
        self.upper = upper
        assert self.upper >= self.lower, "contrast upper must be >= lower."
        assert self.lower >= 0, "contrast lower must be non-negative."

    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        if random.randint(2):
            image[:, :, 1] *= random.uniform(self.lower, self.upper)

        return image, boxes, labels


class RandomHue(object):
    def __init__(self, delta=18.0):
        assert 0.0 <= delta <= 360.0
        self.delta = delta

    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        if random.randint(2):
            image[:, :, 0] += random.uniform(-self.delta, self.delta)
            image[:, :, 0][image[:, :, 0] > 360.0] -= 360.0
            image[:, :, 0][image[:, :, 0] < 0.0] += 360.0
        return image, boxes, labels


class RandomLightingNoise(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.perms = ((0, 1, 2), (0, 2, 1),
                      (1, 0, 2), (1, 2, 0),
                      (2, 0, 1), (2, 1, 0))

    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        if random.randint(2):
            swap = self.perms[random.randint(len(self.perms))]
            image = image[:, :, swap]
        return image, boxes, labels


class ConvertColor(object):
    def __init__(self, current='BGR', transform='HSV'):
        self.transform = transform
        self.current = current

    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        if self.current == 'BGR' and self.transform == 'HSV':
            image = cv2.cvtColor(image, cv2.COLOR_BGR2HSV)
        elif self.current == 'HSV' and self.transform == 'BGR':
            image = cv2.cvtColor(image, cv2.COLOR_HSV2BGR)
        else:
            raise NotImplementedError
        return image, boxes, labels


class RandomContrast(object):
    def __init__(self, lower=0.5, upper=1.5):
        self.lower = lower
        self.upper = upper
        assert self.upper >= self.lower, "contrast upper must be >= lower."
        assert self.lower >= 0, "contrast lower must be non-negative."

    # expects float image
    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        if random.randint(2):
            alpha = random.uniform(self.lower, self.upper)
            image *= alpha
        return image, boxes, labels


class RandomBrightness(object):
    def __init__(self, delta=32):
        assert delta >= 0.0
        assert delta <= 255.0
        self.delta = delta

    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        if random.randint(2):
            delta = random.uniform(-self.delta, self.delta)
            image += delta
        return image, boxes, labels


class ToCV2Image(object):
    def __call__(self, tensor, boxes=None, labels=None):
        return tensor.cpu().numpy().astype(np.float32).transpose((1, 2, 0)), boxes, labels


class ToTensor(object):
    def __call__(self, cvimage, boxes=None, labels=None):
        return torch.from_numpy(cvimage.astype(np.float32)).permute(2, 0, 1), boxes, labels


class RandomSampleCrop(object):
    """Crop
    Arguments:
        img (Image): the image being input during training
        boxes (Tensor): the original bounding boxes in pt form
        labels (Tensor): the class labels for each bbox
        mode (float tuple): the min and max jaccard overlaps
    Return:
        (img, boxes, classes)
            img (Image): the cropped image
            boxes (Tensor): the adjusted bounding boxes in pt form
            labels (Tensor): the class labels for each bbox
    """

    def __init__(self):
        self.sample_options = (
            # using entire original input image
            None,
            # sample a patch s.t. MIN jaccard w/ obj in .1,.3,.5,.7,.9
            (0.1, None),
            (0.3, None),
            (0.5, None),
            (0.7, None),
            (0.9, None),
            # randomly sample a patch
            (None, None),
        )

    def __call__(self, image, boxes=None, labels=None):
        height, width, _ = image.shape
        while True:
            # randomly choose a mode
            mode = random.choice(self.sample_options)
            if mode is None:
                return image, boxes, labels

            min_iou, max_iou = mode
            if min_iou is None:
                min_iou = float('-inf')
            if max_iou is None:
                max_iou = float('inf')

            # max trails (50)
            for _ in range(50):
                current_image = image

                w = random.uniform(0.3 * width, width)
                h = random.uniform(0.3 * height, height)

                # aspect ratio constraint b/t .5 & 2
                if h / w < 0.5 or h / w > 2:
                    continue

                left = random.uniform(width - w)
                top = random.uniform(height - h)

                # convert to integer rect x1,y1,x2,y2
                rect = np.array([int(left), int(top), int(left + w), int(top + h)])

                # calculate IoU (jaccard overlap) b/t the cropped and gt boxes
                overlap = jaccard_numpy(boxes, rect)

                # is min and max overlap constraint satisfied? if not try again
                # modified by manzp
                if overlap.max() < min_iou or overlap.min() > max_iou:
                    continue

                # cut the crop from the image
                current_image = current_image[rect[1]:rect[3], rect[0]:rect[2],
                                :]

                # keep overlap with gt box IF center in sampled patch
                centers = (boxes[:, :2] + boxes[:, 2:]) / 2.0

                # mask in all gt boxes that above and to the left of centers
                m1 = (rect[0] < centers[:, 0]) * (rect[1] < centers[:, 1])

                # mask in all gt boxes that under and to the right of centers
                m2 = (rect[2] > centers[:, 0]) * (rect[3] > centers[:, 1])

                # mask in that both m1 and m2 are true
                mask = m1 * m2

                # have any valid boxes? try again if not
                if not mask.any():
                    continue

                # take only matching gt boxes
                current_boxes = boxes[mask, :].copy()

                # take only matching gt labels
                current_labels = labels[mask]

                # should we use the box left and top corner or the crop's
                current_boxes[:, :2] = np.maximum(current_boxes[:, :2],
                                                  rect[:2])
                # adjust to crop (by substracting crop's left,top)
                current_boxes[:, :2] -= rect[:2]

                current_boxes[:, 2:] = np.minimum(current_boxes[:, 2:],
                                                  rect[2:])
                # adjust to crop (by substracting crop's left,top)
                current_boxes[:, 2:] -= rect[:2]

                return current_image, current_boxes, current_labels


class Expand(object):
    def __init__(self, mean):
        self.mean = mean

    def __call__(self, image, boxes, labels):
        if random.randint(2):
            return image, boxes, labels

        height, width, depth = image.shape
        ratio = random.uniform(1, 4)
        left = random.uniform(0, width * ratio - width)
        top = random.uniform(0, height * ratio - height)

        expand_image = np.zeros(
            (int(height * ratio), int(width * ratio), depth),
            dtype=image.dtype)
        expand_image[:, :, :] = self.mean
        expand_image[int(top):int(top + height),
        int(left):int(left + width)] = image
        image = expand_image

        boxes = boxes.copy()
        boxes[:, :2] += (int(left), int(top))
        boxes[:, 2:] += (int(left), int(top))

        return image, boxes, labels


class RandomMirror(object):
    def __call__(self, image, boxes, classes):
        _, width, _ = image.shape
        if random.randint(2):
            image = image[:, ::-1]
            boxes = boxes.copy()
            boxes[:, 0::2] = width - boxes[:, 2::-2]
        return image, boxes, classes


class PhotometricDistort(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.pd = [
            RandomContrast(),
            ConvertColor(transform='HSV'),
            RandomSaturation(),
            RandomHue(),
            ConvertColor(current='HSV', transform='BGR'),
            RandomContrast()
        ]
        self.rand_brightness = RandomBrightness()
        self.rand_light_noise = RandomLightingNoise()

    def __call__(self, image, boxes, labels):
        im = image.copy()
        im, boxes, labels = self.rand_brightness(im, boxes, labels)
        if random.randint(2):
            distort = Compose(self.pd[:-1])
        else:
            distort = Compose(self.pd[1:])
        im, boxes, labels = distort(im, boxes, labels)
        return self.rand_light_noise(im, boxes, labels)


class SSDAugmentation(object):
    def __init__(self, size=300, mean=(104, 117, 123)):
        self.mean = mean
        self.size = size
        self.augment = Compose([
            ConvertFromInts(),
            ToAbsoluteCoords(),
            PhotometricDistort(),
            Expand(self.mean),
            RandomSampleCrop(),
            RandomMirror(),
            ToPercentCoords(),
            Resize(self.size),
            SubtractMeans(self.mean)
        ])

    def __call__(self, img, boxes, labels):
        return self.augment(img, boxes, labels)

六、caffe 代码实现

name: "VGG_VOC0712Plus_SSD_300x300_train"
layer {
  name: "data"
  type: "AnnotatedData"
  top: "data"
  top: "label"
  include {
    phase: TRAIN
  }
  transform_param {
    mirror: true
    mean_value: 104
    mean_value: 117
    mean_value: 123
    resize_param {
      prob: 1
      resize_mode: WARP  # WARP:放大或缩小以适应(width, height)
      height: 300        # 还有 FIT_SMALL_SIZE 和 FIT_LARGE_SIZE_AND_PAD 这两种缩放模式
      width: 300
      interp_mode: LINEAR   # 插值模式同 OpenCV(每次随机选一种)
      interp_mode: AREA
      interp_mode: NEAREST
      interp_mode: CUBIC
      interp_mode: LANCZOS4
    }
    emit_constraint {
      emit_type: CENTER  # batch sampler 的额外限制条件
    }
    distort_param {
      brightness_prob: 0.5
      brightness_delta: 32
      contrast_prob: 0.5
      contrast_lower: 0.5
      contrast_upper: 1.5
      hue_prob: 0.5
      hue_delta: 18
      saturation_prob: 0.5
      saturation_lower: 0.5
      saturation_upper: 1.5
      random_order_prob: 0.0
    }
    expand_param {
      prob: 0.5
      max_expand_ratio: 4.0
    }
  }
  data_param {
    source: "examples/VOC0712Plus/VOC0712Plus_trainval_lmdb"
    batch_size: 8
    backend: LMDB
  }
  annotated_data_param {
    batch_sampler {
      max_sample: 1
      max_trials: 1  # use_original_image = 1 [default = true];
    }
    batch_sampler {
      sampler {
        min_scale: 0.3  # sampled bbox h,w 最小缩放比例
        max_scale: 1.0  # Maximum scale of the sampled bbox.
        min_aspect_ratio: 0.5  # sampled bbox 长宽比 w/h
        max_aspect_ratio: 2.0  # Maximum aspect ratio of the sampled bbox.
      }
      sample_constraint {
        min_jaccard_overlap: 0.1  # sampled bbox 和所有 gt boxes IoU 的最小值
      }
      max_sample: 1  # sample 多少个 bbox
      max_trials: 50  # 最大尝试次数
    }
    batch_sampler {
      sampler {
        min_scale: 0.3
        max_scale: 1.0
        min_aspect_ratio: 0.5
        max_aspect_ratio: 2.0
      }
      sample_constraint {
        min_jaccard_overlap: 0.3
      }
      max_sample: 1
      max_trials: 50
    }
    batch_sampler {
      sampler {
        min_scale: 0.3
        max_scale: 1.0
        min_aspect_ratio: 0.5
        max_aspect_ratio: 2.0
      }
      sample_constraint {
        min_jaccard_overlap: 0.5
      }
      max_sample: 1
      max_trials: 50
    }
    batch_sampler {
      sampler {
        min_scale: 0.3
        max_scale: 1.0
        min_aspect_ratio: 0.5
        max_aspect_ratio: 2.0
      }
      sample_constraint {
        min_jaccard_overlap: 0.7
      }
      max_sample: 1
      max_trials: 50
    }
    batch_sampler {
      sampler {
        min_scale: 0.3
        max_scale: 1.0
        min_aspect_ratio: 0.5
        max_aspect_ratio: 2.0
      }
      sample_constraint {
        min_jaccard_overlap: 0.9
      }
      max_sample: 1
      max_trials: 50
    }
    batch_sampler {
      sampler {
        min_scale: 0.3
        max_scale: 1.0
        min_aspect_ratio: 0.5
        max_aspect_ratio: 2.0
      }
      sample_constraint {
        max_jaccard_overlap: 1.0
      }
      max_sample: 1
      max_trials: 50
    }
    
    # 要和 xml 中的 name 对应
    label_map_file: "data/VOC0712Plus/labelmap_voc.prototxt"
  }
}

# labelmap_voc.prototxt 部分示例
item {
  name: "none_of_the_above"
  label: 0
  display_name: "background"
}
item {
  name: "aeroplane"
  label: 1
  display_name: "aeroplane"
}
item {
  name: "bicycle"
  label: 2
  display_name: "bicycle"
}

七、参考资料

1、https://github.com/amdegroot/ssd.pytorch/
2、http://www.telesens.co/2018/06/28/data-augmentation-in-ssd

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