Java序列化框架性能比较


jvm-serializers提供了一个很好的比较各种Java序列化的的测试套件。 它罗列了各种序列化框架, 可以自动生成测试报告。
我在AWS c3.xlarge机器上进行了测试,一下是测试报告与解析。

关键的测试数据的统计代码如下:

public double runWithTimeMeasurement(int timeMillis, TestCase tc, int iterations) throws Exception
   {
       long start = System.currentTimeMillis();
       
       double sumTime = 0;
       int count = 0;
       System.err.println("test-time "+timeMillis+" iteration "+iterations);
       while ( System.currentTimeMillis()-start < timeMillis ) 
       {
           double time = tc.run(transformer, serializer, value, iterations);
           sumTime += time;
           measurementVals[count] = time;
           count++;
       }
       double avg = sumTime / count;
       Arrays.sort(measurementVals,0,count);
       System.err.println("-----------------------------------------------------------------------------");
       System.err.println(serializer.getName());
       System.err.println("min:" + measurementVals[0]);
       System.err.println("1/4:"+measurementVals[count/4]);
       System.err.println("1/2:"+measurementVals[count/2]);
       System.err.println("3/4:"+measurementVals[count/4*3]);
       System.err.println("max:"+measurementVals[count-1]);
       System.err.println("average:"+ avg +" deviation:"+(avg-measurementVals[count/2]));
       System.err.println("-----------------------------------------------------------------------------");
       return avg;
   }

测试时序列化和反序列化会迭代多次,默认2000次。 测试会有一个限定时间,一轮测试完成后时间还有的话还会继续新的一轮的测试。 因此, 由于不同的框架花费的时间不同, 测试的轮数也不一样。

测试平台

OS:Linux (CentOS 6.4)
JVM:JDK 1.7.0_17
CPU: c3.xlarge
Cores (incl HT):4

免责声明

本测试主要关注无循环引用的数据结构, 但是如此众多的序列化框架还是各有不同:

有些支持循环引用检测
有些会输出全部的元数据,有些不会
有些支持跨平台,有些只支持特定的编程语言
有些是基于文本的,有些却基于二进制
有些支持向前向后兼容, 有些只支持向前或者向后,有些全部不支持
(查看ToolBehavior页面以了解一些框架的特性)
尽管别的测试数据可能会生成不同的测试结果(例如在每个字符串中增加非ascii字符), 此测试还是会提供一个各个序列化框架的性能的原始估计。

1.序列化框架Serializers(无共享引用)

无循环引用。 一个对象如果被引用两次则会序列化两次
没有手工优化
schema预先已知

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
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Size, Compressed in bytes
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pre.                               create     ser   deser   total   size  +dfl
protostuff                            112     663     917    1580    239   150
fst-flat-pre                           81     908     984    1893    251   165
kryo-flat-pre                          81     831    1083    1914    212   132
protobuf                              149    1625     942    2567    239   149
msgpack-databind                       81    1123    1821    2944    233   146
thrift-compact                        139    1844    1101    2945    240   148
json/fastjson/databind                 82    1710    1633    3343    486   262
thrift                                139    2216    1253    3469    349   197
scala/sbinary                         166    2122    1451    3573    255   147
smile/jackson+afterburner/databind     81    1757    1868    3625    352   252
smile/jackson/databind                 81    2095    2250    4346    338   241
json/jackson+afterburner/databind      81    2006    2548    4554    485   261
json/protostuff-runtime                80    2008    2741    4748    469   243
json/jackson/databind                  80    2173    2972    5145    485   261
json/jackson-jr/databind               81    2282    3435    5716    468   255
cbor/jackson/databind                  81    4112    2659    6771    397   246
xml/jackson/databind                   81    3558    7028   10585    683   286
json/gson/databind                     81    7322    7063   14386    486   259
bson/jackson/databind                  80    6974    8318   15291    506   286
xml/xstream+c                          81    9050   28265   37315    487   244
xml/exi-manual                         83   19634   18063   37697    337   327
json/javax-tree/glassfish            1558   16804   23814   40618    485   263
java-built-in                          82    7154   37804   44958    889   514
scala/java-built-in                   164   11195   62423   73617   1312   700
json/protobuf                         142   11815   73133   84949    488   253
json/json-lib/databind                 81   45857  165134  210991    485   263

2.全对象图序列化框架Full Object Graph Serializers

支持全部的object graph读写. Object graph可能包含循环引用.
无预先处理, 没有预先的类生成,注册. 所有都运行时产生, 比如使用反射.
注意通常不会跨编程语言。 然而JSON/XML格式由于其特殊性可以跨语言.

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
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Size, Compressed [light] in bytes
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pre.                               create     ser   deser   total   size  +dfl
protostuff-graph                      112     946     963    1909    239   150
protostuff-graph-runtime               82    1187    1208    2395    241   151
kryo-serializer                        81    2091    1858    3949    286   188
fst                                    81    2075    2041    4116    316   203
jboss-marshalling-river-ct             81    4057    2810    6867    298   199
hessian                                80    6683    7234   13917    501   313
jboss-serialization                    83    9529    8508   18036    932   582
jboss-marshalling-river                81    5915   28347   34261    694   400
java-built-in-serializer               81    7273   36274   43547    889   514
stephenerialization                    59    8396   37359   45756   1093   517
jboss-marshalling-serial               80   15148   39180   54328    856   498
yaml/jackson/databind                  82   25969   41084   67053    505   260
json/flexjson/databind                 81   25717   61700   87417    503   273

3.跨语言二进制序列化框架cross Lang Binary Serializers

无循环引用
schema预先已知

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
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Size, Compressed in bytes
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pre.                               create     ser   deser   total   size  +dfl
protobuf/protostuff                   113     695     927    1622    239   149
protobuf/protostuff-runtime            81     971    1105    2075    241   150
protobuf                              149    1625     942    2567    239   149
msgpack-databind                       81    1123    1821    2944    233   146
thrift-compact                        139    1844    1101    2945    240   148
thrift                                139    2216    1253    3469    349   197
cbor/jackson/databind                  81    4112    2659    6771    397   246
hessian                                80    6683    7234   13917    501   313
bson/jackson/databind                  80    6974    8318   15291    506   286

4.XML/JSon序列化框架

基于文本
Mixed regarding required preparation, object graph awareness (references).

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
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Size, Compressed in bytes
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pre.                               create     ser   deser   total   size  +dfl
json/fastjson/databind                 82    1710    1633    3343    486   262
json/jackson+afterburner/databind      81    2006    2548    4554    485   261
json/protostuff-runtime                80    2008    2741    4748    469   243
json/jackson/databind                  80    2173    2972    5145    485   261
json/jackson-jr/databind               81    2282    3435    5716    468   255
xml/jackson/databind                   81    3558    7028   10585    683   286
json/gson/databind                     81    7322    7063   14386    486   259
xml/xstream+c                          81    9050   28265   37315    487   244
xml/exi-manual                         83   19634   18063   37697    337   327
json/javax-tree/glassfish            1558   16804   23814   40618    485   263
yaml/jackson/databind                  82   25969   41084   67053    505   260
json/protobuf                         142   11815   73133   84949    488   253
json/flexjson/databind                 81   25717   61700   87417    503   273
json/json-lib/databind                 81   45857  165134  210991    485   263

5.手工优化的序列化框架Manually optimized Serializers

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
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Size, Compressed in bytes
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pre.                               create     ser   deser   total   size  +dfl
kryo-manual                            81     670     792    1462    211   131
protostuff-manual                      81     608     915    1523    239   150
wobly                                  48    1147     701    1848    251   151
kryo-opt                               81     837    1059    1896    209   129
wobly-compact                          48    1175     748    1923    225   139
java-manual                            80    1341     848    2190    255   147
smile/jackson/manual                   82    1270    1476    2746    341   244
msgpack-manual                         80    1141    1668    2809    233   146
json/jackson/manual                    83    1467    1949    3416    468   253
jboss-marshalling-river-ct-manual      82    2314    1586    3900    289   167
avro-generic                          488    2485    1527    4012    221   133
avro-specific                         118    2191    1916    4108    221   133
json/protostuff-manual                 81    1757    2472    4229    449   233
cbor/jackson/manual                    80    3659    1667    5326    386   238
xml/aalto-manual                       82    2724    3902    6626    653   304
jboss-marshalling-river-manual         81    2967    5620    8587    483   240
json/gson/manual                       81    4798    5826   10624    468   253
xml/woodstox-manual                    81    4801    6355   11156    653   304
json/json-smart/manual-tree            82    7623    5110   12733    495   269
json/gson/manual-tree                  82    7234    8202   15437    485   259
xml/fastinfo-manual                    81    8406    7207   15613    377   284
xml/javolution/manual                  80    6781   10766   17547    504   263
json/json.simple/manual                81    7394   10923   18317    495   269
json/org.json/manual-tree              81    8368   10959   19327    485   259
json/svenson/databind                  81    5956   14026   19981    495   269
xml/xstream+c-aalto                    81    5641   14743   20384    525   273
xml/xstream+c-fastinfo                 81   10471   11640   22111    345   264
bson/mongodb/manual                    81    4283   19559   23842    495   278
xml/xstream+c-woodstox                 80    7326   18877   26203    525   273
json/javax-stream/glassfish            81   12791   21756   34547    468   253
json/jsonij/manual-jpath               83   38635   15094   53729    478   257
json/argo/manual-tree                  81   85473   19416  104889    485   263

6.特性对性能的影响Cost of features

shows performance vs convenience of manually-selected libs.

循环引用, schema预知,手工优化cycle free, schema known at compile time, manual optimization: kryo-manual, msgpack-manual
循环引用, schema预知cycle free, schema known at compile time: protostuff, fst-flat-pre, kryo-flat-pre. (note: protostuff uses class generation while the other two just require a list of classes to be written)
循环引用, schema编译时未知 cycle free, schema UNKNOWN at compile time: fst-flat, kryo-flat, protostuff-runtime, msgpack-databind
全图读写,schema编译时未知 full object graph awareness, schema UNKNOWN at compile time: fst, kryo.

Ser Time+Deser Time (ns)
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Size, Compressed in bytes
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pre.                               create     ser   deser   total   size  +dfl
kryo-manual                            81     670     792    1462    211   131
protostuff                            112     663     917    1580    239   150
fst-flat-pre                           81     908     984    1893    251   165
kryo-flat-pre                          81     831    1083    1914    212   132
protostuff-runtime                     82     839    1104    1943    241   151
kryo-flat                              81    1037    1468    2505    268   177
fst-flat                               81    1230    1469    2700    314   204
msgpack-manual                         80    1141    1668    2809    233   146
msgpack-databind                       81    1123    1821    2944    233   146
kryo-serializer                        81    2091    1858    3949    286   188
fst                                    81    2075    2041    4116    316   203

7.全部的测试结果

pre.                               create     ser   deser   total   size  +dfl
kryo-manual                            81     670     792    1462    211   131
protostuff-manual                      81     608     915    1523    239   150
protostuff                            112     663     917    1580    239   150
protobuf/protostuff                   113     695     927    1622    239   149
wobly                                  48    1147     701    1848    251   151
fst-flat-pre                           81     908     984    1893    251   165
kryo-opt                               81     837    1059    1896    209   129
protostuff-graph                      112     946     963    1909    239   150
kryo-flat-pre                          81     831    1083    1914    212   132
wobly-compact                          48    1175     748    1923    225   139
protostuff-runtime                     82     839    1104    1943    241   151
protobuf/protostuff-runtime            81     971    1105    2075    241   150
java-manual                            80    1341     848    2190    255   147
protostuff-graph-runtime               82    1187    1208    2395    241   151
kryo-flat                              81    1037    1468    2505    268   177
protobuf                              149    1625     942    2567    239   149
fst-flat                               81    1230    1469    2700    314   204
smile/jackson/manual                   82    1270    1476    2746    341   244
msgpack-manual                         80    1141    1668    2809    233   146
msgpack-databind                       81    1123    1821    2944    233   146
thrift-compact                        139    1844    1101    2945    240   148
json/fastjson/databind                 82    1710    1633    3343    486   262
json/jackson/manual                    83    1467    1949    3416    468   253
thrift                                139    2216    1253    3469    349   197
scala/sbinary                         166    2122    1451    3573    255   147
smile/jackson+afterburner/databind     81    1757    1868    3625    352   252
jboss-marshalling-river-ct-manual      82    2314    1586    3900    289   167
kryo-serializer                        81    2091    1858    3949    286   188
avro-generic                          488    2485    1527    4012    221   133
avro-specific                         118    2191    1916    4108    221   133
fst                                    81    2075    2041    4116    316   203
json/protostuff-manual                 81    1757    2472    4229    449   233
smile/jackson/databind                 81    2095    2250    4346    338   241
json/jackson+afterburner/databind      81    2006    2548    4554    485   261
json/protostuff-runtime                80    2008    2741    4748    469   243
json/jackson/databind                  80    2173    2972    5145    485   261
cbor/jackson/manual                    80    3659    1667    5326    386   238
json/jackson-jr/databind               81    2282    3435    5716    468   255
xml/aalto-manual                       82    2724    3902    6626    653   304
cbor/jackson/databind                  81    4112    2659    6771    397   246
jboss-marshalling-river-ct             81    4057    2810    6867    298   199
jboss-marshalling-river-manual         81    2967    5620    8587    483   240
xml/jackson/databind                   81    3558    7028   10585    683   286
json/gson/manual                       81    4798    5826   10624    468   253
xml/woodstox-manual                    81    4801    6355   11156    653   304
json/json-smart/manual-tree            82    7623    5110   12733    495   269
hessian                                80    6683    7234   13917    501   313
json/gson/databind                     81    7322    7063   14386    486   259
bson/jackson/databind                  80    6974    8318   15291    506   286
json/gson/manual-tree                  82    7234    8202   15437    485   259
xml/fastinfo-manual                    81    8406    7207   15613    377   284
xml/javolution/manual                  80    6781   10766   17547    504   263
jboss-serialization                    83    9529    8508   18036    932   582
json/json.simple/manual                81    7394   10923   18317    495   269
json/org.json/manual-tree              81    8368   10959   19327    485   259
json/svenson/databind                  81    5956   14026   19981    495   269
xml/xstream+c-aalto                    81    5641   14743   20384    525   273
xml/xstream+c-fastinfo                 81   10471   11640   22111    345   264
bson/mongodb/manual                    81    4283   19559   23842    495   278
xml/xstream+c-woodstox                 80    7326   18877   26203    525   273
jboss-marshalling-river                81    5915   28347   34261    694   400
json/javax-stream/glassfish            81   12791   21756   34547    468   253
xml/xstream+c                          81    9050   28265   37315    487   244
xml/exi-manual                         83   19634   18063   37697    337   327
json/javax-tree/glassfish            1558   16804   23814   40618    485   263
java-built-in-serializer               81    7273   36274   43547    889   514
java-built-in                          82    7154   37804   44958    889   514
stephenerialization                    59    8396   37359   45756   1093   517
json/jsonij/manual-jpath               83   38635   15094   53729    478   257
jboss-marshalling-serial               80   15148   39180   54328    856   498
yaml/jackson/databind                  82   25969   41084   67053    505   260
scala/java-built-in                   164   11195   62423   73617   1312   700
json/protobuf                         142   11815   73133   84949    488   253
json/flexjson/databind                 81   25717   61700   87417    503   273
json/argo/manual-tree                  81   85473   19416  104889    485   263
json/json-lib/databind                 81   45857  165134  210991    485   263
pre.                               Effort          Format         Structure  Misc
kryo-manual                        MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] manually optimized                                       
protostuff-manual                  MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] manual                                                   
protostuff                         CLASSES_KNOWN   BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] generated code                                           
protobuf/protostuff                CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  [] protobuf + generated code                                
wobly                              MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
fst-flat-pre                       CLASSES_KNOWN   BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] fst in unshared mode with preregistered classes          
kryo-opt                           MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] manually optimized                                       
protostuff-graph                   CLASSES_KNOWN   BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] graph + generated code                                   
kryo-flat-pre                      CLASSES_KNOWN   BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] no shared refs, preregistered classes                    
wobly-compact                      MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
protostuff-runtime                 ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] reflection                                               
protobuf/protostuff-runtime        ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  [] protobuf + reflection                                    
java-manual                        MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
protostuff-graph-runtime           ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] graph + reflection                                       
kryo-flat                          ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] default, no shared refs                                  
protobuf                           CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
fst-flat                           ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  [] fst default, but unshared mode                           
smile/jackson/manual               MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
msgpack-manual                     MANUAL_OPT      BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
msgpack-databind                   CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
thrift-compact                     CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/fastjson/databind             ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/jackson/manual                MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
thrift                             CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
scala/sbinary                      MISC            MISC           UNKNOWN    [] null                                                     
smile/jackson+afterburner/databind ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
jboss-marshalling-river-ct-manual  MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] full graph preregistered classes, manual optimization    
kryo-serializer                    ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] default                                                  
avro-generic                       MANUAL_OPT      BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
avro-specific                      MANUAL_OPT      BIN_CROSSLANG  UNKNOWN    []                                                          
fst                                ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] default: JDK serialization drop-in-replacement mode      
json/protostuff-manual             MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  [] json + manual                                            
smile/jackson/databind             ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/jackson+afterburner/databind  ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  [] uses bytecode generation to reduce overhead              
json/protostuff-runtime            ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  [] json + reflection                                        
json/jackson/databind              ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
cbor/jackson/manual                MANUAL_OPT      BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/jackson-jr/databind           ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/aalto-manual                   MANUAL_OPT      XML            UNKNOWN    []                                                          
cbor/jackson/databind              ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
jboss-marshalling-river-ct         CLASSES_KNOWN   BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] full graph with preregistered classes                    
jboss-marshalling-river-manual     MANUAL_OPT      BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] full graph with manual optimizations                     
xml/jackson/databind               ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/gson/manual                   MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/woodstox-manual                MANUAL_OPT      XML            UNKNOWN    []                                                          
json/json-smart/manual-tree        MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
hessian                            ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BIN_CROSSLANG  FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
json/gson/databind                 ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
bson/jackson/databind              CLASSES_KNOWN   BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/gson/manual-tree              MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/fastinfo-manual                MANUAL_OPT      XML            UNKNOWN    []                                                          
xml/javolution/manual              MANUAL_OPT      XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
jboss-serialization                ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
json/json.simple/manual            MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/org.json/manual-tree          MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/svenson/databind              MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/xstream+c-aalto                MANUAL_OPT      XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/xstream+c-fastinfo             MANUAL_OPT      XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
bson/mongodb/manual                MANUAL_OPT      BIN_CROSSLANG  FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/xstream+c-woodstox             MANUAL_OPT      XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
jboss-marshalling-river            ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] full graph zero knowledge                                
json/javax-stream/glassfish        MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/xstream+c                      ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  XML            FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
xml/exi-manual                     ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  XML            UNKNOWN    []                                                          
json/javax-tree/glassfish          ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
java-built-in-serializer           ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
java-built-in                      ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
stephenerialization                ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH [] null                                                     
json/jsonij/manual-jpath           MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
jboss-marshalling-serial           ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  BINARY         FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
yaml/jackson/databind              ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
scala/java-built-in                MISC            MISC           UNKNOWN    [] null                                                     
json/protobuf                      CLASSES_KNOWN   JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/flexjson/databind             ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FULL_GRAPH []                                                          
json/argo/manual-tree              MANUAL_OPT      JSON           FLAT_TREE  []                                                          
json/json-lib/databind             ZERO_KNOWLEDGE  JSON           FLAT_TREE  []

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