非监督神经网络的wake-sleep算法

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/u011501388/article/details/78207526

非监督神经网络的wake-sleep算法可以用来Fine tuning DBNs,该算法主要分为两个阶段,即"wake"阶段与"sleep"阶段,其中"wake"阶段用来学习生成权重(generative weights),"sleep"阶段用来学习识别权重(recognition weights)。

一. 原理

识别权重与生成权重分别对应DBNs的编码(encoder)与解码(decoder)过程,如下图所示:


wake-sleep算法的主要目的是学习原始数据特征并能正确恢复原始数据。

整个神经网络中有两种连接(connections),即在Encoder网络从下向上(bottom-up)的recognition connections学习原始数据的特征表达,在Decoder阶段从上到下(top-down)的generative connections以最大概率或最小误差重建原始数据。这些连接的权重w如何学习,这就要用到wake-up算法。

这两组连接的训练算法可以与许多不同类型的随机神经元一起使用,但为了简单起见,wake-sleep算法只使用具有1或0两种状态的随机神经元。

设神经元及其状态{1或0},其概率为

                                                                                       (1)

在上式中 表示神经元 的偏差(bias), 表示神经元之间的连接权重,神经元有时被生成权重(generative weights)驱动,有时被识别权重(recognition weights)驱动, 但神经元的状态概率计算公式均如式(1)。

1.1 wake阶段

在wake阶段从输入input学到的各层特征表示representions,称为总的特征表达(total representations) ,  用 表示,而各隐藏神经元学到的特征表达设为, 按通信里的术语来说,现在发送端的数据便可以用 表示,在接收端通过解码 恢复发送端 。根据香农信息论可知,学到的特征表达 需要满足一定的条件其才能恢复发送端的数据。即设某一事件发生的概率为,其拥有的信息量为 bit,这个先留个话头,在后面优化 描述长度(description length)时会涉及这里的一些理论。假设在接收端已经知道top-down生成权重(top-down generative weights),因此,这些可以用来创建通信所需的约定概率分布。因此在top hidden layer中的神经元的分布(distribution)可由式(1)获得,如,同理,设在各低层(each lower layer)的神经元的分布如,则单元的二进制状态描述长度(description length)为:

                                                       (2)

输入数据的total presentations表示等于隐藏层的所用隐藏状态的表示成本与在给定隐藏状态条件下表示输入向量的成本之和,如下式所示

                            (3)


在上式中, 表示隐藏单元层的索引, 表示输入单元索引。

由于隐藏单元及其二进制状态一定概率取到,都是随机的,神经网络的神经元激活或不激活是随机的,也就是说原始数据的表示方式并不总是一样的。设由识别权重(recognition weights)决定的的条件概率分布为,当识别权重确定后,生成权重(generative weights)的修改通过优化,取最小值。在采用识别权重确定total representation 后,生成权重(generative weight)通过下式更新,其与式(3)的导数成比例。

                                              (4)

式(4)便是wake阶段的学习算法。显然,在wake阶段尽管是由recognition weights驱动,但是只有generative weights更新了,目的是为了更好的由各层的特征表示重建下一层神经元的激活状态。

1.2 sleep阶段

在得到了generative weights的更新方式之后,下一步就是sleep阶段更新recognition weights的更新算法。很自然的想到,recognition weights的更新方向要朝着使total representations 以最大的概率得到,约束条件便是最小化(3)式。这个想法咋一看没问题,很合理,但是应当注意的是,RBM-DBN中的神经元和状态均是随机的,它们是随机神经网络,同一个输入数据随着神经元激活状态的不同,它有多种representations,有点像深度学习中的dropout,但dropout是一定概率断开某些神经元的连接。那么,这么多representations中都能很好的表示输入数据的特征吗?显然不能,应该有一个最好的representations,那么sleep阶段的目标就是优化recognition weights朝着这个最好的representations靠近,而这个最好的representations又是不知道的。该怎么办呢?虽然最好的representations不知道,但是它由bottom-up各层神经元的状态决定的,于是,优化的目标便成为训练条件概率分布,在输入已知时,隐层神经元之间的状态概率是相互独立的,这就使优化变得容易了。

现在关闭(turn off)recognition weights,在整个网络中仅利用generative weights来驱动神经元。这也是wake-sleep二阶段学习方法的含义所在,避免同时学习recognition weights与generative weights,这样的话训练非常耗时。在generative weights从down-bottom在整个网络中驱动神经元时,由于各神经元状态是随机的,驱动到输入端时,会产生很多与input数据相近而各不相同的fantasy vectors。然后,我们调节识别权重,以最大限度地恢复实际产生fantasy vectors隐藏活动状态的对数概率。

                                                   (5)

在上式中, 表示产生某个fantasy vectors的神经元状态, 为由recognition weights开启(turn on)的第个单元二进制状态概率。同理, 表示下面的一层。式(5)就是sleep阶段的学习算法,该算法用来训练recognition weights。

wake-sleep算法的Matlab代码如下

 

maxepoch=10000;
numhid=500; numpen=500; numpen2=2000;



labgenbiases=zeros(numcases,10);
pengenbiases=zeros(numcases,numpen);
wakehidstates=zeros(numcases,numhid);
wakepenstates=zeros(numcases,numpen);
postopstates=zeros(numcases,numpen2);
neglabstates=zeros(numcases,10);
penhid=hidpen';


epsilonw = 0.01;   
epsilonvb = 0.01; 
epsilonhb = 0.01; 
weightcost  = 0.0002;
initialmomentum  = 0.5;
finalmomentum    = 0.9;



display('Generatively fine-tuning the model using wake sleep........');
load mnistvhclassify
load mnisthpclassify
load mnisthp2classify

makebatches;
[numcases numdims numbatches]=size(batchdata);
N=numcases;


hidvis=vishid';
hidvisinc=zeros(numhid,numdims);
visbiasinc=zeros(numcases,numdims);
penhidinc=zeros(numpen,numhid);
hidgenbiasesinc=zeros(numcases,numhid);
labtopinc=zeros(10,numpen2);
labgenbiasesinc=zeros(numcases,10);
hidpen2inc=zeros(numpen,numpen2);
pengenbiasesinc=zeros(numcases,numpen);
penrecbiases2inc=zeros(numcases,numpen2);
hidpeninc=zeros(numhid,numpen);
penrecbiasesinc=zeros(numcases,numpen);
vishidinc=zeros(numdims,numhid);
hidrecbiasesinc=zeros(numcases,numhid);



  

for epoch = 1:maxepoch
    for batch = 1:numbatches
        data = [batchdata(:,:,batch)];  
        target = [batchtargets(:,:,batch)];  
        wakehidprobs= 1./(1 + exp(-data*vishid-hidrecbiases)); 
        wakehidstates=wakehidprobs>rand(numcases,numhid);
        wakepenprobs=1./(1+exp(-wakehidstates*hidpen-penrecbiases));  
        wakepenstates=wakepenprobs>rand(numcases,numpen);
        postopprobs=1./(1+exp(-wakepenstates*hidpen2-target*labtop-penrecbiases2)); 
        postopstates=postopprobs>rand(numcases,numpen2);
       
		 poslabtopstatistics=target' * postopprobs;
         pospentopstatistics=wakepenstates' *postopprobs;

         posvisact=sum(data);
         postarget=sum(target);
         pospengen=sum(wakepenstates);
         postop=sum(postopstates);
                 
        % perform numCDiters Gibbs Sampling iterations using the top level
        % undirected associative memory
        
            negtopstates=postopstates;
              if (1<=epoch<=100)
             numCDiters=3;
             elseif (101<=epoch<=200)
            umCDiters=6;
             elseif (201<=epoch<=10000)
             umCDiters=10;
             end
            
            % the top level RBM
            for iter=1:numCDiters
              
                neglabstates=zeros(numcases,10);
                
                negpenprobs=1./(1+exp(-negtopstates*hidpen2'-pengenbiases));
                negpenstates=negpenprobs>rand(numcases,numpen);
                neglabprobs=exp(negtopstates*labtop'+labgenbiases);
                neglabprobs=neglabprobs./(repmat(sum(neglabprobs,2),1,10));

               % sample y
               [n_samples,n_classes] = size(visible_prob_post);
               neglabstates = zeros(n_samples,n_classes);
               r = rand(n_samples,1);
               for ii = 1:n_samples
                aux = 0;
                for j = 1:n_classes
                       aux = aux + visible_prob_post(ii,j);
                  if aux >= r(ii)
                    neglabstates(ii,j) = 1;
                    break;
                  end
                end
               end

       
                negtopprobs=1./(1+exp(-negpenstates*hidpen2-neglabstates*labtop-penrecbiases2));
                negtopstates=negtopprobs>rand(numcases,numpen2);
                
            end
       

		
		negpentopstatistics=double(negpenstates') *double( negtopprobs);
        neglabtopstatistics=double(neglabstates') * negtopprobs;
        
        negtarget=sum(neglabstates);
        negtop=sum(negtopstates);
        
          
        
        % starting from the end of the Gibbs SAMPLING RUN, perform a
        % top-down generative pass to get sleep phase probabilities and
        % sample states
        
        sleeppenstates=negpenstates;
        sleephidprobs=1./(1+exp(-sleeppenstates*penhid-hidgenbiases));
        sleephidstates=sleephidprobs>rand(numcases,numhid);
        sleepvisprobs=1./(1+exp(-sleephidstates*hidvis-visbiases));
        
        % predictions
        psleeppenstates=1./(1+exp(-sleephidstates*hidpen-penrecbiases));  
		
		possleeppenstates=psleeppenstates>rand(numcases,numpen);
		
        psleephidstates=1./(1+exp(-sleepvisprobs*vishid-hidrecbiases));     
		
		negsleephidstates=psleephidstates>rand(numcases,numhid);
		
        pvisprobs=1./(1+exp(-wakehidstates*hidvis-visbiases));             
        phidprobs=1./(1+exp(-wakepenstates*penhid-hidgenbiases));
		
		phidstates=phidprobs>rand(numcases,numhid);
        
        
        negvisact=sum(pvisprobs);
        poshidgen=sum(wakehidstates);
        neghidgen=sum(phidstates);
        negpengen=sum(negpenstates);
        possleeppen=sum(sleeppenstates);
        negpsleeppen=sum(possleeppenstates);
        possleephid=sum(sleephidstates);
        negpsleephid=sum(negsleephidstates);
        
        if epoch>5,
            momentum=finalmomentum;
        else
            momentum=initialmomentum;
        end;
        
        % update to generative parameters
 
         hidvisinc=momentum * hidvisinc + epsilonw*(wakehidprobs'*(data-pvisprobs)/numcases-weightcost * hidvis);
         visbiasinc=momentum * visbiasinc + (epsilonvb/numcases)*(repmat(posvisact,numcases,1)-repmat(negvisact,numcases,1));
         penhidinc=momentum * penhidinc + epsilonw*(wakepenprobs'*(wakehidstates-phidstates)/numcases-weightcost * penhid);
         hidgenbiasesinc=momentum * hidgenbiasesinc + (epsilonhb/numcases)*(repmat(poshidgen,numcases,1)-repmat(neghidgen,numcases,1));
    
        
        hidvis=hidvis+hidvisinc;
        visbiases=visbiases+visbiasinc;
        penhid=penhid+ penhidinc;
        hidgenbiases=hidgenbiases+hidgenbiasesinc;
        
        
        
        % update to top level associative memory parameters
        labtopinc=momentum * labtopinc + epsilonw * ((poslabtopstatistics-neglabtopstatistics)/numcases- weightcost * labtop);
        labgenbiasesinc=momentum *labgenbiasesinc + (epsilonhb/numcases) *(repmat(postarget,numcases,1)-repmat(negtarget,numcases,1));
        hidpen2inc=momentum * hidpen2inc + epsilonw * ((pospentopstatistics-negpentopstatistics)/numcases- weightcost * hidpen2);
        pengenbiasesinc=momentum * pengenbiasesinc + (epsilonhb/numcases) * (repmat(pospengen,numcases,1)-repmat(negpengen,numcases,1));
        penrecbiases2inc=momentum * penrecbiases2inc + (epsilonhb/numcases) * (repmat(postop,numcases,1)-repmat(negtop,numcases,1));
        
        
        labtop=labtop +labtopinc;
        labgenbiases=labgenbiases+labgenbiasesinc;
        hidpen2=hidpen2 + hidpen2inc;
        pengenbiases=pengenbiases+pengenbiasesinc;
        penrecbiases2=penrecbiases2 + penrecbiases2inc;
        
        
        % update to recognition approximation parameters
           
		hidpeninc=momentum * hidpeninc + epsilonw * ((sleephidprobs' * (sleeppenstates-possleeppenstates)/numcases)-weightcost * hidpen);
		vishidinc=momentum * vishidinc + epsilonw *((sleepvisprobs' * (sleephidstates-negsleephidstates)/numcases)-weightcost * vishid);
		penrecbiasesinc=momentum * penrecbiasesinc + (epsilonhb/numcases) * (repmat(possleeppen,numcases,1)-repmat(negpsleeppen,numcases,1));
        hidrecbiasesinc=momentum * hidrecbiasesinc + (epsilonhb/numcases) * (repmat(possleephid,numcases,1)-repmat(negpsleephid,numcases,1));
        
        
        hidpen=hidpen + hidpeninc;
        penrecbiases=penrecbiases+penrecbiasesinc ;
        vishid=vishid + vishidinc ;
        hidrecbiases=hidrecbiases+ hidrecbiasesinc;
         
        
    end
   
   
  
save parameters hidvis visbiases penhid hidgenbiases labtop labgenbiases hidpen2 pengenbiases penrecbiases2 hidpen penrecbiases vishid hidrecbiases;

    
    fprintf(1,'After epoch %d Train. \n',epoch);
    

      generating_samples;
  
 
end
% generating_samples;








参考:

1. The wake-sleep algorithm for unsupervised neural networks

2. DBN_MNIST_Generating

展开阅读全文

没有更多推荐了,返回首页