Ubuntu14.04下FTP服务器的搭建配置

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/hongbin_xu/article/details/73177748

首先说明一下,我是在虚拟机中装的Ubuntu14.04,物理机是Win10,最初只是为了在两个系统间传输文件才在Ubuntu中安装了ftp服务器,从Windows端登陆其即可。最初也是按照网上的各种教程来配置,结果就是喜闻乐见的各种报错不能用,或者说无法登陆等等。这里,分享一下我自己的配置过程,按照步骤来就没有问题。

我对ftp服务器的需求是:

  1. 不允许匿名访问,因为我不想其他机器随便都能登陆上来;
  2. 锁定一个共享目录,在这个目录下我可以上传和下载文件,进行文件共享;
  3. 不单独建立ftp用户,本机就可以访问;

好了,开始安装。

sudo apt-get install vsftpd 

很快就可以安装完成。
这里写图片描述
接下来配置vsftpd.conf文件,位于etc目录下。

sudo gedit /etc/vsftpd.conf

更改相应的配置:

1、我不希望别人匿名登陆:
这里写图片描述

2、锁定一个共享目录:(自己指定一个文件夹就可以,我用的是/home/xhb/ftp)
这里写图片描述

3、本机可以访问:
这里写图片描述

4、允许写操作:
这里写图片描述

5、不单独建立ftp用户,直接使用Ubuntu桌面用户就可以登陆:
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这里有用到/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list这个文件,没有就新建立一个:

sudo gedit /etc/vsftpd.chroot_list

在文件中填入允许登陆的账号名。(我的桌面用户名是xhb,也可以添加其他用户名)
这里写图片描述

然后配置接OK了。

完整配置文件(/etc/vsftpd.conf):

# Example config file /etc/vsftpd.conf
#
# The default compiled in settings are fairly paranoid. This sample file
# loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.
# Please see vsftpd.conf.5 for all compiled in defaults.
#
# READ THIS: This example file is NOT an exhaustive list of vsftpd options.
# Please read the vsftpd.conf.5 manual page to get a full idea of vsftpd's
# capabilities.
#
#
# Run standalone?  vsftpd can run either from an inetd or as a standalone
# daemon started from an initscript.
listen=YES
#
# Run standalone with IPv6?
# Like the listen parameter, except vsftpd will listen on an IPv6 socket
# instead of an IPv4 one. This parameter and the listen parameter are mutually
# exclusive.
#listen_ipv6=YES
#
# Allow anonymous FTP? (Disabled by default)
anonymous_enable=NO
#
# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.
local_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.
write_enable=YES
#
# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,
# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd's)
#local_umask=022
#
# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only
# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will
# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.
#anon_upload_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create
# new directories.
#anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES
#
# Activate directory messages - messages given to remote users when they
# go into a certain directory.
dirmessage_enable=YES
#
# If enabled, vsftpd will display directory listings with the time
# in  your  local  time  zone.  The default is to display GMT. The
# times returned by the MDTM FTP command are also affected by this
# option.
use_localtime=YES
#
# Activate logging of uploads/downloads.
xferlog_enable=YES
#
# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).
connect_from_port_20=YES
#
# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by
# a different user. Note! Using "root" for uploaded files is not
# recommended!
#chown_uploads=YES
#chown_username=whoever
#
# You may override where the log file goes if you like. The default is shown
# below.
#xferlog_file=/var/log/vsftpd.log
#
# If you want, you can have your log file in standard ftpd xferlog format.
# Note that the default log file location is /var/log/xferlog in this case.
#xferlog_std_format=YES
#
# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.
#idle_session_timeout=600
#
# You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.
#data_connection_timeout=120
#
# It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the
# ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.
#nopriv_user=ftpsecure
#
# Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not
# recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,
# however, may confuse older FTP clients.
#async_abor_enable=YES
#
# By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore
# the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII
# mangling on files when in ASCII mode.
# Beware that on some FTP servers, ASCII support allows a denial of service
# attack (DoS) via the command "SIZE /big/file" in ASCII mode. vsftpd
# predicted this attack and has always been safe, reporting the size of the
# raw file.
# ASCII mangling is a horrible feature of the protocol.
#ascii_upload_enable=YES
#ascii_download_enable=YES
#
# You may fully customise the login banner string:
#ftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.
#
# You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently
# useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.
#deny_email_enable=YES
# (default follows)
#banned_email_file=/etc/vsftpd.banned_emails
#
# You may restrict local users to their home directories.  See the FAQ for
# the possible risks in this before using chroot_local_user or
# chroot_list_enable below.
#chroot_local_user=YES
#
# You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home
# directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of
# users to NOT chroot().
# (Warning! chroot'ing can be very dangerous. If using chroot, make sure that
# the user does not have write access to the top level directory within the
# chroot)
#chroot_local_user=YES
chroot_list_enable=YES
# (default follows)
chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list
#
# You may activate the "-R" option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by
# default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large
# sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as "ncftp" and "mirror" assume
# the presence of the "-R" option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.
#ls_recurse_enable=YES
#
# Customization
#
# Some of vsftpd's settings don't fit the filesystem layout by
# default.
#
# This option should be the name of a directory which is empty.  Also, the
# directory should not be writable by the ftp user. This directory is used
# as a secure chroot() jail at times vsftpd does not require filesystem
# access.
secure_chroot_dir=/var/run/vsftpd/empty
#
# This string is the name of the PAM service vsftpd will use.
pam_service_name=vsftpd
#
# This option specifies the location of the RSA certificate to use for SSL
# encrypted connections.
rsa_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
# This option specifies the location of the RSA key to use for SSL
# encrypted connections.
rsa_private_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key

# xhb added
local_root=/home/xhb/ftp

现在重启FTP,让之前的配置生效。

sudo service vsftpd restart

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到这里就OK了。登上去看看。
首先,查看IP地址。
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我的本地IP地址是192.168.139.135。
在Windows资源管理器中输入:ftp://(你的IP地址)
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输入账户名和密码后即可登录了。
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登录的路径就是设为共享文件夹的那个路径。

备注:
如果出现无法登录的情况,原因可能是这样:
之前在配置时,我们做了如下配置来指定允许登陆的用户:
这里写图片描述

提出来看看:

chroot_list_enable=YES 
chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list

配合使用,使得只有在vsftpd.chroot_list中配置的用户才能登录FTP。
然而vsftpd.chroot_list中配置的用户,对于local_list指定的目录不允许有些的权限。
所以对于共享目录不能有写的权限,如果有我们必须把它去掉。

查看ftp目录的权限。

ls -l

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去掉写权限。

chmod u-w,g-w ftp
ls -l

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从显示信息的最前面可以看到,ftp的写权限已经去掉了。接下来就可以正常登陆了。

参考链接:
http://www.cnblogs.com/bcsflilong/p/4200139.html

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