(C++)栈和队列的模拟实现

什么是栈?

栈(stack)是限定仅在表尾进行插入和删除操作的线性表

我们把允许插入和删除的一端称为栈顶(Top),另一端称为栈底(bottom),不含任何数据原色的栈称为空栈。栈又称为后进先出(Last In First Out)的线性表,简称LIFO结构。

实现一个栈

代码实现:

template <class T>
class stack
{
public:
    stack()
        :_data(NULL)
        , _size(0)
        , _capacity(0)
    {}

    stack(const stack<T>& s)
    {
        _data = new T[s._size];
        for (size_t i = 0; i < s._size; ++i)
        {
            _data[i] = s._data[i];
        }
        _size = s._size;
        _capacity = s._capacity;
    }

    ~stack()
    {
        if (_data)
        {
            delete[] _data;
            _data = NULL;
            _size = 0;
            _capacity = 0;
        }
    }

    void CheckCapacity()
    {
        if (_size == _capacity)
        {
            size_t _newCapacity = _capacity * 2 + 3;
            T* tmp = new T[_newCapacity];
            assert(tmp);
            for (size_t i = 0; i < _size; ++i)
            {
                tmp[i] = _data[i];
            }

            delete[] _data;
            _data = tmp;
            _capacity = _newCapacity;
        }
    }

    void Push(const T& x)
    {
        if (_size == _capacity)
        {
            CheckCapacity();
        }

        _data[_size] = x;
        _size++;

    }

    void Pop()
    {
        assert(_size);
        --_size;
    }

    T& Top()
    {
        return _data[_size-1];
    }

    bool Empty()
    {
        return (_size == 0);
    }

private:
    T* _data;
    size_t _size;
    size_t _capacity;
};

测试用例:

void Test1()
{
    stack<int> mystack;
    mystack.Push(1);
    mystack.Push(2);
    mystack.Push(3);
    mystack.Push(4);

    mystack.Pop();
    mystack.Pop();
    mystack.Pop();

    while (!mystack.Empty())
    {
        cout << mystack.Top() << ' ';
        mystack.Pop();
    }

    cout << endl;
}

实现结果:

这里写图片描述

队列

什么是队列?

队列(queue)是只允许在一端进行插入操作,而在另一端进行删除操作的线性表。

队列是一种先进先出(First In First Out)的线性表,简称FIFO。我们将允许插入的一端称为队尾,允许删除的一端称为队头。

实现一个队列

代码实现:

template<class T>
struct ListNode
{
    T _data;
    ListNode* _next;

    ListNode(const T& x)
        :_data(x)
        , _next(NULL)
    {}
};


template<class T>
class queue
{
    typedef ListNode<T> Node;
public:
    queue()
    {
        _head = new Node(T());//匿名对象
        _head->_next = NULL;
    }

    queue(const queue<T>& q)
    {
        Node* cur = q._head;

        while (cur)
        {
            Push(cur->_data);
            cur = cur->_next;
        }

    }

    ~queue()
    {
        Node* cur = _head;
        while (cur)
        {
            Node* tmp = cur;
            cur = cur->_next;
            delete tmp;
        }
        _head = NULL;
    }

    void Push(const T& x)
    {
        Node* tmp = new Node(x);
        Node* cur = _head;
        while (cur->_next)
        {
            cur = cur->_next;
        }
        cur->_next = tmp;
        tmp->_next = NULL;
    }

    void Pop()
    {
        Node* cur = _head->_next;
        Node* tmp = cur;

        _head->_next = tmp->_next;
        delete tmp;
    }

    T& Back()
    {
        Node* cur = _head;

        while (cur->_next)
        {
            cur = cur->_next;
        }

        return cur->_data;
    }

    T& Front()
    {
        return _head->_next->_data;
    }

    bool Empty()
    {
        return (_head->_next == NULL);
    }

    void Print()
    {
        Node* cur = _head->_next;
        while (cur)
        {
            cout << cur->_data << ' ';
            cur = cur->_next;
        }
        cout << endl;
    }

private:
    Node* _head;
};

测试用例:

void Test2()
{
    queue<int> myqueue;
    myqueue.Push(1);
    myqueue.Push(2);
    myqueue.Push(3);
    myqueue.Push(4);
    myqueue.Push(5);
    myqueue.Push(6);

    myqueue.Print();

    while (!myqueue.Empty())
    {
        cout << myqueue.Front() << ' ';
        myqueue.Pop();
    }
    cout << endl;

    myqueue.Push(1);
    myqueue.Push(2);
    myqueue.Push(3);
    myqueue.Push(4);
    myqueue.Push(5);
    myqueue.Push(6);

    myqueue.Pop();
    myqueue.Pop();
    myqueue.Pop();

    myqueue.Print();

    cout << myqueue.Front() << ' ';
    cout << endl;

    cout << myqueue.Back() << ' ';
    cout << endl;
}

实现结果:

这里写图片描述

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