并行计算入门案例

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首先是cuda编程,分三步,把数据从内存拷贝进显存,GPU进行计算,将结果从显存拷贝回内存。

cuda-C程序冒泡排序案例:

#include "cuda_runtime.h"
#include "device_launch_parameters.h"

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define N 400
void random_ints(int *);

__global__ void myKernel(int *d_a)
{
	__shared__ int s_a[N]; //定义共享变量
	int tid = threadIdx.x;
	s_a[tid] = d_a[tid]; //每个线程搬运对应的数据到共享内存中
	__syncthreads(); //线程同步

	for (int i = 1; i <= N; i++) { //最多N次排序完成

		if (i % 2 == 1 && (2 * tid + 1) < N) { //奇数步
			if (s_a[2 * tid] > s_a[2 * tid + 1]) {
				int temp = s_a[2 * tid];
				s_a[2 * tid] = s_a[2 * tid+1];
				s_a[2 * tid + 1] = temp;
			}
		} 
		__syncthreads(); //线程同步
		if (i % 2 == 0 && (2 * tid + 2) < N ) { //偶数步
			if (s_a[2 * tid+1] > s_a[2 * tid + 2]) {
				int temp = s_a[2 * tid+1];
				s_a[2 * tid+1] = s_a[2 * tid + 2];
				s_a[2 * tid + 2] = temp;
			}
		}
		__syncthreads(); //线程同步		
	}
	d_a[tid] = s_a[tid]; //将排序结果搬回到Global Memory
}

int main()
{
	//定义变量
	int *a,*d_a;
	int size = N * sizeof(int);

	//Host端变量分配内存
	a = (int *)malloc(size); 
	//初始化待排序数组
	random_ints(a);
	
	//Device端变量分配内存
	cudaMalloc((void **)&d_a, size);

	//将数据从Host端拷贝到Device端
	cudaMemcpy(d_a, a, size, cudaMemcpyHostToDevice);

	//调用核函数
	myKernel<<<1, N >>> (d_a);

	//将数据从Device端拷贝到Host端
	cudaMemcpy(a, d_a, size, cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost);

	//打印排序结果
	for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
		printf("%d ", a[i]);
	}

	//释放内存
	free(a); 
	cudaFree(d_a); 
	return 0;
}
void random_ints(int *a)
{
	if (!a) { //异常判断
		return;
	}
	for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
		a[i] = rand() % N; //产生0-N之间的随机整数
	}
}

然后openmp只需要在循环耗时的地方加上一句话即可。

还有就是MPI使用6个基本函数即可。

MPI初始化:通过MPI_Init函数进入MPI环境并完成所有的初始化工作

int MPI_Init( int *argc, char * * * argv )

MPI结束:通过MPI_Finalize函数从MPI环境中退出

int MPI_Finalize(void)

获取进程的编号:调用MPI_Comm_rank函数获得当前进程在指定通信域中的编号,将自身与其他程序区分

int MPI_Comm_rank(MPI_Comm comm, int *rank)

获取指定通信域的进程数:调用MPI_Comm_size函数获取指定通信域的进程个数,确定自身完成任务比例

int MPI_Comm_size(MPI_Comm comm, int *size)

消息发送:MPI_Send函数用于发送一个消息到目标进程

int MPI_Send(void *buf, int count, MPI_Datatype dataytpe, int dest, int tag, MPI_Comm comm) 

消息接受:MPI_Recv函数用于从指定进程接收一个消息

int MPI_Recv(void *buf, int count, MPI_Datatype datatyepe,int source, int tag, MPI_Comm comm, MPI_Status *status)

圆周率计算案例:

【OpenMP_PI】
#include <omp.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<time.h>

#define NUM_THREADS 8
double seriel_pi();
double parallel_pi();
static long num_steps = 1000000000;
double step;
void main()
{
	clock_t start; float time; double pi;
	start = clock();
	pi=seriel_pi();
	time = (float)(clock() - start);
	printf("Seriel:PI=%.5f  time=%.1f\n", pi,time);
	start = clock();
	pi = parallel_pi();
	time = (float)(clock() - start);
	printf("Parallel:PI=%.5f  time=%.1f\n", pi, time);
}
double parallel_pi() {
	int i; double x, pi, sum = 0.0;
	step = 1.0 / (double)num_steps;
	omp_set_num_threads(NUM_THREADS);
#pragma omp parallel for private(x) reduction (+:sum)
	for (i = 0; i< num_steps; i++) {
		x = (i + 0.5)*step;
		sum += 4.0 / (1.0 + x*x);
	}
	pi = sum * step;
	return pi;
}
double seriel_pi() {
	double x, pi, sum = 0.0;
	step = 1.0 / (double)num_steps;
	for (int i = 0; i< num_steps; i++) {
		x = (i + 0.5)*step;
		sum = sum + 4.0 / (1.0 + x*x);
	}
	pi = step * sum;
	return pi;
}

【Cuda_PI】
#include "cuda_runtime.h"
#include "device_launch_parameters.h"

#include <stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<time.h>

double seriel_pi();
#define B 128     //块的个数
#define T 512		//每个块中的线程数
#define N 1000000000   //划分的step个数


__global__ void reducePI1(double *d_sum) {
	

	int gid = threadIdx.x + blockIdx.x*blockDim.x;//线程索引

	__shared__ double s_sum[T];//长度为block线程数

	s_sum[threadIdx.x] = 0.0; //初始化

	double x;

	while (gid < N) { 
		x = (gid + 0.5)/N;//当前x值
		s_sum[threadIdx.x] += 4.0 / (1.0 + x*x);//对应的y值
		gid += blockDim.x*gridDim.x; //若总线程数不足时,进行累加
		__syncthreads();
	}

	for (int i = (blockDim.x >> 1); i>0; i >>= 1) { //归约到s_sum[0]
		if (threadIdx.x<i) {
			s_sum[threadIdx.x] += s_sum[threadIdx.x + i];
		}
		__syncthreads();
	}


	if (threadIdx.x == 0) {
		d_sum[blockIdx.x] = s_sum[0]; //每个block存储自己block的归约值
	}
}

__global__ void reducePI2(double *d_sum) {

	int id = threadIdx.x;

	__shared__ double s_pi[B];


	s_pi[id] = d_sum[id]; //将数据拷贝到共享内存区
	__syncthreads();


	for (int i = (blockDim.x >> 1); i>0; i >>= 1) { //归约到s_pi[0]
		if (id < i) {
			s_pi[id] += s_pi[id + i];  
		}
		__syncthreads();
	}

	if (id == 0) {
		d_sum[0] = s_pi[0]/N;

	}
}

int main()
{
	//定义变量
	double *pi, *d_sum;
	clock_t start; float time;

	//Host端变量分配内存
	pi = (double *)malloc(sizeof(double));
	//Device端变量分配内存
	cudaMalloc((void **)&d_sum, B*sizeof(double));

	//串行计算
	start = clock();
	pi[0] = seriel_pi();
	time = (float)(clock() - start);
	printf("Seriel:PI=%.5f  time=%.1f\n", pi[0], time);

	//并行计算
	start = clock();
	//调用核函数
	reducePI1 <<<B, T >>> (d_sum);
	reducePI2 <<<1, B >>> (d_sum);

	//将数据从Device端拷贝到Host端
	cudaMemcpy(pi, d_sum, sizeof(double), cudaMemcpyDeviceToHost);
	time = (float)(clock() - start);
	printf("Parallel:PI=%.5f  time=%.1f\n", pi[0], time);


	//释放内存
	free(pi);
	cudaFree(d_sum);
	return 0;
}
double seriel_pi() {
	double x, pi,step, sum = 0.0;
	step = 1.0 / (double)N;
	for (int i = 0; i< N; i++) {
		x = (i + 0.5)*step;
		sum = sum + 4.0 / (1.0 + x*x);
	}
	pi = step * sum;
	return pi;
}

【MPI_PI】
#include<stdio.h>
#include "mpi.h"
#include<math.h>
#pragma comment (lib, "msmpi.lib") 


int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
	int my_rank, num_procs;
	int i, n = 100000000;
	double sum=0.0, step, x, mypi, pi;
	double start = 0.0, stop = 0.0;

	MPI_Init(&argc, &argv);          //初始化环境
	MPI_Comm_size(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &num_procs);   //获取并行的进程数
	MPI_Comm_rank(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &my_rank);     //当前进程在所有进程中的序号

	start = MPI_Wtime();
	step = 1.0 / n;
	for (i = my_rank; i<n; i += num_procs) {
		x = step*((double)i + 0.5);
		sum += 4.0 / (1.0 + x*x);
	}
	mypi = step*sum;

	MPI_Reduce(&mypi, &pi, 1, MPI_DOUBLE, MPI_SUM, 0, MPI_COMM_WORLD);    //由进程0进行归约,把每个进程计算出来的mypi进行相加(MPI_SUM),赋给pi
	if (my_rank == 0) {
		printf("PI is %.20f\n", pi);
		stop = MPI_Wtime();
		printf("Time: %f\n", stop - start);
		fflush(stdout);
	}
	MPI_Finalize();
	return 0;
}

串行


并行



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