foo和bar词源

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"Foo" 的辞源

自从 RFC 269 以来,约有 212 篇计算机与通讯技术文件 (RFCs) ,其中包括了句子间的 `foo' 、 `bar' 或 `foobar' 等变数没有任何恰当的解释或定义。本文件用来矫正这类不足。

目录
1. 简介 ....................................................1
2. 定义及辞类变化 ..........................................2
3. 字首缩略字 ..............................................5
附录 .......................................................7
安全考量 ..................................................11
参考文件 ..................................................12
作者通讯处 ................................................13
完整著作权声明 ............................................14

1. 简介

自从 [RFC269] 以来,大约有 212 篇计算机与通讯技术文件,或者大约百分之七的计算机与通讯技术文件,在句子里面包含了 `foo' 、 `bar' 或 `foobar' 等变数,却没有任何适当的解释或者定义。虽然看起来是小事,但对于初学者,尤其是母语非英语系者,在了解这些语意上会有问题。这份文件用来矫正这类不足。

第二段起描述这些字的定义及辞类变化,第三段诠释它们的字首缩略字。

在附录,包含这些字出现在句子中的计算机与通讯技术文件整理表。

2. 定义及辞型变化

bar /bar/ 名词 [JARGON]

句中第二个变数,在 foo 后及其它等等的前面。
" 假设我们有二个函式 : FOO 和 BAR 。 FOO 呼叫 BAR...."

常常附在 foo 后变成 foobar 。

foo /foo/

感叹词 讨厌的措辞。

当一个样板名字,很广泛地使用在各方面,尤其是程序和档案。 ( 尤其是草稿档案 )

语法范例句中使用变数的第一个标准 (bar 、 baz 、 qux 、 quux 、 corge 、 grault 、 garply 、 waldo 、 fred 、 plugh 、 xyzzy 、 thud) [JARGON]
当使用 bar 有关的字眼,它追溯到二次大战年代军队中的粗话缩写 FUBAR ( 操到烂再来大修 , `Fucked Up Beyond All Repair') ,后来演变成 foobar 。早期由 Jargon 的文件 [JARGON] 解释这个变化是战后精简的粗话,但现在看来比较像是因 FUBAR 衍生的字 `foo' 或许 受德文 `furchtbar'( 可怖的 ) 影响, `foobar' 可能实际上就是这个原意。

至于单字 `foo' 本身从战前在漫画及卡通上开始出现,至少看起来是这样。在西元 1938 年时, Robert Clampett 在华纳卡通导演的 " 达菲鸭 " (The Daffy Doc) ,达菲鸭做个手势说 "SILENCE IS FOO!" 是极早版本, `FOO' 以及 `BAR' 亦出现在 Walt Kelly 的连环漫画 "Pogo" 中。最早的文献该算是 Bill Holman 的有关打火弟兄的超现实连环漫画 "Smokey Stover" 。大约从西元 1930 至 1952 年止,这本漫画有各式的美式喜感,包括 "Everybody's" 。 "FOO" 这个字眼常出现在汽车车牌上;或是背景画面中无义意的话,如 "He who foos last foos best" 或 "Many smoke but foo men chew" ;或者 Smokey 说 "Where there's foo, there's fire" 。连环漫画的作者 Bill Holman 一直充满了古怪的笑话和个人的奇谋,包括了其它的胡言乱语,诸如 "Notary Sojac" 及 "1506 nix nix" 。根据华纳卡通指南 (Warner Brothers Cartoon Companion, WBCC) 所述, Holman 自称 "foo" 这个字是由某个中国的小雕像底部来的。这似乎言之有理,中国的雕像通常都会加上趋吉避凶的刻文。这可能是中国字的 ' 福 ' (fu) ,有时将它译成同音的 `foo' ,它是幸福的意思,口头说时会搭配合适的语调。 ( 狮子狗守护在许 多中国餐 馆的门口二侧,正式的名称为 ` 福狗 ') [PERS] 。英语的说法接纳了 Holman 的 `foo' 这个胡说八道的字,肯定受了犹太的 `feh' 及英文的 `fooey' 及 `fool' 影响。 [JARGON, FOLDOC]

Holman 连环漫画中将很有特色的消防车,称之为 Foomobile ,它是二轮的车种。他的漫画在 1930 年代极其流行,造成了印弟安那州已量产可用的 Holman 式 Foomobile 的传说。根据美国漫画百科全书 (Encyclopedia of American Comics, EAC) 的讲法, `Foo' 曾在美国掀起一阵狂热,发现经由流行歌曲,产生了超过五百个 `Foo 俱乐部 ' 。通俗文化使内含 `foo' 蔚为风潮 ( 包括了华纳在 1938-39 年的卡通 ) ,但起源反而迅速遭到遗忘。 [JARGON]

二次世界大战的期间,它被活生生的保留在美国军中。在 1944-45 年间,将雷达操作员所追踪到的神秘轨迹称为 'foo 战机 ' (foo fighters, FF) ,也就是后来所谓的幽浮 (UFO) 。 ( 旧的说法在 1995 年大众化的口语改为较适合的噪音摇滚乐团 (grunge-rock bands) [BFF] 。 ) 消息和 Smokey Stover 的漫画结合 [PERS] 。

在大战期间,美英二国的军人常交流粗话。 `FOO' 就酱子开始传开,变成了蛮著名的英国军队战时刻字留念主题,至少不输美国军队的使用率 [WORDS] 。当英国部队回防时,刻下 "FOO 到此一游 " (FOO was here) ,或其它类似的字眼。一些俚语辞典坚称 FOO 可能是前线监测官 (Forward Observation Observer) 演变来的,但这可能是没有公开的 ( 就像同期的 "FUBAR") [JARGON] 。四十年后, Paul Dickson 的杰作 "Words" [WORDS] 追查到 "Foo" 在某本 1946 年英国海军杂志,引用如下 :

"Mr. Foo is a mysterious Second World War product, gifted with bitter omniscience and sarcasm."
(Foo 先生是二次世界大战的神秘产品,专门用来挖苦和讽刺知识份子。 )

早期的 Jargon 档案表示可能是黑客们真的是源于 "FOO, Lampoons and Parody" ,这是一本在西元 1958 年九月首次发行的漫画书,串起 Charles 和 Robert Crumb 。

尽管 Robert Crumb ( 当时才十五、六岁 ) 之后变成重要又有影响力的地下漫画家,这大胆的举动在当时完全不红;这位老兄在日后竟有复制版在现存的文摘中出现。封面的特色就是用斗大的 FOO 当标题。无论如何,这本漫画发行量仅一点点, Crumb 的学生就将他毕生的作品合订,参照 Smokey Stover 的漫画弄出这个封面。 Crumbs 亦可能影响到西元 1951-52 年短短几期的加拿大名叫 "Foo" 讽刺的杂志。 [JARGON]

一个过去的成员报导在西元 1959 年的 "TMRC 语言辞典 " (Dictionary of the TMRC Language) ,麻省理工学院铁路技术社 (the Tech Model Railroad Club at MIT, TMRC) 在编辑时曾提及 Foo 。目前的在线版本,只有在红皮那本提到一个 "Foo" 的字眼,如下: [TMRC]

Foo: 神圣的音节 ( 蝠吗呢叭咪哄, FOO MANI PADME HUM) ;只在神的恩典下和它交谈用。
我们第一个义务就是守护 Foo Counters 工艺。

一种定义为 Bill Holman 惯用的蠢字,当年廿岁以上的人会记得在流行文化及俚语间,出现了 " 哈哈就是严肃 " (ha ha only serious) 类似神秘的西藏佛教说法。今天的计算机玩家会发现不要用像那样的冷笑话会很困难,现在不像 1959 年时的冷漠。 [JARGON]


[EF] Foo 王子是 Pheebor 的最后统治者,掌管 Phee Helm ,大约在 Entharion 统治前的四百年。来自 Borphee 被称为 " 东部纨裤 " (eastern fop) 的人将 Foo 砍头后, Pheebor 的全盛时期结束, Borphee 繁荣持续至今。

[OED] 西元十三至十六世纪用来称呼魔鬼或任何其它的敌人。最早使用是西元 1366 年,乔塞 (Chaucer) 写的 A B C 诗中第八十四行: "Lat not our alder foo [devil] make his bobance [boast]" 乔塞写的 "Foo" 应该和现在英文的 "foe" ( 敌人 ) 有关。

一种罕见的狗。
一种近乎绝种的毛绒绒状狗,可能是中国的福狗;或是新疆的圣犬;亦有可能是源于北欧猎犬和中国蒙古黑鼻狗杂交的;或在中国土狼和黑鼻狗中间的过渡品种。它的名字可能起源于福州,因为是在福州 (Foochow) 流行的种类,所以可能就用中国东南方的福州 ( 现称为闽侯县 ) 命名。 [DOG]


foobar 名词

[JARGON] 语法范例句中广泛使用的变数;参见 foo 的辞源。很可能初期在西元 1960 年到 1970 年代时,由迪吉多 (Digital Equipment Corporation, DEC) 在它的系统手册中开始传播开来;考证可追溯到西元 1972 年。黑客通常不用这个,而用同义的 FUBAR 当圈内的行话或切口。一个看起来有理的说法是 "foobar" 在早年的计算机工程师间流传,因为 FUBAR 及 "foo bar" 符合电子学技术上术语:反转 foo 讯号 (signal) 。

foo-fighter 名词

二次大战时德国和英国军事上对幽浮 (Unidentified Flying Objects, UFOs) 的称呼。参见 [FF] 与上面 "foo" 的部份。

3. 字首缩略字 (Acronyms)

下面的段落是从 University Cork College 以及 Acronym Finder ,选出和计算机用语有关者。

.bar:

副档名之类的,不代表任何种类的档案型态。

BAR:

基底位址暂存器 (Base Address Register)
缓冲位址暂存器 (Buffer Address Register)


FOO:

前线监测官 (Forward Observation Observer)
FOO Of Oberlin. 一个组织的回圈缩写。
格言 : The FOO, the Proud, the FOO. 参见 <http://cs.oberlin.edu/students/jmankoff/FOO/home.html>

为了输出才开档。 (File Open for Output.) 一个 NFILE 错误代码。 [RFC1037]


FOOBAR:

在广大的位址纪录上处理档案传输协定。 (FTP Operation Over Big Address Records) [RFC1639] ( 尤其是第一份出现 "foo" 的 RFC 文件, [RFC269] ,就是有关档案传输的文件。 )

FUBAR:

通用汇流排定址暂存器失效 (Failed UniBus Address Register) - 在 VAX 机器,迪吉多的工程部门。
操到烂再来大修 (Fucked Up Beyond All Recognition/Repair) - 二次大战的美国军队。有时去脏字改成 " 用到烂再来大修 " (Fouled Up ...) 。


FUBARD - FUBAR 的过去式

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

更详细文档:http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3092.html

Etymology of "Foo"

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2001).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   Approximately 212 RFCs so far, starting with RFC 269, contain the
   terms `foo', `bar', or `foobar' as metasyntactic variables without
   any proper explanation or definition.  This document rectifies that
   deficiency.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction............................................1
   2. Definition and Etymology................................2
   3. Acronyms................................................5
   Appendix...................................................7
   Security Considerations...................................11
   References................................................12
   Authors' Addresses........................................13
   Full Copyright Statement..................................14

1. Introduction

   Approximately 212 RFCs, or about 7% of RFCs issued so far, starting
   with [RFC269], contain the terms `foo', `bar', or `foobar' used as a
   metasyntactic variable without any proper explanation or definition.
   This may seem trivial, but a number of newcomers, especially if
   English is not their native language, have had problems in
   understanding the origin of those terms.  This document rectifies
   that deficiency.

   Section 2 below describes the definition and etymology of these words
   and Section 3 interprets them as acronyms.

   As an Appendix, we include a table of RFC occurrences of these words
   as metasyntactic variables.

2. Definition and Etymology

   bar /bar/ n. [JARGON]

   1. The second metasyntactic variable, after foo and before baz.
      "Suppose we have two functions: FOO and BAR.  FOO calls BAR...."

   2. Often appended to foo to produce foobar.

   foo /foo/

   1. interj.  Term of disgust.

   2. Used very generally as a sample name for absolutely anything, esp.
      programs and files (esp. scratch files).

   3. First on the standard list of metasyntactic variables used in
      syntax examples (bar, baz, qux, quux, corge, grault, garply,
      waldo, fred, plugh, xyzzy, thud). [JARGON]

      When used in connection with `bar' it is generally traced to the
      WW II era Army slang acronym FUBAR (`Fucked Up Beyond All
      Repair'), later modified to foobar.  Early versions of the Jargon
      File [JARGON] interpreted this change as a post-war
      bowdlerization, but it now seems more likely that FUBAR was itself
      a derivative of `foo' perhaps influenced by German `furchtbar'
      (terrible) - `foobar' may actually have been the original form.

      For, it seems, the word `foo' itself had an immediate prewar
      history in comic strips and cartoons.  In the 1938 Warner Brothers
      cartoon directed by Robert Clampett, "The Daffy Doc", a very early
      version of Daffy Duck holds up a sign saying "SILENCE IS FOO!"
      `FOO' and `BAR' also occurred in Walt Kelly's "Pogo" strips.  The
      earliest documented uses were in the surrealist "Smokey Stover"
      comic strip by Bill Holman about a fireman.  This comic strip
      appeared in various American comics including "Everybody's"
      between about 1930 and 1952.  It frequently included the word
      "FOO" on license plates of cars, in nonsense sayings in the
      background of some frames such as "He who foos last foos best" or
      "Many smoke but foo men chew", and had Smokey say "Where there's
      foo, there's fire".  Bill Holman, the author of the strip, filled
      it with odd jokes and personal contrivances, including other

      nonsense phrases such as "Notary Sojac" and "1506 nix nix".
      According to the Warner Brothers Cartoon Companion [WBCC] Holman
      claimed to have found the word "foo" on the bottom of a Chinese
      figurine.  This is plausible; Chinese statuettes often have
      apotropaic inscriptions, and this may have been the Chinese word
      `fu' (sometimes transliterated `foo'), which can mean "happiness"
      when spoken with the proper tone (the lion-dog guardians flanking
      the steps of many Chinese restaurants are properly called "fu
      dogs") [PERS].  English speakers' reception of Holman's `foo'
      nonsense word was undoubtedly influenced by Yiddish `feh' and
      English `fooey' and `fool'. [JARGON, FOLDOC]

      Holman's strip featured a firetruck called the Foomobile that rode
      on two wheels.  The comic strip was tremendously popular in the
      late 1930s, and legend has it that a manufacturer in Indiana even
      produced an operable version of Holman's Foomobile.  According to
      the Encyclopedia of American Comics [EAC], `Foo' fever swept the
      U.S., finding its way into popular songs and generating over 500
      `Foo Clubs.' The fad left `foo' references embedded in popular
      culture (including the couple of appearances in Warner Brothers
      cartoons of 1938-39) but with their origins rapidly forgotten.
      [JARGON]

      One place they are known to have remained live is in the U.S.
      military during the WWII years.  In 1944-45, the term `foo
      fighters' [FF] was in use by radar operators for the kind of
      mysterious or spurious trace that would later be called a UFO (the
      older term resurfaced in popular American usage in 1995 via the
      name of one of the better grunge-rock bands [BFF]).  Informants
      connected the term to the Smokey Stover strip [PERS].

      The U.S. and British militaries frequently swapped slang terms
      during the war.  Period sources reported that `FOO' became a
      semi-legendary subject of WWII British-army graffiti more or less
      equivalent to the American Kilroy [WORDS].  Where British troops
      went, the graffito "FOO was here" or something similar showed up.
      Several slang dictionaries aver that FOO probably came from
      Forward Observation Officer, but this (like the contemporaneous
      "FUBAR") was probably a backronym [JARGON].  Forty years later,
      Paul Dickson's excellent book "Words" [WORDS] traced "Foo" to an
      unspecified British naval magazine in 1946, quoting as follows:

         "Mr. Foo is a mysterious Second World War product, gifted with
         bitter omniscience and sarcasm."

      Earlier versions of the Jargon File suggested the possibility that
      hacker usage actually sprang from "FOO, Lampoons and Parody", the
      title of a comic book first issued in September 1958, a joint

      project of Charles and Robert Crumb.  Though Robert Crumb (then in
      his mid-teens) later became one of the most important and
      influential artists in underground comics, this venture was hardly
      a success; indeed, the brothers later burned most of the existing
      copies in disgust.  The title FOO was featured in large letters on
      the front cover.  However, very few copies of this comic actually
      circulated, and students of Crumb's `oeuvre' have established that
      this title was a reference to the earlier Smokey Stover comics.
      The Crumbs may also have been influenced by a short-lived Canadian
      parody magazine named `Foo' published in 1951-52. [JARGON]

      An old-time member reports that in the 1959 "Dictionary of the
      TMRC Language", compiled at TMRC (the Tech Model Railroad Club at
      MIT) there was an entry for Foo.  The current on-line version, in
      which "Foo" is the only word coded to appear red, has the
      following [TMRC]:

         Foo:  The sacred syllable (FOO MANI PADME HUM); to be spoken
         only when under obligation to commune with the Deity. Our first
         obligation is to keep the Foo Counters turning.

      This definition used Bill Holman's nonsense word, then only two
      decades old and demonstrably still live in popular culture and
      slang, to make a "ha ha only serious" analogy with esoteric
      Tibetan Buddhism.  Today's hackers would find it difficult to
      resist elaborating a joke like that, and it is not likely 1959's
      were any less susceptible. [JARGON]

   4. [EF] Prince Foo was the last ruler of Pheebor and owner of the
      Phee Helm, about 400 years before the reign of Entharion.  When
      Foo was beheaded by someone he called an "eastern fop" from
      Borphee, the glorious age of Pheebor ended, and Borphee rose to
      the prominence it now enjoys.

   5. [OED] A 13th-16th century usage for the devil or any other enemy.
      The earliest citation it gives is from the year 1366, Chaucer A B
      C (84): "Lat not our alder foo [devil] make his bobance [boast]".
      Chaucer's "Foo" is probably related to modern English "foe".

   6. Rare species of dog.

      A spitz-type dog discovered to exist after having long been
      considered extinct, the Chinese Foo Dog, or Sacred Dog of
      Sinkiang, may have originated through a crossing of Northern
      European hunting dogs and the ancient Chow Chow from Mongolia or
      be the missing link between the Chinese Wolf and the Chow Chow.
      It probably derives its name from foochow, of the kind or style

      prevalent in Foochow, of or from the city of Foochow (now Minhow)
      in southeast China. [DOG]

   foobar n.

      [JARGON] A widely used metasyntactic variable; see foo for
      etymology.  Probably originally propagated through DECsystem
      manuals by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1960s and early
      1970s; confirmed sightings there go back to 1972.  Hackers do not
      generally use this to mean FUBAR in either the slang or jargon
      sense.  It has been plausibly suggested that "foobar" spread among
      early computer engineers partly because of FUBAR and partly
      because "foo bar" parses in electronics techspeak as an inverted
      foo signal.

   foo-fighter n.

      World War II term for Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) noted by
      both German and British military.  See [FF] and entry above for
      "foo".

3. Acronyms

   The following information is derived primarily from the compilations
   at University Cork College <http://www.ucc.ie/acronyms> and Acronym
   Finder <http://www.AcronymFinder.com> generally filtered for computer
   usage.

   .bar:

      Generic file extension which is not meant to imply anything about
      the file type.

   BAR:

      Base Address Register

      Buffer Address Register

   FOO:

      Forward Observation Observer.

      FOO Of Oberlin.  An organization whose name is a recursive
      acronym.  Motto: The FOO, the Proud, the FOO.  See
      <http://cs.oberlin.edu/students/jmankoff/FOO/home.html>.

      File Open for Output.  An NFILE error code [RFC1037].

   FOOBAR:

      FTP Operation Over Big Address Records [RFC1639].  (Particularly
      appropriate given that the first RFC to use "foo", [RFC269], was
      also about file transfer.)

   FUBAR:

      Failed UniBus Address Register - in a VAX, from Digital Equipment
      Corporation Engineering.

      Fucked Up Beyond All Recognition/Repair - From US Military in
      World War II.  Sometimes sanitized to "Fouled Up ...".

   FUBARD - Past tense of FUBAR.

Appendix

   Below is a table of RFC occurrences of these words as metasyntactic
   variables.  (This excludes other uses that are reasonably clear like
   "vertical bar" or "bar BoF".)  Many of these uses are for example
   domain names.  That usage may decrease with the specification in [RFC
   2606] of a Best Current Practice for example domain names.

   +------+-----+-----+---------+-------+-----+
   | RFC# | bar | foo | foo.bar | fubar |  #  |
   |      |     |     | foobar  |       |     |
   +------+-----+-----+---------+-------+-----+
   |  269 |  X  |  X  |         |       |   1 |
   |  441 |  X  |  X  |         |       |   2 |
   |  614 |      |  X  |         |       |   3 |
   |  686 |      |  X  |         |       |   4 |
   |  691 |      |  X  |         |       |   5 |
   |  733 |  X  |  X  |         |       |   6 |
   |  742 |      |  X  |         |       |   7 |
   |  743 |  X  |  X  |         |       |   8 |
   |  756 |      |  X  |         |       |   9 |
   |  765 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  10 |
   |  772 |  X  |  X  |         |   X  |  11 |
   |  775 |       |      |    X  |        | 12 |
   |  780 |  X  |  X  |         |   X  |  13 |
   |  788 |  X  |  X  |         |       |  14 |
   |  810 |  X  |  X  |    X   |       |  15 |
   |  819 |      |  X  |         |       |  16 |
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   +------+-----+-----+---------+-------+-----+
   | RFC# | bar | foo | foo.bar | fubar |  #  |
   |      |     |     | foobar  |       |     |
   +------+-----+-----+---------+-------+-----+
Security Considerations

   Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

References

   [BFF]     "Best of Foo Fighters: Signature Licks", Troy Stetina, Foo
             Fighters, October 2000, Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation,
             ISBN 063401470.

   [DOG]     <http://www.rarebreed.com/breeds/foo/foo.html>.

   [EAC]     "Encyclopedia of American Comics", Ron Goulart, 1990, Facts
             on File.

   [EF]      "Encyclopedia Frobozzica",
             <http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node=Prince%20Foo>

   [FF]      Foo Fighters - "The Rainbow Conspiracy", Brad Steiger,
             Sherry Hansen Steiger, December 1998, Kensington Publishing
             Corp., ISBN 1575663635.  - Computer UFO Network
             <http://www.cufon.org> particularly
             <http://www.cufon.org/cufon/foo.htm>.

   [FOLDOC]  "Free On-Line Dictionary Of Computing",
             <http://www.foldoc.org>.

   [JARGON]  The Jargon File.  See <http://www.jargon.org>.  Last
             printed as "The New Hacker's Dictionary", Eric S. Raymond,
             3rd Edition, MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-68092-0, 1996.

   [OED]     "The Oxford English Dictionary", J. A. Simpson, 1989,
             Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198611862.

   [PERS]    Personal communications.

   [RFC269]  Brodie, H., "Some Experience with File Transfer", RFC 269,
             December 1971.

   [RFC1037] Greenberg, B. and S. Keene, "NFILE - A File Access
             Protocol", RFC 1037, December 1987.

   [RFC1639] Piscitello, D., "FTP Operation Over Big Address Records
             (FOOBAR)", RFC 1639, June 1994.

   [RFC2606] Eastlake, D. and A. Panitz, "Reserved Top Level DNS Names",
             BCP 32, RFC 2606, June 1999.

   [TMRC]    The Tech Model Railroad Club (The Model Railroad Club of
             the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Dictionary,
             <http://tmrc-www.mit.edu/dictionary.html>.

   [WBCC]    "Warner Brothers Cartoon Companion",
             <http://members.aol.com/EOCostello/>.

   [WORDS]   "Words", Paul Dickson, ISBN 0-440-52260-7, Dell, 1982.

Authors' Addresses

   The authors of this document are:

   Donald E. Eastlake 3rd
   Motorola
   155 Beaver Street
   Milford, MA 01757 USA

   Phone:  +1 508-261-5434 (w)
           +1 508-634-2066 (h)
   Fax:    +1 508-261-4777 (w)
   EMail:  Donald.Eastlake@motorola.com

   Carl-Uno Manros
   Xerox Corporation
   701 Aviation Blvd.
   El Segundo, CA 90245 USA

   Phone:  +1 310-333-8273
   Fax:    +1 310-333-5514
   EMail:  manros@cp10.es.xerox.com

   Eric S. Raymond
   Open Source Initiative
   6 Karen Drive
   Malvern, PA 19355

   Phone:  +1 610-296-5718
   EMail:  esr@thyrsus.com

Full Copyright Statement

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   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
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   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
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   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.

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