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析构函数前加virtual关键字的作用?

大家知道,析构函数是为了在对象不被使用之后释放它的资源,虚函数是为了实现多态。那么把析构函数声明为vitual有什么作用呢?请看下面的代码:
#include<iostream>
using namespace std;

class Base
{
public:
	Base() {}; //Base的构造函数
	~Base() //Base的析构函数
	{
		cout << "Output from the destructor of class Base!" << endl;
	};
	virtual void DoSomething()
	{
		cout << "Do something in class Base!" << endl;
	};
};

class Derived : public Base
{
public:
	Derived() {}; //Derived的构造函数
	~Derived() //Derived的析构函数
	{
		cout << "Output from the destructor of class Derived!" << endl;
	};
	void DoSomething()
	{
		cout << "Do something in class Derived!" << endl;
	};
};

int main()
{
	Derived *pTest1 = new Derived(); //Derived类的指针
	pTest1->DoSomething();
	delete pTest1;

	cout << endl;

	Base *pTest2 = new Derived(); //Base类的指针
	pTest2->DoSomething();
	delete pTest2;

	return 0;
}

先看程序输出结果:
1 Do something in class Derived!
2 Output from the destructor of class Derived!
3 Output from the destructor of class Base!
4 
5 Do something in class Derived!
6 Output from the destructor of class Base!

代码第36行可以正常释放pTest1的资源,而代码第42行没有正常释放pTest2的资源,因为从结果看Derived类的析构函数并没有被调用。通常情况下类的析构函数里面都是释放内存资源,而析构函数不被调用的话就会造成内存泄漏。原因是指针pTest2是Base类型的指针,释放pTest2时只进行Base类的析构函数。在代码第8行前面加上virtual关键字后的运行结果如下:
1 Do something in class Derived!
2 Output from the destructor of class Derived!
3 Output from the destructor of class Base!
4 
5 Do something in class Derived!
6 Output from the destructor of class Derived!
7 Output from the destructor of class Base!

此时释放指针pTest2时,由于Base的析构函数是virtual的,就会先找到并执行Derived类的析构函数,然后再执行Base类的析构函数,资源正常释放,避免了内存泄漏。
因此,只有当一个类被用来作为基类的时候,才会把析构函数写成虚函数
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版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/sinat_20265495/article/details/51775724
文章标签: C++ 内存泄露
个人分类: C/C++知识库
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