寒假捉虫记——从一段损坏的调用栈开始折腾

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/zzxiang1985/article/details/43876519

  放假在家,继续调试《家园》。目前的进度是MinGW上的编译链接都已通过,游戏程序也已经可以跑起来并进入主菜单界面,但加载关卡之后就会闪退。这让我想起了以前上中学时玩盗版游戏的日子。那个年代的单机游戏估计大多是用C/C++写的,一个不小心的内存操作就会让进程崩掉;而且那个年代的操作系统没现在稳定,可能破解技术也不够先进,从电脑城里买来的五六块钱的盗版游戏质量参差不齐。很多游戏跑着跑着就闪退,有的甚至连打都打不开,让人甚为恼火。如今源代码在手,并且我也是程序员了,可以对闪退的原因一探究竟,再也不用怕。

 

  不过让人失望的是,用MinGW构建出的程序不会像Linux程序那样在崩溃时吐核。还好这回的闪退是可以必现的,所以就在gdb中运行程序,看看它崩在什么地方。

 

  结果程序如预期崩溃后,调用栈成了下面这个样子:

Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
0x0ddcf5c0 in ?? ()
(gdb) bt
#0  0x0ddcf5c0 in ?? ()
#1  0xabababab in ?? ()
#2  0x0000abab in ?? ()
#3  0x00000000 in ?? ()
(gdb)

  看样子调用栈已经坏掉了。记得以前在老东家遇到过这种损坏的调用栈,但后来很喜感地发现原来是机器的内存坏了。我相信我家电脑还没有到如此风烛残年的地步。

 

  在StackOverflow上搜到一篇帖子:http://stackoverflow.com/questions/9809810/gdb-corrupted-stack-frame-how-to-debug,正好是我想问的问题:如何在gdb中调试这种已经损坏的调用栈。帖子里的答案说这种情况99%是因为调用了非法的函数指针。在32位环境中可以用如下方法恢复调用栈:

(gdb) set $pc = *(void **)$esp
(gdb) set $esp = $esp + 4

  可是我检查了一下esp寄存器指向的内存:

(gdb) p $esp
$1 = (void *) 0x22fa34
(gdb) x $esp
0x22fa34:       0x0000007f
(gdb) x/i 0x7f
   0x7f:        Cannot access memory at address 0x7f
(gdb)

  0x7f显然不可能是一个合法的指令地址。看来我落到剩下那1%的区间里了=A=。

 

  把这事情分享到朋友圈里后,主程建议我让程序链接tcmalloc试试,看看能否让程序在应用代码进行非法内存操作时就崩溃,兴许那时调用栈还没损坏。可是试过后情况并无改变。不过这倒是提醒了我,以后不妨让自己的程序都链接tcmalloc,这样可以让很多问题都提前暴露。顺便写下,我的tcmalloc链接选项是-L/local/lib -ltcmalloc_minimal -fno-builtin-malloc -fno-builtin-calloc -fno-builtin-realloc -fno-builtin-free。

 

  无奈,最后还是通过打日志和单步调试的方法,通过应用代码本身的逻辑定位到了具体崩溃位置。原来程序崩在了一个OpenGL接口——glDrawElements的调用。多留日志和熟练掌握项目代码逻辑真是重要啊。

 

  如果是在工作中,我的排查工作一般在这一步也就该结束了。因为我从未接触过OpenGL,所以此时我应该让有OpenGL经验的同事来帮忙处理。不过这回不是在工作而是在玩耍,所以我打算满足下自己用牛刀杀鸡、用导弹打蚊子的癖好,好好研究一番,一是看看能否在gdb中恢复出调用栈,二是研究下glDrawElements这个调用为啥会崩溃,趁机接触下OpenGL。

 

调用栈的恢复

 

  先看看崩溃的直接原因是什么,看看崩溃时执行的汇编指令是什么:

(gdb) x/i $pc
=> 0xddcf5c0:   mov    (%esi),%edi

  看来esi寄存器里存了一个非法内存地址。

(gdb) p/x $esi
$3 = 0xfeee4
(gdb) p *(void **)$esi
Cannot access memory at address 0xf00d4
(gdb)

  果然如此。

 

  再看看这之前还执行了什么指令。

(gdb) x/40i $pc-90
   0xc54f7a6:   add    %al,(%eax)
   0xc54f7a8:   add    %al,(%eax)
   0xc54f7aa:   add    %al,(%eax)
   0xc54f7ac:   add    %al,(%eax)
   0xc54f7ae:   add    %al,(%eax)
   0xc54f7b0:   add    %al,(%eax)
   0xc54f7b2:   add    %al,(%eax)
   0xc54f7b4:   add    %al,(%eax)
   0xc54f7b6:   add    %al,(%eax)
   0xc54f7b8:   cmp    $0xff,%bh
   0xc54f7bb:   incl   0x550000f7(%eax)
   0xc54f7c1:   mov    %esp,%ebp
   0xc54f7c3:   push   %ebx
   0xc54f7c4:   push   %esi
   0xc54f7c5:   push   %edi
   0xc54f7c6:   mov    0x8(%ebp),%ebx
   0xc54f7c9:   mov    0xc(%ebp),%eax
   0xc54f7cc:   mov    0x14(%ebp),%ebp
   0xc54f7cf:   mov    %ebp,%edi
   0xc54f7d1:   shl    $0x14,%edi
   0xc54f7d4:   lea    0x40003640(%edi),%esi
   0xc54f7da:   mov    %esi,(%eax)
   0xc54f7dc:   add    $0x4,%eax
   0xc54f7df:   mov    0x1c(%esp),%edx
   0xc54f7e3:   lea    (%edx,%ebp,2),%ebp
   0xc54f7e6:   mov    %ebp,0x20(%esp)
   0xc54f7ea:   movzwl (%edx),%ecx
   0xc54f7ed:   add    $0x2,%edx
   0xc54f7f0:   mov    0xc509890,%esi
   0xc54f7f6:   mov    0x4(%esi),%esi
   0xc54f7f9:   mov    %ecx,%edi
   0xc54f7fb:   shl    $0x4,%edi
   0xc54f7fe:   add    %edi,%esi
=> 0xc54f800:   mov    (%esi),%edi
   0xc54f802:   mov    0x4(%esi),%ebp
   0xc54f805:   mov    %edi,(%eax)
   0xc54f807:   mov    %ebp,0x4(%eax)
   0xc54f80a:   mov    0x8(%esi),%edi
   0xc54f80d:   mov    %edi,0x8(%eax)
   0xc54f810:   mov    0xc509890,%esi
(gdb)

  看样子在0xc54f7bb附近很可能有一个函数头。函数开头通常由两条汇编指令组成——第一条指令保存当前栈帧的帧底地址,第二条指令将当前的栈顶指为栈帧底,开启新栈帧:

push %ebp
move %esp %ebp

  于是从0xc54f7bc开始,一路用x命令检查:

(gdb) x/40i 0xc54f7bc
...
(gdb) x/40i 0xc54f7bd
...
(gdb) x/40i 0xc54f7be
   0xc54f7be:   add    %al,(%eax)
  
0xc54f7c0:   push   %ebp
   0xc54f7c1:   mov    %esp,%ebp
   0xc54f7c3:   push   %ebx
   0xc54f7c4:   push   %esi
   0xc54f7c5:   push   %edi
   0xc54f7c6:   mov    0x8(%ebp),%ebx
   0xc54f7c9:   mov    0xc(%ebp),%eax
   0xc54f7cc:   mov    0x14(%ebp),%ebp
   0xc54f7cf:   mov    %ebp,%edi
   0xc54f7d1:   shl    $0x14,%edi
   0xc54f7d4:   lea    0x40003640(%edi),%esi
   0xc54f7da:   mov    %esi,(%eax)
   0xc54f7dc:   add    $0x4,%eax
   0xc54f7df:   mov    0x1c(%esp),%edx
   0xc54f7e3:   lea    (%edx,%ebp,2),%ebp
   0xc54f7e6:   mov    %ebp,0x20(%esp)
   0xc54f7ea:   movzwl (%edx),%ecx
   0xc54f7ed:   add    $0x2,%edx
   0xc54f7f0:   mov    0xc509890,%esi
   0xc54f7f6:   mov    0x4(%esi),%esi
   0xc54f7f9:   mov    %ecx,%edi
   0xc54f7fb:   shl    $0x4,%edi
   0xc54f7fe:   add    %edi,%esi
=> 0xc54f800:   mov    (%esi),%edi
   0xc54f802:   mov    0x4(%esi),%ebp
   0xc54f805:   mov    %edi,(%eax)
   0xc54f807:   mov    %ebp,0x4(%eax)
   0xc54f80a:   mov    0x8(%esi),%edi
   0xc54f80d:   mov    %edi,0x8(%eax)
   0xc54f810:   mov    0xc509890,%esi
   0xc54f816:   mov    0x54(%esi),%esi
   0xc54f819:   mov    %ecx,%edi
   0xc54f81b:   shl    $0x4,%edi
   0xc54f81e:   add    %edi,%esi
   0xc54f820:   mov    (%esi),%edi
   0xc54f822:   mov    %edi,0xc(%eax)
   0xc54f825:   add    $0x10,%eax
   0xc54f828:   cmp    0x20(%esp),%edx
   0xc54f82c:   jne    0xc54f7ea
(gdb)

  果真如此。地址0xc54f7c0和0xc54f7c1这两条指令就是典型的函数开头:

0xc54f7c0:   push   %ebp
0xc54f7c1:   mov    %esp,%ebp

  从这之后到崩溃处0xc54f800,有两处修改ebp的指令:

0xc54f7cc:   mov    0x14(%ebp),%ebp
...
0xc54f7e3:   lea    (%edx,%ebp,2),%ebp

  因此在0xc54f800: mov (%esi),%edi 崩溃的时候,寄存器中记录的就是错误的栈帧。也就是说,在gdb中查看的调用栈不正常是因为ebp被篡改了。从这两条指令还可以看出,崩溃时ebp的值取决于传入函数的参数。

 

  在指令0xc54f7c1: mov %esp,%ebp刚执行之后,esp的值和ebp的值是相等的。在这之后直到崩溃前,只有三条压栈指令(0xc54f7c6至0xc54f7cc)会修改esp。它们会使esp自减3个word,即3*4=12字节。分析到这里,就有办法恢复ebp的值了:

(gdb) set $ebp = $esp + 12

  通过检查esp指向的内存段可以进一步确认:

(gdb) x/8x $esp
0x22fa34:       0x0000007f      0x0c4f0000      0x0cbb6660     
0x0022fa70
0x22fa44:       0x69a84ce2      0x0c4f0000      0x0cd3e900      0x0cbb6660
(gdb)

  可见栈在内存段0x22fa??附近,0x002fa70想必就是上一个栈帧的帧底,0x69a84ce2就是函数调用前的指令地址,也就是函数的返回地址。

 

  现在可以看到正确的调用栈了:

(gdb) bt
#0  0x0c54f800 in ?? ()
#1  0x69a84ce2 in nvoglv32!DrvPresentBuffers () from C:\Windows\system32\nvoglv32.dll
#2  0x69a85ed6 in nvoglv32!DrvPresentBuffers () from C:\Windows\system32\nvoglv32.dll
#3  0x69a86214 in nvoglv32!DrvPresentBuffers () from C:\Windows\system32\nvoglv32.dll
#4  0x695f8988 in ?? () from C:\Windows\system32\nvoglv32.dll
#5  0x0049dd33 in btgRender () at ../../../src/Game/BTG.c:1307
#6  0x00417d0c in rndBackgroundRender (radius=100000, camera=0x9259c0 <universe+32>, bDrawStars=1) at ../../../src/SDL/render.c:1287
#7  0x00419c37 in rndMainViewRenderFunction (camera=0x9259c0 <universe+32>) at ../../../src/SDL/render.c:2440
#8  0x0040d730 in mrRegionDraw (reg=0xa66a0a0) at ../../../src/SDL/mainrgn.c:5509
#9  0x0056508f in regFunctionsDraw () at ../../../src/Game/Region.c:1094
#10 0x0041c47a in rndRenderTask (taskContextPtr=0xa666710) at ../../../src/SDL/render.c:3869
#11 0x005b0bc7 in taskExecuteAllPending (ticks=4) at ../../../src/Game/Task.c:370
#12 0x0042bb26 in utyTasksDispatch () at ../../../src/SDL/utility.c:4721
#13 0x00402df6 in HWSDL_main (argc=4, argv=0x59315d8) at ../../../src/SDL/main.c:2252
#14 0x004013e0 in main (argc=4, argv=0x59315d8) at ../../src/homeworld.c:32
(gdb)

  崩溃的应用程序代码(BTG.c:1307)与通过日志和单步调试分析出的结果完全一致。

 

  看样子崩在了OpenGL内部。既然是崩在了glDrawElements里面,那就要研究下glDrawElements的使用,想必是API使用不当。

 

glDrawElements的使用

 

  从glDrawElements的官方文档来看,这个接口的作用是批量绘制多个基本图元(如点、线、三角形和多边形)。不过这个接口并没有参数可以直接传入顶点数据,那个indices参数只是顶点数据的索引而已。这一点让我花了很长时间琢磨。用glDrawElements作关键词搜了很多文章,基本都能看懂,但还是不知道该如何从零开始用起来。

 

  还是先把这函数放一放,从基本的OpenGL程序开始吧,先写个Helloworld。从网上的文章得知现代OpenGL和过去的OpenGL 1.x在用法上似乎有很大不同;而《家园》是很老的游戏了,早在1999年就已经发行,即便是HomeworldSDL的代码也非常老,更新很缓慢。所以我恐怕还得学习老式OpenGL的用法。幸运的是从这里搜到了Tutorial:http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/OpenGL_Programming#Legacy_OpenGL_1.x。根据以下两节教程写出了一个Windows上运行的OpenGL小程序window.c:

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/OpenGL_Programming/GLStart/Tut1
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/OpenGL_Programming/GLStart/Tut2


 

#include <windows.h>
#include <GL/gl.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>

HDC hDC; //device context
HGLRC hglrc; //rendering context

void SetupPixels(HDC hDC)
{
    int pixelFormat;
    PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR pfd;
    pfd.nSize = sizeof(PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR);
    pfd.dwFlags = PFD_SUPPORT_OPENGL | PFD_DRAW_TO_WINDOW | PFD_DOUBLEBUFFER;
    pfd.nVersion = 1;
    pfd.iPixelType = PFD_TYPE_RGBA;
    pfd.cColorBits = 32;
    pfd.cDepthBits = 24;
    pixelFormat = ChoosePixelFormat(hDC, &pfd);
    if(!SetPixelFormat(hDC, pixelFormat, &pfd))
    {
         MessageBox(NULL,"Error setting up Pixel Format","ERROR",MB_OK);
         PostQuitMessage(0);
    }
}

void Resize(int width, int height)
{
    glViewport(0,0,(GLsizei)width,(GLsizei)height);
    glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
    glLoadIdentity();
    gluPerspective(45.0f,(GLfloat)width/(GLfloat)height,1.0f,1000.0f);
    glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
    glLoadIdentity();
}

void Render()
{
    glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
    glLoadIdentity();
    glTranslatef(0.0f,0.0f,-4.0f);
    glColor3f(0.0f,0.0f,1.0f);
    glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    glVertex3f(1.0f,1.0f,0.0f);
    glVertex3f(-1.0f,1.0f,0.0f);
    glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f,0.0f);
    glVertex3f(1.0f,-1.0f,0.0f);
    glEnd();
}

LRESULT CALLBACK WinProc(HWND hWnd,
                         UINT msg,
                         WPARAM wParam,
                         LPARAM lParam)
{
    int w,h;
    switch(msg)
    {
    case WM_CREATE:
        hDC = GetDC(hWnd);
        SetupPixels(hDC);
        hglrc = wglCreateContext(hDC);
        wglMakeCurrent(hDC, hglrc);
        break;
    case WM_DESTROY:
        wglMakeCurrent(hDC,NULL);
        wglDeleteContext(hglrc);
        PostQuitMessage(0);
        break;
    case WM_SIZE:
        w = LOWORD(lParam);
        h = HIWORD(lParam);
        Resize(w,h);
        break;
    default: break;
    }
    return DefWindowProc(hWnd,msg,wParam,lParam);
}

int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance,
                   HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
                   LPSTR lpCmdLine,
                   int nShowCmd)
{
    HWND hWnd;
    WNDCLASSEX wcex;
    MSG msg;

    wcex.cbSize = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);
    wcex.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;
    wcex.lpfnWndProc = WinProc;
    wcex.cbClsExtra = 0;
    wcex.cbWndExtra = 0;
    wcex.hInstance = hInstance;
    wcex.hIcon = LoadIcon(NULL,IDI_APPLICATION);
    wcex.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL,IDC_ARROW);
    wcex.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH) GetStockObject(GRAY_BRUSH);
    wcex.lpszMenuName = NULL;
    wcex.lpszClassName = "WinClass";
    wcex.hIconSm = NULL;

    RegisterClassEx(&wcex);

    hWnd = CreateWindow("WinClass","My Window",
        WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW,0,0,400,400,NULL,NULL,
        hInstance,NULL);

    if(hWnd == NULL)
    {
        MessageBox(NULL,"Error: Unable to create Window","ERROR",MB_OK);
        return -1;
    }

    ShowWindow(hWnd,nShowCmd);
    UpdateWindow(hWnd);
    hDC = GetDC(hWnd);
    glClearColor(0.0f,0.0f,0.0f,0.0f);

    while(1)
    {
        Render();
        SwapBuffers(hDC);
        if(PeekMessage(&msg,NULL,0,0,PM_REMOVE))
        {
            if(msg.message == WM_QUIT) break;
            TranslateMessage(&msg);
            DispatchMessage(&msg);
        }
    }

    return 0;
}

  MinGW上的编译命令:gcc -o window.exe window.c -mwindows -lopengl32 -lglu32

 

  运行结果如下:

 

运行结果

 

  程序中关键的绘制代码就是Render函数中从glBegin到glEnd的部分。

glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
glVertex3f(1.0f,1.0f,0.0f);
glVertex3f(-1.0f,1.0f,0.0f);
glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f,0.0f);
glVertex3f(1.0f,-1.0f,0.0f);
glEnd();

  这段代码绘制了四个顶点,从而绘制出一个正方形。这种用法是Tutorial 3中提到的Immediate Mode。看来如果要用glDrawElements,关键就是将这段代码替换为glDrawElements。

 

  现在关键是要知道如何将顶点数据传给glDrawElements。从HomeworldSDL的代码和glDrawElements相关的资料中,我注意到两个概念:Vertex Array Object(VAO)和Vertex Buffer Object(VBO)。Tutorial 3的末尾就简略地提及了这两个概念。简要地说,VAO就是我们要传给glDrawElements的顶点数据,这些数据是以数组形式存放的。glDrawElements被调用时可以从内存里拿这个数据,也可以从显存里拿,后一种方式的性能更好。如果是从显存里拿数据,那glDrawElements拿的数据就是VBO。HomeworldSDL崩溃时用的就是VBO。具体说明可以参考OpenGL官方文档中的Vertex Specification

 

  于是归纳了一下,采用VBO方式使用glDrawElements的步骤大致如下:

1、初始化,准备好顶点数据

1)用glGenBuffers申请Buffer Object的名字,也就是为即将分配的显存申请ID。

2)用glBindBuffer绑定Buffer Object,这样在再次调用glBindBuffer之前,接下来的Buffer Object相关的操作都是针对当前绑定的Buffer Object。target参数需是GL_ARRAY_BUFFER。

3)用glBufferData分配并初始化一段显存,将顶点数据传进显存。

4)再次调用glBindBuffer解绑Buffer Object。

2、准备好索引数组,步骤和1类似,只是调用glBindBuffer时target需是GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER。
3、调用
glVertexPointer,指定顶点数据。
4、调用glDrawElements进行绘制。
5、如果所有绘制工作完成,之前的显存不再需使用,就要调用
glDeleteBuffers释放显存。

  需要注明的是,以上只是一种简单的使用VBO的方式,并不是说glDrawElements一定要严格按照这个流程。在顶点和索引数据都不会变化的情况下,3~4两步可以反复执行。索引数组也不一定要放在显存里,可以在调用glDrawElements的时候直接通过参数将内存中的数组传进去,这时就不需要第2步。同理如果顶点数据也不用VBO的话,那第1步也省去了,glGenBuffers、glBindBuffer、glBufferData和glDeleteBuffers这几个函数都不用调用。

 

  很快,我的glDrawElements版本的Helloworld出炉了:

#include <windows.h>
#include <GL/gl.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>

HDC hDC; //device context
HGLRC hglrc; //rendering context

#ifdef USE_VBO
GLfloat transVerts[] =
{
    1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,
    -1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,
    -1.0f,-1.0f, 0.0f,
    1.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f
};
GLuint vboTransVerts;
GLushort indices[] =
{
    0, 1, 2,
    3, 4, 5,
    6, 7, 8,
    9, 10, 11
};
GLuint vboIndices;
#endif

void SetupPixels(HDC hDC)
{
    int pixelFormat;
    PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR pfd;
    pfd.nSize = sizeof(PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR);
    pfd.dwFlags = PFD_SUPPORT_OPENGL | PFD_DRAW_TO_WINDOW | PFD_DOUBLEBUFFER;
    pfd.nVersion = 1;
    pfd.iPixelType = PFD_TYPE_RGBA;
    pfd.cColorBits = 32;
    pfd.cDepthBits = 24;
    pixelFormat = ChoosePixelFormat(hDC, &pfd);
    if(!SetPixelFormat(hDC, pixelFormat, &pfd))
    {
         MessageBox(NULL,"Error setting up Pixel Format","ERROR",MB_OK);
         PostQuitMessage(0);
    }
}

void Resize(int width, int height)
{
    glViewport(0,0,(GLsizei)width,(GLsizei)height);
    glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
    glLoadIdentity();
    gluPerspective(45.0f,(GLfloat)width/(GLfloat)height,1.0f,1000.0f);
    glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
    glLoadIdentity();
}

#ifdef USE_VBO
void InitVBO()
{
    glGenBuffers(1, &vboTransVerts);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboTransVerts);
    glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(transVerts), transVerts, GL_STATIC_DRAW);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0);
    glGenBuffers(1, &vboIndices);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboIndices);
    glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(indices), indices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0);
}
#endif

void Render()
{
    glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
    glLoadIdentity();
    glTranslatef(0.0f,0.0f,-4.0f);
    glColor3f(0.0f,0.0f,1.0f);
#ifdef USE_VBO
    glEnableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboTransVerts);
    glVertexPointer(3, GL_FLOAT, 0, 0);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboIndices);
    glDrawElements(GL_POLYGON, sizeof(transVerts) / sizeof(transVerts[0]), GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT, 0);
#else
    glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    glVertex3f(1.0f,1.0f,0.0f);
    glVertex3f(-1.0f,1.0f,0.0f);
    glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f,0.0f);
    glVertex3f(1.0f,-1.0f,0.0f);
    glEnd();
#endif  // USE_VBO
}

LRESULT CALLBACK WinProc(HWND hWnd,
                         UINT msg,
                         WPARAM wParam,
                         LPARAM lParam)
{
    int w,h;
    switch(msg)
    {
    case WM_CREATE:
        hDC = GetDC(hWnd);
        SetupPixels(hDC);
        hglrc = wglCreateContext(hDC);
        wglMakeCurrent(hDC, hglrc);
#ifdef USE_VBO
        InitVBO();
#endif
        break;
    case WM_DESTROY:
#ifdef USE_VBO
        glDeleteBuffers(1, &vboTransVerts);
        glDeleteBuffers(1, &vboIndices);
#endif
        wglMakeCurrent(hDC,NULL);
        wglDeleteContext(hglrc);
        PostQuitMessage(0);
        break;
    case WM_SIZE:
        w = LOWORD(lParam);
        h = HIWORD(lParam);
        Resize(w,h);
        break;
    default: break;
    }
    return DefWindowProc(hWnd,msg,wParam,lParam);
}

int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance,
                   HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
                   LPSTR lpCmdLine,
                   int nShowCmd)
{
    HWND hWnd;
    WNDCLASSEX wcex;
    MSG msg;

    wcex.cbSize = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);
    wcex.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;
    wcex.lpfnWndProc = WinProc;
    wcex.cbClsExtra = 0;
    wcex.cbWndExtra = 0;
    wcex.hInstance = hInstance;
    wcex.hIcon = LoadIcon(NULL,IDI_APPLICATION);
    wcex.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL,IDC_ARROW);
    wcex.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH) GetStockObject(GRAY_BRUSH);
    wcex.lpszMenuName = NULL;
    wcex.lpszClassName = "WinClass";
    wcex.hIconSm = NULL;

    RegisterClassEx(&wcex);

    hWnd = CreateWindow("WinClass","My Window",
        WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW,0,0,400,400,NULL,NULL,
        hInstance,NULL);

    if(hWnd == NULL)
    {
        MessageBox(NULL,"Error: Unable to create Window","ERROR",MB_OK);
        return -1;
    }

    ShowWindow(hWnd,nShowCmd);
    UpdateWindow(hWnd);
    hDC = GetDC(hWnd);
    glClearColor(0.0f,0.0f,0.0f,0.0f);

    while(1)
    {
        Render();
        SwapBuffers(hDC);
        if(PeekMessage(&msg,NULL,0,0,PM_REMOVE))
        {
            if(msg.message == WM_QUIT) break;
            TranslateMessage(&msg);
            DispatchMessage(&msg);
        }
    }

    return 0;
}

  MinGW上的编译命令:gcc -o window.exe window.c -DUSE_VBO -mwindows -lopengl32 -lglu32

 

  不过先别高兴太早,报错了:

$ gcc -o window.exe window.c -DUSE_VBO -mwindows -lopengl32 -lglu32
window.c: In function 'InitVBO':
window.c:60:18: error: 'GL_ARRAY_BUFFER' undeclared (first use in this function)
     glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboTransVerts);
                  ^
window.c:60:18: note: each undeclared identifier is reported only once for each function it appears in
window.c:61:67: error: 'GL_STATIC_DRAW' undeclared (first use in this function)
     glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(transVerts), transVerts, GL_STATIC_DRAW);
                                                                   ^
window.c:64:18: error: 'GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER' undeclared (first use in this function)
     glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboIndices);
                  ^
window.c: In function 'Render':
window.c:78:18: error: 'GL_ARRAY_BUFFER' undeclared (first use in this function)
     glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboTransVerts);
                  ^
window.c:81:18: error: 'GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER' undeclared (first use in this function)
     glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboIndices);

  原来GL/gl.h和GL/glu.h里都没有定义GL_ARRAY_BUFFER、GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER和GL_STATIC_DRAW。从两篇StackOverflow的帖子里得知,GL/gl.h(包括MinGW提供的)只提供了OpenGL 1.1(还是1.2?)的接口声明。不仅如此,通过nm工具,发现libopengl32.a和opengl32.dll并未导出glGenBuffers等VBO接口。

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/11951380/lots-of-undeclared-identifiers-related-to-opengl-using-glfw
http://stackoverflow.com/questions/679113/trouble-porting-opengl-app-to-windows

  于是我只好参考SDL的源代码,写出了可以工作的glDrawElements版Helloworld:

#include <windows.h>
#include <GL/gl.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>

#ifdef USE_VBO  // copied from SDL_opengl.h
#define GL_ARRAY_BUFFER                   0x8892
#define GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER           0x8893
#define GL_STATIC_DRAW                    0x88E4
#endif

HDC hDC; //device context
HGLRC hglrc; //rendering context

#ifdef USE_VBO
typedef ptrdiff_t GLsizeiptr;

//void * (WINAPI *wglGetProcAddress)(const char *proc);  // May need this for VC++
GLAPI void (APIENTRY *glGenBuffers)(GLsizei, GLuint *);
GLAPI void (APIENTRY *glBindBuffer)(GLenum, GLuint);
GLAPI void (APIENTRY *glBufferData)(GLenum, GLsizeiptr, const GLvoid *, GLenum);
GLAPI void (APIENTRY *glDeleteBuffers)(GLsizei, const GLuint *);

GLfloat transVerts[] =
{
    1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,
    -1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,
    -1.0f,-1.0f, 0.0f,
    1.0f, -1.0f, 0.0f
};
GLuint vboTransVerts;
GLushort indices[] =
{
    0, 1, 2,
    3, 4, 5,
    6, 7, 8,
    9, 10, 11
};
GLuint vboIndices;
#endif

void SetupPixels(HDC hDC)
{
    int pixelFormat;
    PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR pfd;
    pfd.nSize = sizeof(PIXELFORMATDESCRIPTOR);
    pfd.dwFlags = PFD_SUPPORT_OPENGL | PFD_DRAW_TO_WINDOW | PFD_DOUBLEBUFFER;
    pfd.nVersion = 1;
    pfd.iPixelType = PFD_TYPE_RGBA;
    pfd.cColorBits = 32;
    pfd.cDepthBits = 24;
    pixelFormat = ChoosePixelFormat(hDC, &pfd);
    if(!SetPixelFormat(hDC, pixelFormat, &pfd))
    {
         MessageBox(NULL,"Error setting up Pixel Format","ERROR",MB_OK);
         PostQuitMessage(0);
    }
}

void Resize(int width, int height)
{
    glViewport(0,0,(GLsizei)width,(GLsizei)height);
    glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
    glLoadIdentity();
    gluPerspective(45.0f,(GLfloat)width/(GLfloat)height,1.0f,1000.0f);
    glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
    glLoadIdentity();
}

#ifdef USE_VBO
void InitVBO()
{
#if 0  // May need the following code for VC++
    HMODULE hModule = LoadLibrary("opengl32.dll");
    if (hModule == NULL)
    {
        MessageBox(NULL, "Error: Unable to load opengl32.dll", "ERROR", MB_OK);
        exit(-1);
    }
    wglGetProcAddress = (void * (WINAPI *)(const char *)) GetProcAddress(hModule, "wglGetProcAddress");
#endif
    glGenBuffers = (GLAPI void (APIENTRY *)(GLsizei, GLuint *)) wglGetProcAddress("glGenBuffers");
    glBindBuffer = (GLAPI void (APIENTRY *)(GLenum, GLuint)) wglGetProcAddress("glBindBuffer");
    glBufferData = (GLAPI void (APIENTRY *)(GLenum, GLsizeiptr, const GLvoid *, GLenum)) wglGetProcAddress("glBufferData");
    glDeleteBuffers = (GLAPI void (APIENTRY *)(GLsizei, const GLuint *)) wglGetProcAddress("glDeleteBuffers");
    glGenBuffers(1, &vboTransVerts);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboTransVerts);
    glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(transVerts), transVerts, GL_STATIC_DRAW);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0);
    glGenBuffers(1, &vboIndices);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboIndices);
    glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(indices), indices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0);
}
#endif

void Render()
{
    glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
    glLoadIdentity();
    glTranslatef(0.0f,0.0f,-4.0f);
    glColor3f(0.0f,0.0f,1.0f);
#ifdef USE_VBO
    glEnableClientState(GL_VERTEX_ARRAY);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboTransVerts);
    glVertexPointer(3, GL_FLOAT, 0, 0);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, 0);
    glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, vboIndices);
    glDrawElements(GL_POLYGON, sizeof(transVerts) / sizeof(transVerts[0]), GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT, 0);
    //glDrawElements(GL_POLYGON, sizeof(transVerts) / sizeof(transVerts[0]), GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT, transIndices);  // equivalent as above
    //glDrawArrays(GL_POLYGON, 0, sizeof(transVerts) / sizeof(transVerts[0]));  // equivalent as above
#else
    glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    glVertex3f(1.0f,1.0f,0.0f);
    glVertex3f(-1.0f,1.0f,0.0f);
    glVertex3f(-1.0f,-1.0f,0.0f);
    glVertex3f(1.0f,-1.0f,0.0f);
    glEnd();
#endif  // USE_VBO
}

LRESULT CALLBACK WinProc(HWND hWnd,
                         UINT msg,
                         WPARAM wParam,
                         LPARAM lParam)
{
    int w,h;
    switch(msg)
    {
    case WM_CREATE:
        hDC = GetDC(hWnd);
        SetupPixels(hDC);
        hglrc = wglCreateContext(hDC);
        wglMakeCurrent(hDC, hglrc);
#ifdef USE_VBO
        InitVBO();
#endif
        break;
    case WM_DESTROY:
#ifdef USE_VBO
        glDeleteBuffers(1, &vboTransVerts);
        glDeleteBuffers(1, &vboIndices);
#endif
        wglMakeCurrent(hDC,NULL);
        wglDeleteContext(hglrc);
        PostQuitMessage(0);
        break;
    case WM_SIZE:
        w = LOWORD(lParam);
        h = HIWORD(lParam);
        Resize(w,h);
        break;
    default: break;
    }
    return DefWindowProc(hWnd,msg,wParam,lParam);
}
int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance,
                   HINSTANCE hPrevInstance,
                   LPSTR lpCmdLine,
                   int nShowCmd)
{
    HWND hWnd;
    WNDCLASSEX wcex;
    MSG msg;
    wcex.cbSize = sizeof(WNDCLASSEX);
    wcex.style = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW;
    wcex.lpfnWndProc = WinProc;
    wcex.cbClsExtra = 0;
    wcex.cbWndExtra = 0;
    wcex.hInstance = hInstance;
    wcex.hIcon = LoadIcon(NULL,IDI_APPLICATION);
    wcex.hCursor = LoadCursor(NULL,IDC_ARROW);
    wcex.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH) GetStockObject(GRAY_BRUSH);
    wcex.lpszMenuName = NULL;
    wcex.lpszClassName = "WinClass";
    wcex.hIconSm = NULL;
    RegisterClassEx(&wcex);
    hWnd = CreateWindow("WinClass","My Window",
        WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW,0,0,400,400,NULL,NULL,
        hInstance,NULL);
    if(hWnd == NULL)
    {
        MessageBox(NULL,"Error: Unable to create Window","ERROR",MB_OK);
        return -1;
    }
    ShowWindow(hWnd,nShowCmd);
    UpdateWindow(hWnd);
    hDC = GetDC(hWnd);
    glClearColor(0.0f,0.0f,0.0f,0.0f);
    while(1)
    {
        Render();
        SwapBuffers(hDC);
        if(PeekMessage(&msg,NULL,0,0,PM_REMOVE))
        {
            if(msg.message == WM_QUIT) break;
            TranslateMessage(&msg);
            DispatchMessage(&msg);
        }
    }
    return 0;
}

  MinGW上的编译命令还是不变:gcc -o window.exe window.c -DUSE_VBO -mwindows -lopengl32 -lglu32

 

  这下知道glDrawElements怎么用了。再回到HomeworldSDL的代码中,我发现程序没有调用glBufferData开辟显存空间就调用了glDrawElements。想必这就是崩溃的原因。于是我将我的window.c中的glBufferData调用删除,再运行程序,果然就崩溃了,并且崩溃处的汇编代码和之前查看的基本一模一样。

 

  这虫子算是确确实实地捉到了。

 

  说实话,作为完全没接触过OpenGL的新手,我到处搜资料,花了好些时间才掌握了glDrawElements的用法。虽然Unity和CUDA的经验让我在相关概念的理解上没什么大碍,但我花了一天左右时间才真正能用这函数写一个OpenGL小程序。这是因为还有好些其它OpenGL的函数要了解;而且到最后一步还发现,为了像崩溃的代码一样,在这函数中使用OpenGL的顶点缓存对象(vertex buffer object,简称vbo),OpenGL的初始化会麻烦很多。正如《关于游戏开发,学校没有教给我的十件事》一文写道:“了解和理解是不一样的……当你做一个项目时,你可能会想‘我知道怎么做’。然而,除非你之前做过,否则你仅仅是有怎么做的想法。‘我知道’和‘我有一个如何做的想法’是不同的,它们的区别可能会让你头疼好几个小时。”想必这是每个做过实际项目的程序员的感受。

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