# Star-CCM+修补表面2-错误类型解析

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## （1）Pierced face

A pierced face is a face that is intersected by one or more edges of another face.

If an edge pierces a face, the surface diagnostics color the face red in the Graphics window.

If an edge is piercing a face, the surface diagnostics color the edge red.

## （2）Face quality

Face quality is a measure of similarity between a face and the ideal face shape, which is an equilateral triangle.

The surface diagnostics calculate face quality as the ratio of the in-circle radius to the circum-circle radius, multiplied by a factor of 2.

The in-circle of a face is the largest circle that fits inside the face, while the circum-circle is the circle that passes through the three points of the face.

Face quality ranges from 0 to 1, with 0 being a line (that is, no in-circle radius) and 1 being an equilateral triangle (that is, in-circle radius is half of circum-circle radius).

Faces that have a quality below 0.01 (by default) are considered poor quality faces. In Surface Repair mode, poor quality faces are colored in yellow when you activate the Poor Quality Face diagnostic.

There are instances when you do not need to fix poor quality faces, depending on how the surface is used. For example, if you use the surface with the surface wrapper or surface remesher, poor quality faces do not usually cause a problem.

However, if you use the surface directly for volume meshing, poor quality faces lead to poor quality or invalid volume cells. In this case, you can improve face quality by locally remeshing the poor quality faces, using the surface repair tools.

## （3）Face Proximity

Face proximity considers the distance between two faces.

Face proximity ranges from 0 to 1, with low values indicating one of the following problems:

Folds in the surface, for example, “V” or “Z” shaped kinks in the surface causing localized overlaps

表面折叠，例如：表面“V”形或“Z"形扭曲导致局部重叠。

Surfaces in close proximity, for example, two surfaces that are almost touching, such as either side of a thin baffle

表面靠近，如两个薄板的两侧，两个面接近接触。

Faces that have a face proximity below 0.05 (by default) are considered to be close proximity faces. In Surface Repair mode,  close proximity faces are colored in orange when you activate the Close Proximity Faces diagnostic.

## （4）Free edges

A free edge is one that is joined to only one face. Two joined faces share two vertices for the common edge.

The surface diagnostic colors Free Edges green in the Graphics window.

Double-clicking a free edge selects all connected free edges. This feature is useful when fixing free edges using the fill holes tool.

## （5）Non-manifold Edge（非流形边/多重边）

A non-manifold edge is an edge that three or more other faces share.

The surface diagnostics color Non-manifold Edges blue in the Graphics window.

T形边在窗口的显示颜色为蓝色。

You can fix non-manifold edges by deleting the faces that are causing the additional edges, using the surface repair tools.

## （6）Non-manifold Vertex（非流形节点/多重节点）

A vertex is non-manifold if any of its connected faces have no other link with the rest of its connected faces, apart from the vertex.

A vertex is non-manifold if any of its connected faces have no other link with the rest of its connected faces, apart from the vertex.

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