基于keras的深度学习——分类

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。 https://blog.csdn.net/u013817676/article/details/79004863

使用keras的深度学习来分类白葡萄酒还是红葡萄酒

首先介绍一下数据类型:

1.这个数据集包含了1599种红酒,4898种白酒;
2.输入数据特征:
1 - fixed acidity
2 - volatile acidity
3 - citric acid
4 - residual sugar
5 - chlorides
6 - free sulfur dioxide
7 - total sulfur dioxide
8 - density
9 - pH
10 - sulphates
11 - alcohol
3.输出变量:
12 - quality (score between 0 and 10)

import pandas as pd
#导入数据
white = pd.read_csv("http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/machine-learning-databases/wine-quality/winequality-white.csv", sep=';')

red = pd.read_csv("http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/machine-learning-databases/wine-quality/winequality-red.csv", sep=';')
#查看白酒信息
print white.info()
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
RangeIndex: 4898 entries, 0 to 4897
Data columns (total 12 columns):
fixed acidity           4898 non-null float64
volatile acidity        4898 non-null float64
citric acid             4898 non-null float64
residual sugar          4898 non-null float64
chlorides               4898 non-null float64
free sulfur dioxide     4898 non-null float64
total sulfur dioxide    4898 non-null float64
density                 4898 non-null float64
pH                      4898 non-null float64
sulphates               4898 non-null float64
alcohol                 4898 non-null float64
quality                 4898 non-null int64
dtypes: float64(11), int64(1)
memory usage: 459.3 KB
None
#查看红酒信息
print red.info()
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
RangeIndex: 1599 entries, 0 to 1598
Data columns (total 12 columns):
fixed acidity           1599 non-null float64
volatile acidity        1599 non-null float64
citric acid             1599 non-null float64
residual sugar          1599 non-null float64
chlorides               1599 non-null float64
free sulfur dioxide     1599 non-null float64
total sulfur dioxide    1599 non-null float64
density                 1599 non-null float64
pH                      1599 non-null float64
sulphates               1599 non-null float64
alcohol                 1599 non-null float64
quality                 1599 non-null int64
dtypes: float64(11), int64(1)
memory usage: 150.0 KB
None
#查看具体值
print red.head()
   fixed acidity  volatile acidity  citric acid  residual sugar  chlorides  \
0            7.4              0.70         0.00             1.9      0.076   
1            7.8              0.88         0.00             2.6      0.098   
2            7.8              0.76         0.04             2.3      0.092   
3           11.2              0.28         0.56             1.9      0.075   
4            7.4              0.70         0.00             1.9      0.076   

   free sulfur dioxide  total sulfur dioxide  density    pH  sulphates  \
0                 11.0                  34.0   0.9978  3.51       0.56   
1                 25.0                  67.0   0.9968  3.20       0.68   
2                 15.0                  54.0   0.9970  3.26       0.65   
3                 17.0                  60.0   0.9980  3.16       0.58   
4                 11.0                  34.0   0.9978  3.51       0.56   

   alcohol  quality  
0      9.4        5  
1      9.8        5  
2      9.8        5  
3      9.8        6  
4      9.4        5  
#查看各行统计信息
print red.describe()
       fixed acidity  volatile acidity  citric acid  residual sugar  \
count    1599.000000       1599.000000  1599.000000     1599.000000   
mean        8.319637          0.527821     0.270976        2.538806   
std         1.741096          0.179060     0.194801        1.409928   
min         4.600000          0.120000     0.000000        0.900000   
25%         7.100000          0.390000     0.090000        1.900000   
50%         7.900000          0.520000     0.260000        2.200000   
75%         9.200000          0.640000     0.420000        2.600000   
max        15.900000          1.580000     1.000000       15.500000   

         chlorides  free sulfur dioxide  total sulfur dioxide      density  \
count  1599.000000          1599.000000           1599.000000  1599.000000   
mean      0.087467            15.874922             46.467792     0.996747   
std       0.047065            10.460157             32.895324     0.001887   
min       0.012000             1.000000              6.000000     0.990070   
25%       0.070000             7.000000             22.000000     0.995600   
50%       0.079000            14.000000             38.000000     0.996750   
75%       0.090000            21.000000             62.000000     0.997835   
max       0.611000            72.000000            289.000000     1.003690   

                pH    sulphates      alcohol      quality  
count  1599.000000  1599.000000  1599.000000  1599.000000  
mean      3.311113     0.658149    10.422983     5.636023  
std       0.154386     0.169507     1.065668     0.807569  
min       2.740000     0.330000     8.400000     3.000000  
25%       3.210000     0.550000     9.500000     5.000000  
50%       3.310000     0.620000    10.200000     6.000000  
75%       3.400000     0.730000    11.100000     6.000000  
max       4.010000     2.000000    14.900000     8.000000  
import numpy as np
#查看是否有数据缺失
print np.any(red.isnull()==True)
False
print np.any(white.isnull()==True)
False
#可视化数据
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

fig,ax = plt.subplots(1,2)

ax[0].hist(red.alcohol, 10, facecolor='red', alpha=0.5, label="Red wine")
ax[1].hist(white.alcohol, 10, facecolor='white', ec="black", lw=0.5, alpha=0.5, label="White wine")

fig.subplots_adjust(left=0, right=1, bottom=0, top=0.5, hspace=0.05, wspace=1)
ax[0].set_ylim([0, 1000])
ax[0].set_xlabel("Alcohol in % Vol")
ax[0].set_ylabel("Frequency")
ax[1].set_xlabel("Alcohol in % Vol")
ax[1].set_ylabel("Frequency")
ax[0].legend(loc='best')
ax[1].legend(loc='best')
fig.suptitle("Distribution of Alcohol in % Vol")

plt.show()

这里写图片描述

我们可以从图中看出红酒和白酒的酒精浓度基本上9%左右。

#处理数据
#给我们的数据添加标签
red['label'] = 1
white['label'] = 0
wines = red.append(white,ignore_index=True) #合并index顺序
import seaborn as sns
%matplotlib inline

corr = wines.corr() #计算协方差
sns.heatmap(corr,
           xticklabels = corr.columns.values,
           yticklabels = corr.columns.values)
sns.plt.show() #plt.show()
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

AttributeError                            Traceback (most recent call last)

<ipython-input-18-5a30364cdd9b> in <module>()
      5            xticklabels = corr.columns.values,
      6            yticklabels = corr.columns.values)
----> 7 sns.plt.show()


AttributeError: 'module' object has no attribute 'plt'

这里写图片描述
这边改成plt.show()就不会报错了!

从图中我们可以看到各个特征之间的相关性,从中我们可以发现density跟residual sugar是正相关的,而跟alcohol是负相关的。

#划分训练集合测试集
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
X = wines.iloc[:,0:11]
y = np.ravel(wines.label) #降成一维,类似np.flatten(),但是np.flatten是拷贝,而ravel是引用

#随机划分训练集和测试集
#test_size:测试集占比
#random_state:随机种子,在需要重复试验的时候,保证得到一组一样的随机数。
X_train,X_test,y_train,y_test = train_test_split(X,y,test_size=0.33, random_state=32)
#标准化数据
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler

scaler = StandardScaler().fit(X_train)

X_train = scaler.transform(X_train)

X_test = scaler.transform(X_test)
#使用keras模型化数据
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Dense

model = Sequential()
#添加输入层
model.add(Dense(12,activation='relu',
               input_shape=(11,)))
#添加隐藏层
model.add(Dense(8,activation='relu'))

#添加输出层
model.add(Dense(1,activation='sigmoid'))
Using TensorFlow backend.
#查看模型
#查看输出维度
print model.output_shape
(None, 1)
#查看整个模型
print model.summary()
_________________________________________________________________
Layer (type)                 Output Shape              Param #   
=================================================================
dense_1 (Dense)              (None, 12)                144       
_________________________________________________________________
dense_2 (Dense)              (None, 8)                 104       
_________________________________________________________________
dense_3 (Dense)              (None, 1)                 9         
=================================================================
Total params: 257
Trainable params: 257
Non-trainable params: 0
_________________________________________________________________
None
#查看模型参数
print model.get_weights()
#模型的训练
model.compile(loss='binary_crossentropy',
             optimizer='adam',
             metrics=['accuracy'])
#verbose = 1 查看输出过程 
model.fit(X_train,y_train,epochs=30,batch_size=1,verbose=1)
Epoch 1/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.1108 - acc: 0.9614    
Epoch 2/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0255 - acc: 0.9952    
Epoch 3/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0195 - acc: 0.9954    
Epoch 4/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0180 - acc: 0.9966    
Epoch 5/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0166 - acc: 0.9966    
Epoch 6/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0147 - acc: 0.9970    
Epoch 7/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0132 - acc: 0.9968    
Epoch 8/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0137 - acc: 0.9970    
Epoch 9/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 16s - loss: 0.0136 - acc: 0.9975    
Epoch 10/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0125 - acc: 0.9975    
Epoch 11/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0113 - acc: 0.9972    
Epoch 12/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0116 - acc: 0.9972    
Epoch 13/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0115 - acc: 0.9975    
Epoch 14/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0108 - acc: 0.9972    
Epoch 15/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 16s - loss: 0.0097 - acc: 0.9975    
Epoch 16/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 16s - loss: 0.0098 - acc: 0.9977    
Epoch 17/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0101 - acc: 0.9975    
Epoch 18/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0095 - acc: 0.9970    
Epoch 19/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0088 - acc: 0.9977    
Epoch 20/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 16s - loss: 0.0089 - acc: 0.9972    
Epoch 21/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 16s - loss: 0.0086 - acc: 0.9977    
Epoch 22/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 16s - loss: 0.0078 - acc: 0.9982    
Epoch 23/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 16s - loss: 0.0085 - acc: 0.9979    
Epoch 24/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0072 - acc: 0.9984    
Epoch 25/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 16s - loss: 0.0074 - acc: 0.9982    
Epoch 26/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0071 - acc: 0.9986    
Epoch 27/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 16s - loss: 0.0080 - acc: 0.9977    
Epoch 28/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 16s - loss: 0.0066 - acc: 0.9982    
Epoch 29/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 16s - loss: 0.0084 - acc: 0.9982    
Epoch 30/30
4352/4352 [==============================] - 15s - loss: 0.0067 - acc: 0.9989    





<keras.callbacks.History at 0x120530a90>
#预测结果
y_pred = model.predict(X_test)
print y_pred[:10]
[[  2.14960589e-03]
 [  6.35436322e-07]
 [  1.82669051e-03]
 [  2.15678483e-07]
 [  1.00000000e+00]
 [  1.84882566e-07]
 [  1.13470778e-04]
 [  5.90343404e-07]
 [  2.01183035e-08]
 [  1.00000000e+00]]
print y_test[:10]
[0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1]

可以从上述结果可以看出,测试集的前十项结果跟我们预测的结果是一样的。

#模型评估
score = model.evaluate(X_test,y_test,verbose=1)

#socre的两个值分别代表损失(loss)和精准度(accuracy)
print score
 960/2145 [============>.................] - ETA: 0s[0.030568929157742158, 0.99580419580419577]
#统计Precision、Recall、F1值
from sklearn.metrics import confusion_matrix,precision_score,recall_score,f1_score

y_pred = y_pred.astype(int) #转化成整型
print confusion_matrix(y_test,y_pred)
[[1633    0]
 [ 230  282]]
#precision
precision = precision_score(y_test,y_pred)
print precision
1.0
#Recall
recall = recall_score(y_test,y_pred)
print recall
0.55078125
#F1 score
f1 = f1_score(y_test,y_pred)
print f1
0.710327455919

从上面的结果来看我们的Precision很高,但是我们的Recall值比较低。
对此我后面还会写一篇blog来优化模型。

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