OPENGL的光影效果(转)

为什么3D作图常常能产生另人震惊的效果?因为利用3D作图,你可以生成一些 现实中难得实现的真实的感受。特别是一些特殊的光影效果。
其实光源前面已经讲的很全面了,只是缺少一些专门的例子。这里我们来稍微 加深一下认识,我们将在例子中看到一个地方的光源对不同物体发出不同的光
这在现实中是少见的吧?

1.双面光照:
void glLightModeli(LIGHT_MODEL_TWO_SIDE,GL_TRUE);
光照计算通常是对多边形进行的。一般设置光照的条件总是对正面的多边形,而不考虑背面,但是如果考虑一个物体被劈开,光源的个数又会影响可见性,那么有必要对多边形双面都进行计算,这就是上面函数的功能;取消这一功能只须把第三个参数改为GL_FALSE。

2.聚光源
定义聚光源的函数仍是利用glLightfv(),需要设定的参数包括:光源位置、光源发散半角和光源聚光方向。

具体实现可以看下面例子:
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//sample.cpp
#include "glos.h"
#include
#include
#include "windows.h"

void myinit(void);
void CALLBACK display(void);
void CALLBACK reshape(GLsizei w,GLsizei h);

void initlights(void)
{
//定义物体材质特性的数值
GLfloat mat_ambient[]={0.2,0.2,0.2,1.0};
GLfloat mat_diffuse[]={0.8,0.8,0.8,1.0};
GLfloat mat_specular[]={1.0,1.0,1.0,1.0};
GLfloat mat_shininess[]={80.0};

//定义第0个光源的属性(这是平行的环境光,没有聚光效果)
GLfloat light0_diffuse[]={0.0,0.0,1.0,1.0};
GLfloat light0_position[]={1.0,1.0,1.0,0.0};
//定义第一个光源的属性(聚光灯一)
GLfloat light1_ambient[]={0.2,0.2,0.2,1.0};
GLfloat light1_diffuse[]={1.0,0.0,0.0,1.0};
GLfloat light1_specular[]={1.0,0.6,0.6,1.0};
GLfloat light1_position[]={-3.0,-3.0,3.0,1.0};
GLfloat spot_direction[]={1.0,1.0,-1.0};

//定义第二个光源的属性(聚光灯二)
GLfloat light2_ambient[]={0.2,0.6,0.2,1.0};
GLfloat light2_diffuse[]={0.0,1.0,0.0,1.0};
GLfloat light2_specular[]={0.0,1.0,0.0,1.0};
GLfloat light2_position[]={-3.0,-3.0,3.0,1.0};
GLfloat spot2_direction[]={1.0,1.0,-1.0};
//!!!我们看到第一和第二个聚光源除了在颜色的定义上一个偏红,一个偏绿
//其他没有任何不同,所以如果象我们后面作的,对一个物体开启一个光源,对
//另一个物体开启另一个光源,就会产生一个点光源对不同物体发出不同光的效果

//将前面的属性定义加以应用
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0,GL_DIFFUSE,light0_diffuse);
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0,GL_POSITION,light0_position);

glLightfv(GL_LIGHT1,GL_AMBIENT,light1_ambient);
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT1,GL_DIFFUSE,light1_diffuse);
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT1,GL_SPECULAR,light1_specular);
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT1,GL_POSITION,light1_position);
//定义聚光灯发散角
glLightf(GL_LIGHT1,GL_SPOT_CUTOFF,30.0);
//定义聚光灯发射方向的向量
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT1,GL_SPOT_DIRECTION,spot_direction);

glLightfv(GL_LIGHT2,GL_AMBIENT,light2_ambient);
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT2,GL_DIFFUSE,light2_diffuse);
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT2,GL_SPECULAR,light2_specular);
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT2,GL_POSITION,light2_position);

glLightf(GL_LIGHT2,GL_SPOT_CUTOFF,30.0);
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT2,GL_SPOT_DIRECTION,spot2_direction);

glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT,GL_AMBIENT,mat_ambient);
glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT,GL_DIFFUSE,mat_diffuse);
glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT,GL_SPECULAR,mat_specular);
glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT,GL_SHININESS,mat_shininess);

glEnable(GL_LIGHTING);
glEnable(GL_LIGHT0);
glEnable(GL_LIGHT1);
glEnable(GL_LIGHT2);

}

void myinit(void)
{

auxInitDisplayMode(AUX_SINGLE|AUX_RGBA);
auxInitPosition(0,0,500,500);
auxInitWindow("sample1");
glClearColor(0.0,0.0,0.0,0.0);
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glDepthFunc(GL_LESS);
glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
initlights();
// glShadeModel(GL_FLAT);
}

void CALLBACK reshape(GLsizei w,GLsizei h)
{

glViewport(0,0,w,h);
glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
glLoadIdentity();

if(w<=h)
glOrtho(-5.0,5.0,-5.0*(GLfloat)h/(GLfloat)w,
5.0*(GLfloat)h/(GLfloat)w,-5.0,5.0);
else
glOrtho(-5.0*(GLfloat)h/(GLfloat)w,
5.0*(GLfloat)h/(GLfloat)w,-5.0,5.0,-5.0,5.0);
glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
glLoadIdentity();
}

void CALLBACK display(void)
{
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT|GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
//首先标出聚光源一、二的位置(同一位置)
glPushMatrix();
glTranslated(-3.0,-3.0,3.0);
glDisable(GL_LIGHTING);
glColor3f(1.0,0.0,0.0);
auxWireCube(0.1);
glEnable(GL_LIGHTING);
glPopMatrix();

//关掉第二个光源,只启用第一个光源(红),绘制球体一
glPushMatrix();
glDisable(GL_LIGHT2);
glTranslated(0.0,2.0,0.0);
auxSolidSphere(2.0);
glPopMatrix();

//关掉第一个光源,只启用第二个光源(绿),绘制球体二
glPushMatrix();
glDisable(GL_LIGHT1);
glEnable(GL_LIGHT2);
glTranslated(0.0,-2.0,0.0);
auxSolidSphere(2.0);
glPopMatrix();

glFlush();
}
void main(void)
{
myinit();

auxReshapeFunc(reshape);
auxMainLoop(display);
}
//end of sample
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
一个现实中难以见到的情景出现了。还不快试试?

结束光源之前,再给出一个光源移动的例子,其中用到了鼠标消息的响应,实现非常简单,以OPENGL的辅助库提供的方式调用一个CALLBACK函数即可,和以前讲的响应键盘输入的方法完全一样。
//////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//sample.cpp
#include "glos.h"
#include
#include
#include "windows.h"
void myinit(void);
void CALLBACK display(void);
void CALLBACK reshape(GLsizei w,GLsizei h);

//控制光源移动的变量
static int step=0;

//鼠标响应的CALLBACK函数
void CALLBACK movelight(AUX_EVENTREC *event)
{
step=(step+15)%360;
}

void initlights(void)
{
GLfloat mat_ambient[]={0.2,0.2,0.2,1.0};
GLfloat mat_diffuse[]={0.8,0.8,0.8,1.0};
GLfloat mat_specular[]={1.0,1.0,1.0,1.0};
GLfloat mat_shininess[]={80.0};

GLfloat light0_diffuse[]={0.0,0.0,1.0,1.0};
GLfloat light0_ambient[]={0.2,0.5,0.5,1.0};

 

glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0,GL_DIFFUSE,light0_diffuse);
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0,GL_AMBIENT,light0_ambient);

 

glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT,GL_AMBIENT,mat_ambient);
glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT,GL_DIFFUSE,mat_diffuse);
glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT,GL_SPECULAR,mat_specular);
glMaterialfv(GL_FRONT,GL_SHININESS,mat_shininess);

glEnable(GL_LIGHTING);
glEnable(GL_LIGHT0);

}

void myinit(void)
{

auxInitDisplayMode(AUX_SINGLE|AUX_RGBA);
auxInitPosition(0,0,500,500);
auxInitWindow("sample1");
glClearColor(0.0,0.0,0.0,0.0);
glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

glDepthFunc(GL_LESS);
glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
initlights();
// glShadeModel(GL_FLAT);
}

void CALLBACK reshape(GLsizei w,GLsizei h)
{

glViewport(0,0,w,h);
glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
glLoadIdentity();

if(w<=h)
glOrtho(-5.0,5.0,-5.0*(GLfloat)h/(GLfloat)w,
5.0*(GLfloat)h/(GLfloat)w,-5.0,5.0);
else
glOrtho(-5.0*(GLfloat)h/(GLfloat)w,
5.0*(GLfloat)h/(GLfloat)w,-5.0,5.0,-5.0,5.0);
glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
glLoadIdentity();
}


void CALLBACK display(void)
{
GLfloat position[]={0.0,0.0,1.5,1.0};

glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT|GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);

glPushMatrix();
glTranslatef(0.0,0.0,-5.0);
glPushMatrix();

//光源的位置只由旋转变量step决定,每按下鼠标左键一下,step的值便会改变
//导致光源位置的改变
glRotated((GLdouble)step,-1.0,1.0,1.0);
glLightfv(GL_LIGHT0,GL_POSITION,position);
glTranslated(0.0,0.0,1.5);

glDisable(GL_LIGHTING);
glColor3f(1.0,1.0,0.0);
auxWireSphere(0.25);
glEnable(GL_LIGHTING);

glPopMatrix();
auxSolidTorus(0.5,2.5);
glPopMatrix();

glFlush();


}
void main(void)
{
myinit();

auxMouseFunc(AUX_LEFTBUTTON,AUX_MOUSEDOWN,movelight);
auxReshapeFunc(reshape);
auxMainLoop(display);
}
//end of sample
/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
在例子中,黄色的小球表示当前光源的位置,它的旋转导致了环状体表面受光照部分的光影的变化,每按下鼠标左键一下,光源就会作响应的旋转。
 

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文章标签: callback buffer less 360
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